Textured vegetable protein

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Dry TVP flakes are an inexpensive protein source when purchased in bulk and can be added to a variety of vegetarian dishes or used as a meat extender or supplement to bulk out a meat dish.
Textured soy chunks

Textured or texturized vegetable protein (TVP), also known as textured soy protein (TSP), soy meat, or soya chunks, is a defatted soy flour product, a by-product of extracting soybean oil. It is often used as a meat analogue or meat extender. It is quick to cook, with a protein content comparable to some meats.

TVP may be produced from any protein-rich seed meal left over from vegetable oil production.[1] Specifically, a wide range of pulse seeds besides soybean, including lentils, peas, and faba beans, may be used for TVP production.[2] Peanut-based TVP is produced in China where peanut oil is a popular cooking oil.[3]


Textured vegetable protein was invented by the agricultural commodities and food processing company Archer Daniels Midland in the 1960s; the company owns the name "textured vegetable protein" and the acronym TVP as registered trademarks.[4] Archer Daniels Midland had developed a textured soy protein isolate made with an extruder in the shape of rods or tubes. The soy protein isolate was produced in a small pilot plant and sold for use in chili powder, but the product was not commercially successful. By 1968, TVP was widely used in a variety of food products, and consumption skyrocketed after 1971, when TVP was approved for use in school lunch programs. By 1980, similar products were being produced by rival companies in America, but Archer Daniels Midland remained the leader in TVP production.[5]

Manufacturing process[edit]

TVP is usually made from high (50%) soy protein, soy flour or concentrate, but can also be made from cottonseed, wheat, and oats. It is extruded into various shapes (chunks, flakes, nuggets, grains, and strips) and sizes, exiting the nozzle while still hot and expanding as it does so.[1] The defatted thermoplastic proteins are heated to 150–200 °C (300–390 °F), which denatures them into a fibrous, insoluble, porous network that can soak up as much as three times its weight in liquids. As the pressurized molten protein mixture exits the extruder, the sudden drop in pressure causes rapid expansion into a puffy solid that is then dried. As much as 50% protein when dry, TVP can be rehydrated at a 2:1 ratio, which drops the percentage of protein to an approximation of ground meat at 16%. TVP is primarily used as a meat substitute due to its very low cost at less than a third the price of ground beef[6][7] and, when cooked together, will help retain more nutrients from the meat by absorbing juices normally lost.[6]

Many TVP producers use hexane to separate soy fat from soy protein, and trace amounts of the solvent are left after manufacturing. But the rodent studies that have been done suggest it would be almost impossible to get enough hexane from TVP to cause harm.[8] Measured levels of residual hexane in TVP are around 20 parts per million;[9] and studies in rodents suggest that 5 g/kg is the minimum dose at which undesirable effects may be observed.


Textured vegetable protein, dry
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy1,392 kJ (333 kcal)
33.9 g
Sugars16.4 g
Dietary fiber17.5 g
1.2 g
51.5 g
Thiamine (B1)
0.7 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
0.253 mg
Niacin (B3)
2.612 mg
Vitamin B6
0.574 mg
Folate (B9)
305 μg
Vitamin C
0 mg
241 mg
9.2 mg
290 mg
674 mg
2384 mg
1.7 μg
20 mg
2.5 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water7.25 g

Percentages estimated using US recommendations for adults,[10] except for potassium, which is estimated based on expert recommendation from the National Academies.[11]

TVP can be made from soy flour or concentrate, containing 50% and 70% soy protein, respectively; they have a mild beany flavor. Both require rehydration before use, sometimes with flavoring added in the same step. TVP is extruded, causing a change in the structure of the soy protein which results in a fibrous, spongy matrix, similar in texture to meat. In its dehydrated form, TVP has a shelf life of longer than a year, but will spoil within several days after being hydrated. In its flaked form, it can be used similarly to ground meat.


