Prairie View A&M University

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Prairie View A&M University
Prairie View A&M University seal.png
Former names
Agricultural and Mechanical College for the Benefit of Colored Youth
Prairie View University
Motto Prairie View Produces Productive People.
Type Public, HBCU
Established 1876
Endowment $69.2 million[1]
President Ruth Simmons
Academic staff
Students 8,762 (Fall 2016)[2]
Location Prairie View, Texas, United States
Colors Purple and Gold[3]
Athletics NCAA Division ISWAC
Nickname The Hill, Panthers & Lady Panthers
Affiliations Texas A&M University System
Sports 16 varsity sports teams
Mascot Panther
PVAMU wordmark.png

Prairie View A&M University, commonly abbreviated PVAMU or PV, is a historically black university (HBCU) located in Prairie View, Texas, United States (northwest of Houston). The University is a member of the Texas A&M University System. In 2016, PVAMU celebrated its 140th year.

The University offers baccalaureate degrees in 50 academic majors, 37 master's degrees and four doctoral degree programs through eight colleges and the School of Architecture. PVAMU is one of the Texas land-grant universities.[2] Founded in 1876, PVAMU is the second oldest public university in the State of Texas, and is named an "institution of the first class" in the Texas Constitution. The University is a member-school of the Thurgood Marshall College Fund.

Prairie View A&M fields 16 intercollegiate sports team, commonly known by their "Prairie View A&M Panthers" nickname. Prairie View A&M compete in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I and the Southwestern Athletic Conference (SWAC). Prairie View A&M is the only charter member remaining in the conference.


An early campus photo

The university was established by Article 7 of the Texas Constitution of 1876, created near the end of the Reconstruction Era after the American Civil War. In that year, senators Matthew Gaines and William H. Holland – both former slaves who became leading political figures - crafted legislation for the creation of a state-supported "Agricultural and Mechanical" college. In the article, the constitution stated that "Separate schools shall be provided for the white and colored children, and impartial provisions shall be made for both."

In an effort to comply with these constitutional provisions, the Fifteenth Texas Legislature, consistent with terms of the federal Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act - which provided public lands for the establishment of colleges - authorized the "Alta Vista Agriculture and Mechanical College for the Benefit of Colored Youth" as part of the Agriculture and Mechanical College of Texas (now Texas A&M University).[3]


Prairie View A&M University offers academic programs through the following administrative units:

The Nathelyne A. Kennedy Architecture and Art building on campus
  • Nathelyne A. Kennedy College of Architecture
  • College of Agriculture and Human Sciences
  • Marvin and June Brailesford College of Arts and Sciences
  • College of Business
  • Whitlowe R. Green College of Education
  • Roy G. Perry College of Engineering
  • College of Juvenile Justice and Psychology
  • College of Nursing
  • Undergraduate Medical Academy
  • Office of Graduate Studies

In 2004, Prairie View A&M established the Undergraduate Medical Academy (UMA) which is a rigorous pre-medical program designed to prepare and mentor academically talented undergraduate students for success in medical school.[4] UMA began as a result of a Texas legislative mandate in 2003 and is state funded with a mission to increase minority representation in the medical field and redress statewide physician and dentist shortages.[5]

Additionally, Prairie View A&M established an honors program for academically exceptional undergraduates who meet the specific SAT/ACT, GPA, and recommendation criteria.[6]

Prairie View A&M is consistently recognized as one of the top institutions in the country for producing the highest number of African-American architects and engineers by Diverse Issues in Higher Education.[7][8]

Prairie View A&M annually awards the second most STEM degrees in the Texas A&M University System.[9]

Prairie View A&M academic programs are accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges and each college within the university holds additional accreditation or certifications.[10]

Graduation and awarded degrees[edit]

During the university's 140-year history, more than 60,000 academic degrees have been awarded.


The University is accredited by the University (Regional Accreditation) Agency: Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges, Inc. (SACSCOC). The university is accredited by this agency to award baccalaureate, masters, and doctorate degrees.

