Textual variants in the Gospel of Mark

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Codex Boreelianus, Mark 1:1-5a

Textual variants in the Gospel of Mark are the subject of the study called textual criticism of the New Testament. Textual variants in manuscripts arise when a copyist makes deliberate or inadvertent alterations to a text that is being reproduced. An abbreviated list of textual variants in this particular book is given in this article below.

Origen, writing in the 3rd century, was one of the first who made remarks about differences between manuscripts of texts that were eventually collected as the New Testament. He declared his preferences among variant readings. For example, in Matthew 27:16–17, he favored "Barabbas" against "Jesus Barabbas" (In Matt. Comm. ser. 121). In John 1:28, he preferred "Bethabara" over "Bethany" as the location where John was baptizing (Commentary on John VI.40 (24)). "Gergeza" was preferred over "Geraza" or "Gadara" (Commentary on John VI.40 (24) – see Matthew 8:28).

Most of the variations are not significant and some common alterations include the deletion, rearrangement, repetition, or replacement of one or more words when the copyist's eye returns to a similar word in the wrong location of the original text. If their eye skips to an earlier word, they may create a repetition (error of dittography). If their eye skips to a later word, they may create an omission. They may resort to performing a rearranging of words to retain the overall meaning without compromising the context. In other instances, the copyist may add text from memory from a similar or parallel text in another location. Otherwise, they may also replace some text of the original with an alternative reading. Spellings occasionally change. Synonyms may be substituted. A pronoun may be changed into a proper noun (such as "he said" becoming "Jesus said"). John Mill's 1707 Greek New Testament was estimated to contain some 30,000 variants in its accompanying textual apparatus[1] which was based on "nearly 100 [Greek] manuscripts."[2] The most recent estimate puts the number of non-spelling variants among New Testament manuscripts around 500,000.[3]

Legend[edit]

A guide to the symbols used in the body of this article.

Notable manuscripts[edit]

Notable textual variants[edit]

Mark 1:2

ἐν τοῖς προφήταις (in prophets) – A, W, f13, Byz
ἐν τῷ Ἠσαἲᾳ τῷ προφήτῃ (in Isaiah the prophet) – א, B, L, D
ἐν Ἠσαἲᾳ τῷ προφήτῃ (in Isaiah prophet) – D, Θ, f1

Mark 1:8

ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ (with the Holy Spirit) – א, A, D, K, W, Δ, Θ, Π, f1, f13,
πνεύματι ἁγίῳ – B, L
ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ καὶ πυρί (with the Holy Spirit and fire) – P, 1195, 1241, 44, syrh

Mark 1:13

καὶ ἦν ἐν τῇ ερημω (he was in the wilderness) – א, A, B, D, L, Θ, 33, 579, 892, 1342, (2427 forgery)
καὶ ἦν ἐκει ἐν τῇ ερημω (he was there in the wilderness) – W, Δ, 157, 1241, Byz, TR
καὶ ἦν ἐκει (he was there) – 28, 517, 565, 700, f1, Family Π, syrs
Omit – f13
Hiatus – C, Ψ, syrc

Mark 1:14

εὐαγγέλιον – א, Β, L, Θ, f1, f13, 28, 33, 565, 892
εὐαγγέλιον τῆς βασιλείας – Α, D, Κ, W, Δ, Π, 074, 0133, 0135, 28mg, 700, 1009, 1010, 1071, 1079, 1195, 1216, 1230, 1241, 1242, 1253, 1344, 1365, 1546, 1646, 2148, 2174, Byz, Lect, lat, syrp, copbo

Mark 1:41

σπλαγχνισθεις (filled with compassion) – majority mss
οργισθεις (irritated; angry) – D a ff2 r1