Dried textured vegetable protein is 7% water, 52% protein, 34% carbohydrates, and 1% fat (table).[12] In a 100-gram (3+12-ounce) reference amount, it provides 1,370 kilojoules (327 kilocalories) of food energy, and is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of several B vitamins, including folate (76% DV), and dietary minerals, especially phosphorus, magnesium, and iron (71–96% DV).


Textured vegetable protein is a versatile substance; different forms allow it to take on the texture of whatever ground meat it is substituting.[13] Using TVP, one can make vegetarian or vegan versions of traditionally meat-based dishes, such as chili con carne, spaghetti bolognese, sloppy joes, tacos, burgers, or burritos.

Soy[14] protein can also be used as a low cost and high nutrition extender in comminuted meat and poultry products, and in tuna salads.[15][16] Food service, retail and institutional (primarily school lunch and correctional) facilities regularly use such "extended" products. Extension may result in diminished flavor, although extra seasoning can suffice, but fat and cholesterol levels are decreased. TVP being used by itself as a substitute has no fat at all,[17] and can be effectively seasoned to taste like red meat.[citation needed]

Textured vegetable protein can be found in health food stores and larger supermarkets, usually in the bulk section. TVP is also very lightweight and is often used in backpacking recipes. Because of its relatively low cost, high protein content, and long shelf life,[18] TVP is often used in prisons and schools, as well as for disaster preparedness. Those with soy allergy, however, should avoid TVP.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Foote R (1996). Food preparation and cooking. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes. pp. 393. ISBN 0-7487-2566-0.
  2. ^ Kim, Taehoon (May 2018). Texturization of Pulse Proteins: Peas, Lentils, and Faba Beans (PhD). hdl:1969.1/173522.
  3. ^ "Peanut Textured Vegetable Protein(TVP), Rapid rehydration & excellent water absorption". www.frozensweetpumpkin.com.
  4. ^ Decker, Fred. "Textured Vegetable Protein (TVP) vs. Textured Soy Protein (TSP)". NationalGeographic.com. p. 1. Archived from the original on May 27, 2013. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
  5. ^ Shurtleff, William; Aoyagi, Akiko. "Archer Daniels Midland Company". Soy Info Center. p. 1. Retrieved May 19, 2013.
  6. ^ a b Clark JD, Valentas KJ, Levine L (1991). Food processing operations and scale-up. New York: CRC Press. pp. 134–7. ISBN 0-8247-8279-8.
  7. ^ Riaz MN (2006). Soy applications in food. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 155–84. ISBN 0-8493-2981-7.
  8. ^ Brian Palmer (2010-04-26). "Is Your Veggie Burger Killing You?". Slate. Retrieved 2012-03-23.
  9. ^ "Behind the Bean The Heroes and Charlatans of the Natural and Organic Soy Foods Industry" (PDF). Cornucopia Institute. 2009-05-18. Retrieved 2019-03-12.
  10. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration (2024). "Daily Value on the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels". Retrieved 2024-03-28.
  11. ^ National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Food and Nutrition Board; Committee to Review the Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium (2019). Oria, Maria; Harrison, Meghan; Stallings, Virginia A. (eds.). Dietary Reference Intakes for Sodium and Potassium. The National Academies Collection: Reports funded by National Institutes of Health. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US). ISBN 978-0-309-48834-1. PMID 30844154.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  12. ^ TVP; web page; "How Stuff Works" online; accessed ???>
  13. ^ T.V.P.; Your Daily Vegan;
  14. ^ All About Soy; Rogel Cancer Center – Support;
  15. ^ Hoogenkamp, Henk W. (2005). Soy protein and formulated meat products. Wallingford, Oxon, UK: CABI Pub. ISBN 0-85199-864-X.
  16. ^ Joseph G. Endres (2001). Soy Protein Products. AOCS Publishing. ISBN 1-893997-27-8.
  17. ^ "How Many Calories in TVP". Calorie King. 2018 CalorieKing Wellness Solutions, Inc. Retrieved 2018-01-22.
  18. ^ All About Textured Vegetable Protein; USA Emergency Supply WebPage

Further reading[edit]