Principals and Presidents[edit]

Initially, Texas A&M College and Alta Vista was governed by Principals.

  • 1878 to 1879 L.W. Minor served as principal of both Texas A&M College and Alta Vista.
  • E.H. Anderson served 1879 to 1885
  • L.C. Anderson served 1885 to 1897.
  • Edward L. Blackshear served 1897 to 1915
  • I.M. Terrell served 1915 - 1918
  • J.G. Osborne served 1918 to 1926
  • W.R. Banks served 1926 to 1947.
  • Dr. Edward B. Evans became the eighth principal in 1947,

In 1947, the Fiftieth Legislature changed the name of the institution to Prairie View Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, and the title of principal was changed to dean by the Board of Directors for the 1947-1948 school year. Then, on September 1, 1948, the title was changed to president.

  • Dr. Edward B. Evans was inaugurated as the first president of Prairie View Agricultural and Mechanical College December 3, 1948.
  • Upon his retirement, Dr. E.B. Evans was replaced in 1966 by Dr. J.M. Drew, yet when Dr. Drew fell ill shortly thereafter, Dr. Evans stepped back into the post.
  • Dr. Alvin I. Thomas was elected third president in November, 1966.
  • Upon Dr. Thomas' resignation in 1982, Dr. Ivory Nelson served as acting president for two months, until January 27, 1983.
  • Dr. Percy A. Pierre was inaugurated in 1983.
  • Dr. Milton R. Bryant served as interim president from 1983 to 1989.
  • Julius W. Becton, Jr. LTG (Ret.) was appointed president on December 15, 1989,
  • Dr. Charles A. Hines served from 1994 to 2002.
  • Mr. Willie A. Tempton served from 2002 to 2003
  • George C. Wright was inaugurated seventh president of Prairie View A&M University in 2003.
  • Ruth Simmons was named Interim President of Prairie View A&M University on June 19, 2017 and assumed office on July 1, 2017, making history as the first female Chief Executive.

Art gallery, library, and digital resources[edit]

John B. Coleman Library offers reading and research resources to PVAMU students and the surrounding area. The library holds over 370,000 Volumes, including over 700 print periodicals, close to 4,000 media materials, and provides access to 85 full-text databases across all academic disciplines. The library's extensive databases provide access to over 42,000 electronic periodicals and over 30,000 electronic books.

The library's Special Collection and Archives houses unique, rare, and historic collections, including the Tatum Collection, the Interscholastic League Papers and Awards, the Cooperative Extension Papers & photographs. The library serves as a "partial" Federal Document Depository and holds close to 2,500 government documents.

The John B. Coleman Fourth Floor Art Gallery was founded in 2004, with the goal of providing cultural enrichment to the Prairie View A&M University community through exhibitions, collections, and programming. The gallery showcases a diverse range of work by artists of color and creative visionaries from myriad cultural backgrounds. Showcased artists include: Ted Ellis, Ronney Stevens, Ava Cosey, and Carolyn Crump.

Research centers[edit]

Prairie View Solar Observatory

PVAMU is home to research centers in diverse areas of study:

College of Agriculture and Human Science

  • The Cooperative Agricultural Research Center (CARC)

College of Architecture

  • Texas Institute for the Preservation of History and Culture (TIPHC)

College of Arts and Sciences

  • Prairie View Solar Observatory (PVSO)
  • Radiation Institute for Science and Engineering

College of Engineering

  • The Center for Radiation Engineering and Science for Space Exploration (CRESSE)
  • The Center for Digital Battlefield Communications
  • The Center for Energy and Environmental Sustainability
  • The Center of Excellence for Communication Systems Technology Research
  • Computational Biology and Bioengineering Research Lab
  • Information Communication and Cyber Security Research and Education
  • The Future Aerospace, Science and Technology
  • The Texas Gulf Coast Environmental Data
  • Center for Advancing Innovations in Smart Microgrid
  • The Thermal Science Research Center
  • Minority Achievement, Creativity, and high Ability Center

