District 19's current boundaries were drawn up during the controversial 2003 Texas State Legislature Redistricting made famous by the Texas Eleven. The district was redrawn in such a way that two Congressional incumbents, Neugebauer and Democrat Charlie Stenholm, were pitted against one another in the 2004 Congressional elections. Neugebauer won with over 58% of the vote.
The border runs along the western boundary with New Mexico, and runs along county borders to include far reaching cities. The area is predominantly rural, with the exceptions of Abilene and Lubbock, and includes many state parks, ranches, and farms.
This is one of Texas most conservative districts; it has not supported a Democratic presidential candidate since 1964. Republicans have held the seat since 1985, although much of this region continued to elect conservative Democrats to local offices and the Texas Legislature until 1994. In the last three decades, a Democrat has only won 40 percent of the vote in this district twice, in 1984 and 2004.