Mark 2:16

ἐσθίει (eating) - B, D, W, ita, b, d, e, ff2, r1, u[w]
ἐσθίει καὶ πίνει (eating and drinking) - 88, A, f1, f13, 2, 13, 28, 33, 157, 180, 205, 597, 828, 892, 1006, 1010, 1292, 1505, / Byz [E, F, H] Lect itq, vgms, syrp,h, copsams, [w]τ
ἐσθίεται (=ἐσθίετε?) (eating) - Θ
ἐσθίει ό διδάσκαλος ύμων (your teacher eating) - (see Mt 9:11) א, 1342, itaur, vgms (Origenlat), DHH
ἐσθίει καὶ πίνει ό διδάσκαλος ύμων (eating and drinking, your teacher) - L, Δ, f13, 69, 788, 1071, 1243, 1346, it(c),f, vg, copbo, Augustine
ἐσθίετε καὶ πίνετε ([are you] eating and drinking) - (see Lk 5:30), Σ, 124, 565, 700, 1241, 1424, 547, 866, srypal, arm, geo, Diatessaron
ἐσθίειτε καὶ πίνειτε ([are you] eating and drinking) - G
ό διδάσκαλος ύμων ἐσθίει καὶ πίνει (your teacher eating and drinking) - C, 579, 890, it1, copsamss, eth
ἐσθίετε ([are you] eating) - 1424

Mark 2:26

ἐπὶ Ἀβιαθαρ ἀρχιερέως (when Abiatar was high priest) – א, A, B, K, L, 892, 1010, 1195, 1216, 1230, 1242, 1344, 1365, 1646, 2174, Byz, 69, 70, 76, 80, 150, 299, 1127, 1634, 1761, arm
ἐπὶ Ἀβιαθαρ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως (when Abiatar was high priest) – A C Θ Π 074
ἐπὶ Ἀβιαθαρ τοῦ ἱερέως (when Abiatar was priest) – Δ, itf
phrase is omitted by manuscripts D, W, 1009, 1546, ita, b, d, e, ff2, i, r1, t, syrs

Mark 4:19

η αγαπη του πλουτου (the love of wealth) – Δ
η απατη του πλουτου (the illusion of wealth) – א, A, Β, C, E, Byz
απαται του πλουτου (the illusions of wealth) – W
απαται του κοσμου (the illusions of world) – D (Θ 565)

Mark 4:19

και αι περι τα λοιπα επιθυμιαι (and the desire for other things) – rest of mss
omit – D (Θ) W f1 28 (565 700) it

Mark 4:24

καὶ προστεθήσεται ὑμῖν – א, B, C, L, Δ, 700, 892
καὶ προστεθήσεται ὑμῖν τοῖς ἀκούουσιν – A K Π 0107 Byz
omit – codices D, W, 565

Mark 5:9

απεκριθη λεγων – E 565 700 1010
απεκριθη – D
λεγει αυτω – rest of mss.

Mark 5:9

λεγιων ονομα μοι – א B C L Δ
λεγεων – A W Θ f1 f13 Byz

Mark 5:37

ουδενα μετ' αυτου συνακολουθεσαι – א, B, C, L, Δ, 892
ουδενα αυτω συνακολουθεσαι – Α, Θ, 0132, 0133c, f13, Byz
ουδενα αυτω παρακολουθεσαι – D, W, 0133*, f1, 28, 565, 700, pc
ουδενα αυτω ακολουθεσαι – A, K, 33, 1241, al

Mark 6:33

ἐκεῖ καὶ προῆλθον αὐτούς – א, B, 0187 (omit εκει), 892, 49, 69, 70, 299, 303, 333, 1579, ( 950 αυτους), itaur, vg, (copsa,bo)
ἐκει καὶ προσηλθον αὐτοῖς – Codex Regius, 1241, (Δ, Θ, 10 αὐτοῖς), 12, 80, 184, 211, 1127, arm, geo
ἐκεῖ καὶ συνῆλθον αὐτῷ – Codex Bezaegr, itb
ἐκεῖ καὶ συνῆλθον αὐτοῦ – 28, 700
ἐκεῖ καὶ ἢλθον αὐτοῦ – 565, it(a),d,ff,i,r, Diatessaron
καὶ ἢλθον ἐκεῖ – f1
προηλθον αὐτὸν ἐκεῖ – Peshitta
πρὸς αὐτούς καὶ συνῆλθον πρὸς αὐτον – 33
ἐκεῖ καὶ προῆλθον αὐτοῖς καὶ συνῆλθον πρὸς αὐτον – K, Π, (f13 συνεισηλθον προς αὐτούς), 1009, 1010, 1071, 1079, 1195, 1216, 1230, 1242, 1365, 1546, 1646, 2148, 2174, Byz
ἐκεῖ καὶ προῆλθον αὐτοῖς καὶ συνέδραμον πρὸς αὐτον – A
ἐκει – W, 150, itc