College of Juvenile Justice and Psychology

  • Texas Juvenile Crime Prevention Center

College of Business

  • Small Business Development Center

College of Nursing

  • Prairie View Center for Nursing Research

Undergraduate Medical Academy

  • Undergraduate Medical Academy


The university sits on a 1,440-acre (5.8 km2) campus in Prairie View, Texas and is 48.8 miles (78.5 km) northwest of downtown Houston. The rural campus is often affectionately referred to as "The Hill" because it rests on a hill in the region.[11]

Community and economic development[edit]

PVAMU participates in the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service.


As of Fall 2014 the university enrolled 6,932 undergraduate students, 1,265 students in masters programs, and 146 in doctorate programs. 5,111 (61%) of the undergraduate students were female and 3,232 (39%) were male.[12] As of Fall 2014, of the 8,343 students enrolled, 6,958 (83%) were African-American, non-Hispanic; 267 (3%) were white, non-Hispanic; 420 (5%) were Hispanic; 234 (3%) were Asian; 33 were Native American or Alaska natives; 6 were Hawaiian; 144 (2%) were multiracial; 237 (3%) were "international;" and the ethnicity of 44 (1%) was unknown or unreported. The percentage of African-Americans had dropped from 86% in fall 2010 and the percentage of Hispanic and international students had increased slightly.[2] 7,682 (92%) of the students were from Texas, 456 (5%) were from other states, and 205 (2%) were from other countries.[13]

Student life[edit]


In 1998 ACC was awarded the contract to develop, build, and manage a student housing property at PVAMU.[14] Both student residence housing properties at PVAMU are owned and operated by American Campus Communities.[15][16] Freshmen students on campus may reside in the University College community. Upperclassmen may live in apartment style living in University Village[17] (phases I, II, III, VI, and VII). The first of these apartment buildings was built in 1995.[citation needed]

University College opened in 2000. As of the fall of 2001, 40% of on-campus students lived at University College and the remaining 60% lived at University Village.[18]

Previous buildings that formerly housed students include Alexander Hall, Banks Hall, Buchanan Hall, Collins Hall, Drew Hall, L. O. Evans Hall, Fuller Hall, Holley Hall, and Suarez Hall. Suarez Hall was already closed in 1996. In 1997 Alexander Hall, Buchanan Hall, and Collins Hall had closed. In 1998 Holley Hall had closed. In 2000 Drew Hall, Evans Hall, and Fuller Hall had closed. During the same year, Alexander, Buchanan, and Holley had been demolished. In 2001 Banks Hall had closed.[18]

Student activities[edit]

Honda Campus All Star Challenge[edit]

The Prairie View Honda Campus All Challenge (HCASC) team won the National Championship in 2010 and 2015. The winning team in 2015 included Joseph Dowell, Captain, a senior from Killeen, Brannon Billings, a senior from Austin, Eric Johnston, a sophomore from Boerne, and Chayse Lavallais, a freshman from Houston, with Herbert Thomas, Career Placement Coordinator as the coach and Shahryar Syed, an Institutional Representative. The HCASC academic challenge and quiz bowl is the country's answer to March Madness where academic excellence and quick intellectual wit is on display. The road to the final four begins in the fall from a field of 78 and narrowed down to the Great 48 of America's Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). Regional tournaments are held throughout the year with qualifying teams advancing. The PVAMU team is a charter member of the program which began in 1989 with Frederick V. Roberts, then Director of Student Activities at the university as the founding coach 1989-1996.


Prairie View A&M athletics logomark

Prairie View A&M University offers a wide variety of varsity and intramural sports programs.

Men's and women's athletic teams are nicknamed the Panthers and the team colors are purple and gold. Prairie View A&M is a charter member of the Southwestern Athletic Conference (SWAC), and is a member of the West Division. Prairie View competes in NCAA Division I in all varsity sports; in football, the Panthers play in the Division I FCS.

Prairie View's most notable rivals are Texas Southern University and Grambling State University.

Men's varsity sports include baseball, basketball, cross country, football, golf, tennis, and track and field. Women's varsity sports include basketball, bowling, cross country, golf, soccer, softball, tennis, track and field, and volleyball.


In summer 2016, Prairie View A&M completed the first phase of construction on its $60 million football stadium and athletic field house. The state-of-the-art facility is 55,000 square feet and holds up to 15,000 people. The second phase of construction will increase capacity to 30,000 people.[19]

PVAMU annual football classics include the Labor Day Classic versus Texas Southern and the State Fair Classic in Dallas versus the Grambling State Tigers.

Men's basketball[edit]

Women's basketball[edit]

The women's basketball team received national attention in 2005 with the naming of Cynthia Cooper as the head basketball coach. Cooper, a two-time WNBA MVP, led the Lady Panthers to the school's first ever SWAC title and NCAA Tournament berth in her second season as coach. Dawn Brown is the current women's coach. The Lady Panthers won the SWAC Tournament and NCAA berth for four consecutive years (2010-2014).

Women's outdoor track & field[edit]

The Lady Panther's Track and Field teams accumulated an unprecedented string of championships both indoor and outdoor. From 1965 to 1991 the Lady Panther's claimed 8 National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA) outdoor titles and 2 indoor titles; won national titles in the Association of Intercollegiate Athletics for Women and the U.S. Track and Field Federation; won 8 Southwestern Athletic Conference (SWAC) cross country titles, nine indoor titles and five outdoor SWAC titles in track and field. In total the Lady Panther's won 23 SWAC championships

Coach Barbara Jacket was named SWAC Coach of the Year on 23 occasions and NAIA Coach of the Year five times and Jacket tutored 57 All-Americans. As coach of the 1992 U.S. Women's Olympic Track Team during the Olympics which ran from July 25 – August 9 in Barcelona, Spain, Ms. Jacket had the enviable task of coaching such greats as long jumper Jackie Joyner-Kersee and sprinters Gwen Torrance, Gail Devers, and Evelyn Ashford. The Women's team won overall 4 Gold Medals, 3 Silver Medals, and 3 Bronze Medals more than any team since 1956. She was the second Black female to coach an Olympic team

Women's bowling[edit]

In 2012, the Women's Bowling Team of Prairie View A&M University—won its first SWAC Champions and National Tenpin Coaches Association Final National Poll 19th Place Overall—Cynthia Veney, Shanice Brown, LeJewelia Lewis, Alexis Holmes, Roonesia Newsom, Sharita Turner and Coach Glenn White. The team has since won the SWAC Championship in 2013 and 2015.


The Prairie View A&M Panther baseball team captured its first Southwestern Athletic Conference championship in the school's history and won back-to-back SWAC titles in 2006 and 2007. During the last five years, Prairie View A&M has made four consecutive appearances in the SWAC's title game, finishing as the conference's runner-up in 2005 and 2008. Prairie View A&M recently captured its third SWAC title in 2012, defeating Mississippi Valley State University.

Prior to a double header against the Texas Southern Tigers, a ribbon cutting ceremony was held for the renovated baseball stadium on April 26, 2014. Along with the opening, the stadium was formally dedicated to former Panthers baseball coach, John W. Tankersley. The renovated stadium features seating for 512 including 192 chair backed seats, new concession stand, new restrooms, press box, and bricked dugouts. The stadium is also Wi-Fi enabled.[20] The Panthers dedicated the stadium sweeping the double header winning 9-0 and 7-4.[21]

Marching band[edit]

The university's official marching band is the Marching Storm and it is led by five drum majors. It supports the Delta Psi chapter of Kappa Kappa Psi honorary band fraternity along with the Epsilon Psi chapter of Tau Beta Sigma honorary band sorority. During WWII the band's men enlisted in the military, and the Marching Storm became known as the "Co-eds", and was made up of exclusively female musicians. The "Co-eds" toured extensively throughout the US and the segregated south.