Mark 6:51

ἐξίσταντο – א, B, L, Δ, 28, 892, itc, ff2, i, l, vg, syrs, copsa, bo, geo
ἐξεπλήσσοντο – f1
ἐξίσταντο καὶ ἐθαύμαζον – A, D, K, W, X, Θ, Π, f13, 33, 565, 700, 1009, 1010, 1079, 1195, 1216, 1230, 1241, 1242, 1253, 1344, 1365, 1546, 1646, 2148, 2174, Byz, Lect
ἐθαύμαζον καὶ ἐξίσταντο – 517, 1424

Mark 7:2

πυγμη – A B D K L X Θ Π
πυκνα – א W vg
omit – Δ syrs copsa

Mark 7:16

verse is omitted by א, Β, L, Δ, 28

Mark 8:10

τὰ μέρη Δαλμανουθά – א, Α, Β, C, K, L, X, Δ, Π, 0131, 33, 700, 892, 1009, 1010, 1195, 1216, 1230, 1242, 1253, 1344, 1365, 1546, 1646, 2148, 2174, Byz, Lect, it, vg, syr, cop
τὰ ὂρη Δαλμανουθά – 1071
τὸ ὂρος Δαλμανοῦναι – W
τὰ ὅρια Δαλμανουθά – 1241
τὸ ὂρος Μαγεδά – 28
τὰ ὅρια Μελεγαδά – Dgr
τὰ μέρη Μαγδαλά – Θ, f1, f13, 80
τὰ μέρη Μαγεδά – 565
Mark 8:35-9:1 in Papyrus 45.

Mark 9:49

πας γαρ πυρι αλισθησεται – (א εν πυρι) B L W Δ f1 f13 28 565 700 260 syrs copsa
πασα γαρ θυσια αλι αλισθησεται – D it
πας γαρ πυρι αλισθησεται και πασα θυσια αλι αλισθησεται – A (C εν πυρι) K (X πυρι αλι αλισθησεται) Π (Ψ θυσια αναλωθησεται)
πας γαρ πυρι αναλωθησεται και πασα θυσια αλι αλισθησεται – Θ

Mark 10:2

προσελθόντες Φαρισαῖοι (the Pharisees came) – A B K L Γ Δ Ψ f13, 28 700 892 1010 1079 1546 1646 Byz copbo goth
προσελθόντες οἱ Φαρισαῖοι (word order varies) – א, C, X
verse omitted by D, a, b, d, k, r1, syrsin (syrcur)

Mark 10:47

Ναζαρηνός – B L W Δ Θ Ψ
Ναζορηνός – D
Ναζωρινός – 28
Ναζωραιός – א A C

Mark 11:26

Verse omitted by א, B, L, W, Δ, Ψ, 565, 700, 892, 1216, k, l, syrs,pal, cop
Verse included by K, X, Θ, Π, 28 Byz

Mark 14:39

τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον εἰπών (spoke the same words) – omitted by D, a, b, c, d, ff2, k, (syrcur)

Mark 15:28

Verse omitted by א, B, C, D, Ψ, k, syrs, cop
The end of Mark in Vaticanus

Mark 15:34 (see Ps 22:2)

ἐγκατέλιπές με (forsaken me) – א, B, Ψ, 059, vg, syrs, p, copsa, bo, fay, geo
ἐγκατέλειπές με – L, 0112, 565, 892
με ἐγκατέλιπες (see Mt 27:46) – C, P, X, Δ, Θ, Π2, f1, f13, 28, 700, 1010, 1071, 1079, 1195, 1216, 1230, 1241, 1242, 1253, 1344, 1365, 1546, 1646, 2148, 2174, Byz, Lect, it, goth
με ἐγκατέλειπες – A, Π*
με ἐγκατέλειπας – K, 1009, ( 70)
με ἐγκατέλιπας – 33
ὠνείδισάς με (insult me) – D, itc, (i), k, syrh

Mark 16:8-20

passage omitted by א, B, 304

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Adam Fox, John Mill and Richard Bentley: A Study of the Textual Criticism of the New Testament 1675–1729 (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1954), pp. 105–115; John Mill, Novum Testamentum Graecum, cum lectionibus variantibus MSS (Oxford 1707)
  2. ^ Metzger and Ehrman (2005), p.154
  3. ^ Peter J. Gurry, "The Number of Variants in the Greek New Testament: A Proposed Estimate" New Testament Studies 62.1 (2016), p. 113

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]