Past performances include President George W. Bush's 2001 Presidential Inaugural Parade in Washington, D.C., the 2004 Dallas Cowboys' Thanksgiving Day game, the Honda Battle of the Bands Invitational Showcase in Atlanta, Georgia and during the 2011 Super Bowl XLV halftime show with The Black eyed Pea's. The marching band traveled to the 2009 Tournament of Roses Parade in Pasadena, California and performed in the opening act in front of the grandstands for the worldwide television audience.[22] In Summer 2009, the Marching Storm mourned the death of their leader, Professor George Edwards. Students affectionately referred to him as "Prof" and will forever be remembered in their hearts.

In 2012 the Marching Storm welcomed director Timmey Zachery. The Marching Storm was selected as the first halftime performance of the 2014 – 15 season for the Dallas Cowboys in the season opener against the San Francisco 49ers. By nationwide vote, the group played in the Honda Battle of the Bands 2016 invitation.

Black Foxes

The Marching Storm is joined by the Black Foxes, the university majorette/dance line.

Campus organizations[edit]

All nine members of the National Pan-Hellenic Council are represented at PVAMU. Though not a member of the National Pan-Hellenic Council, Kappa Kappa Psi a national Honorary Band Fraternity, was the first Greek organization to have a chapter on campus. Sigma Lambda Gamma, a multicultural sorority, also has a chapter.

Student organizations[edit]

There are more than 150 organizations registered at the university representing various interests to include academic, honor societies, volunteer causes, political, and special interests.

Administration and organization[edit]


Prairie View A&M University is administrated by a number of governing bodies; the office of the president, faculty senate, and student government association.

Student government[edit]

The PVAMU Student Government Association was founded in 1982, and is officially chartered to speak on behalf of the student body to the University Administration, and internal and external organizations.

Notable alumni[edit]

Name Class year Notability Reference(s)
Hise Austin 1973 former NFL defensive back
Sebastian Barrie 1992 former NFL defensive tackle [23]
Cynthia Cooper-Dyke 2005 former WNBA player, Women's Basketball Hall of Fame inductee, published author, and Head Coach of the USC women's basketball team [24]
Zelmo Beaty Professional and College Basketball Hall of Fame legend who played in the NBA and ABA from 1962 to 1975
Julius W. Becton, Jr. 1960 Lieutenant General US Army, Federal Emergency Management Agency Director, educator, and past president of PVAMU
Sandra Bland 2009 Black Lives Matter activist
Dr. J. Don Boney 1948 first president of the University of Houston–Downtown [25]
Charlie Brackins 1955 one of the first African-American NFL quarterbacks [26]
Kirko Bangz (real name Kirk Randle) Attended hip-hop artist [27]
David L. Brewer III 1970 retired vice admiral of the United States Navy and superintendent of the Los Angeles Unified School District (2006-2008) [28]
Charles Brown 1942 legendary blues recording artist and member of Rock & Roll Hall of Fame [29]
Emanuel Cleaver 1972 Member of the U.S. House of Representatives for the 5th district of Missouri since 2005 [30]
Cecil Cooper Attended 5-time MLB All-Star who played first baseman from 1971 to 1987, Houston Astros manager from 2007 to 2009 [31]
Clem Daniels 1959 former NFL running back [32]
Dorrough (real name Dorwin Demarcus Dorrough) Attended rapper [33]
Terry Ellis 1990 vocalist and member of female R&B group En Vogue [34]
Adrian Hamilton 2012 linebacker for the Baltimore Ravens of the NFL since 2012
Ken Houston 1966 Member Pro Football Hall of Fame, 13-year career as strong safety with Houston Oilers and Washington Redskins
Louise Daniel Hutchinson historian [35]
Jim Kearney 1964 defensive back in the NFL and AFL from 1965 to 1976
Jermaine McGhee 2007 former NFL defensive end
Jim Mitchell 1968 former NFL tight end [36]
Sidney A. McPhee 1976 President of Middle Tennessee State University
Thomas Monroe 1990 AFL Ironman of the Year
Frederick D. Patterson founder of United Negro College Fund
DJ Premier (real name Christopher Edward Martin) Attended member of Gang Starr [37]
Inez Beverly Prosser 1913 first African-American woman to receive a doctoral degree in psychology [38]
Kase Lawal 1978 Chairman & CEO of Erin Energy Corporation Erin Energy Corporation
Dewey Redman jazz saxophonist
Alvin Reed 1966 former NFL tight end [39]
Clay Smothers member of the Texas House of Representatives from Dallas County from 1977 to 1981; operator of St. Paul Industrial Training School in Malakoff, Texas [40]
Quinton Spears 2011 current NFL linebacker
James H. Stewart member of the Texas House of Representatives from Robertson County from 1885 to 1887 [41]
Mr. T (real name Laurence Tureaud) Attended actor who played B. A. Baracus in The A-Team [42]
Otis Taylor former NFL wide receiver and member of 1969 World Champion Kansas City Chiefs Hall of Fame
Calvin Waller 1959 U.S. Army General and Deputy Commander-in-Chief in the Persian Gulf War [43]
Craig Washington 1966 Member of the U.S. House of Representatives for the 18th district of Texas from 1989 to 1994 [44]
Craig Watkins 1990 District attorney of Dallas County, Texas since 2007 [45]
Mark Hanna Watkins 1926 linguist and anthropologist; first African-American to be awarded a Ph.D. in anthropology; first American to write a grammar of an African language [46]
Dave Webster 1959 former American Football League All-Pro football player for the Dallas Texans/Kansas City Chiefs, Prairie View A&M University Hall of Fame inductee and one of the first blacks to play professional football in the American Football League.
James E. White 1986 Republican member of the Texas House of Representatives from Tyler County [47]
Clarence Williams 1968 former NFL defensive end [48]
Donnie Williams American football player
Loni Love 1991 comedienne, actress, and original cast member of The Real

See also[edit]


  1. ^
  2. ^ a b c "Total Student Enrollment By Ethnicity Fall 2010 - Fall 2014" (PDF). Prairie View A&M University. Retrieved July 27, 2015. 
  3. ^ a b PVAMU Visual Identity Guidelines (PDF). Retrieved 2016-04-09. 
  4. ^ "Application : Undergraduate Medical Academy". Retrieved 2016-04-09. 
  5. ^ USA (2015-09-28). "Addressing medical school diversity through an undergraduate partnership at Texas A&M Health Science Center: a blueprint for success". Acad Med. 83: 512–5. PMID 18448910. doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e31816be5cf. 
  6. ^ "The Honors Program". Retrieved 2016-04-09. 
  7. ^ Bhatia, Anchal (22 December 2014). "PVAMU is the Top Producer of Black Architecture Undergrads". IBCU Lifestyle. 
  8. ^ "Top 100 Degree Producers: Baccalaureate". Diverse. 
  9. ^
  10. ^ "Accreditations : PVAMU Home". Retrieved 2016-04-09. 
  11. ^ "PVAMU Campus' Cemetery in Dispute Over Ownership". African American News. 
  12. ^ "Total Student Enrollment by Gender Fall 2010 - Fall 2014" (PDF). Prairie View A&M University. Retrieved July 27, 2015. 
  13. ^ "Total Student Enrollment by Geographical Source Fall 2010 - Fall 2014" (PDF). Prairie View A&M University. Retrieved July 27, 2015. 
  14. ^ "Company News". Austin American-Statesman. 27 June 1998. Retrieved 5 October 2011. American Campus Communities has been awarded projects totaling $52.5 million to develop, build and manage three student housing projects at Prairie View A&M University, Texas A&M University and Iona College. 
  15. ^ Home page. University College. Retrieved on October 5, 2011.
  16. ^ Home page. University Village. Retrieved on October 5, 2011.
  17. ^ "Department of Resident Life." Prairie View A&M University. Retrieved on October 5, 2011. "Incoming Freshman Housing" links to University College, "Returning Student Housing" links to University Village
  18. ^ a b "PVAMU Fact Book 1996–2001." Prairie View A&M University. 77. Retrieved on October 5, 2011.
  19. ^ "New Look". Panther Stadium. Retrieved 2016-04-09. 
  20. ^ "Tankersley Field Ribbon Cutting, SWAC Baseball Showdown set for Saturday at 12:30 P.M.". Prairie View A&M University Athletics. April 23, 2014. Retrieved January 12, 2015. 
  21. ^ "Panthers Dedicate Tankersley Field in Style with Doubleheader Sweep over TSU". Prairie View A&M University Athletics. April 26, 2014. Retrieved January 12, 2015. 
  22. ^ Rose Parade Participants
  23. ^ "Sebastian Barrie". Retrieved February 23, 2013. 
  24. ^ Cynthia Cooper-Dyke
  25. ^ "Dr. J. Don Boney". Past Presidents, University of Houston–Downtown (2000), Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. 
  26. ^ Finder, Chuck (February 24, 2002). "Trail blazer: Willie 'The Pro' Thrower opened door for black quarterbacks". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved February 23, 2013. 
  27. ^ Cline, Georgette (July 12, 2012). "Kirko Bangz Sheds Light on Marriage, Houston Rap Veterans, Ditching College". The Boombox. Retrieved February 23, 2013. 
  28. ^ "Arts and Sciences Alumni Make Their Mark" (PDF). PreView. Prairie View A&M University College of Arts and Sciences. 2007. p. 6. 
  29. ^ "Brown, Tony Russell (Charles)". Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved February 23, 2013. 
  30. ^ "CLEAVER, Emanuel, II, (1944 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved February 23, 2013. 
  31. ^ PVPantherAthletics YouTube channel (October 19, 2011). "Prairie View A&M Baseball Receives Visit From Cecil Cooper". YouTube. 
  32. ^ "Clem Daniels". 
  33. ^ Birchmeier, Jason. "Dorrough Biography". Retrieved February 23, 2013. 
  34. ^ "Terry Ellis". HBCU Connect. Retrieved February 23, 2013. 
  35. ^ "Louise Daniel Hutchinson Interviews". Record Unit 9558. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  36. ^ "Jim Mitchell". 
  37. ^ Ambrose, Patrick (September 2009). "DJ Premier: Hope to the Underground". The Morning News. Retrieved February 12, 2012. 
  38. ^ Benjamin, Ludy T. (November 2008), "America's first black female psychologist", The Monitor, American Psychological Association, 39 (10), p. 20 
  39. ^ "Alvin Reed". 
  40. ^ "Doris Eastman Harris, "Smothers ... New Voice of a Silent Majority", October 2, 1970". The Malakoff News. Retrieved October 11, 2013. 
  41. ^ "Legislative Reference Library - James H. Stewart". 
  42. ^ "Mr. T biography". A&E Networks. Retrieved February 23, 2013. 
  43. ^ "Waller, Lt. General Calvin (1937–1996)". Retrieved February 23, 2013. 
  44. ^ "WASHINGTON, Craig Anthony, (1941-)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved February 23, 2013. 
  45. ^ Timms, Ed; Emily, Jennifer; Jeffers, Gromer Jr. (July 16, 2011). "After acclaim for exoneree work, Dallas DA Craig Watkins taking hits". The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved February 22, 2013. 
  46. ^ Wade-Lewis, Margaret (2005). "Mark Hanna Watkins". Histories of Anthropology Annual. 1: 181–218. doi:10.1353/haa.0.0001. 
  47. ^ "Representative James White's Biography". Retrieved 3 October 2013. 
  48. ^ "Clarence Williams". 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 30°05′31″N 95°59′22″W / 30.09194°N 95.98944°W / 30.09194; -95.98944