|This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2013)|
|Written by||Émile Zola|
|Date premiered||1867 / 1873|
|Genre||Literary Naturalism, Theatrical Naturalism, Psychological novel|
Thérèse Raquin [teʁɛz ʁakɛ̃] is a novel (first published in 1867) and a play (first performed in 1873) by the French writer Émile Zola. The novel was originally published in serial format in the journal L'Artiste and in book format in December of the same year.
Thérèse Raquin tells the story of a young woman, unhappily married to her first cousin by an overbearing aunt who may seem to be well-intentioned but in many ways is deeply selfish. Thérèse's husband, Camille, is sickly and egocentric, and when the opportunity arises, Thérèse enters into a turbulent and sordidly passionate affair with one of Camille's friends, Laurent.
In his preface, Zola explains that his goal in this novel was to "study temperaments and not characters". Because of this detached and scientific approach, Thérèse Raquin is considered an example of naturalism.
Thérèse Raquin is the daughter of a French sea-captain and an Algerian mother. After the death of her mother, her father brings her to live with her aunt, Madame Raquin, and her valetudinarian son, Camille. Because her son is "so ill", Madame Raquin dotes on Camille to the point where he is selfish and spoiled. Camille and Thérèse grow up side-by-side, and Madame Raquin marries them to one another when Thérèse is 21. Shortly thereafter, Camille decides that the family should move to Paris so he can pursue a career.
Thérèse and Madame Raquin set up shop in the Passage du Pont Neuf to support Camille while he searches for a job. Camille eventually begins working for the Orléans Railway Company, where he meets up with a childhood friend, Laurent. Laurent visits the Raquins and decides to take up an affair with the lonely Thérèse, mostly because he cannot afford prostitutes any more. However, this soon turns into a torrid love affair.
They meet regularly and secretly in Thérèse's room. After some time, Laurent's boss no longer allows him to leave early, and so the two lovers have to think of something new. Thérèse inspires the idea of killing Camille. They eventually drown him on a boat trip, though in defending himself Camille has bitten Laurent on the neck. Madame Raquin is in shock after hearing the disappearance of her son and everybody believes the story of an accident. But Laurent is still uncertain about whether Camille is truly dead and frequently visits the mortuary, where he finally finds the dead Camille. Thérèse has nightmares and is very subdued, so Michaud—one of the regular visitors of the family—comes up with the idea that Thérèse should marry again and that the ideal husband would be Laurent. They marry but they are haunted by the memory of the murder they had committed. They have hallucinations of the dead Camille in their bedroom every night, preventing them from touching each other and quickly driving them insane. Laurent, who is an artist, can no longer paint a picture (even a landscape) which does not in some way resemble the dead man. They also have to look after Madame Raquin, who suffered a stroke after Camille's death. Madame Raquin suffers a second stroke and becomes completely paralyzed (except for her eyes), after which Therese and Laurent reveal the murder in her presence during an argument.
During an evening's game of dominoes with friends, Madame Raquin manages to move her finger with an extreme effort of will to trace words on the table: "Thérèse et Laurent ont ...". The complete sentence was intended to be "Thérèse et Laurent ont tué Camille" (Thérèse and Laurent killed Camille). At this point her strength gives out, and the words are interpreted as "Thérèse and Laurent look after me very well".
Eventually, Thérèse and Laurent find life together intolerable and plot to kill each other. At the climax of the novel, the two are about to kill one another when each of them realizes the plans of the other. They each then break down sobbing and reflect upon their miserable lives. After having embraced one last time, they each commit suicide by taking poison, all in front of the watchful gaze of Madame Raquin, who enjoys this late vengeance of her son.
- Thérèse Raquin – the eponymous heroine, is the wife of Camille and the orphaned daughter of Madame Raquin's brother and an unknown African woman.
- Camille Raquin – Thérèse's husband and first cousin.
- Madame Raquin – Camille's mother and Thérèse's aunt. She works as a shopkeeper to support her family.
- Laurent LeClaire – a childhood friend and coworker of Camille who seduces Thérèse.
- Michaud – the police commissioner and friend of Madame Raquin
- Olivier – Michaud's son who works at the police prefecture
- Suzanne – Olivier's wife
- Grivet – an elderly employee of the Orléans Railroad Company, where Camille works
- François – the Raquins' cat
Throughout the book there are references to chains, cages, tombs, and pits. These contribute to the impression that Laurent and Thérèse are in a state of remorse and are plagued by guilt. The book mentions how they are always clawing at the chains that bound them together. The shop that Thérèse owns is compared to a tomb, where Therese watches corpses walk by in the day.
In his preface to the second edition, Zola writes that he intended to "study temperaments and not characters." To his main characters, he assigns various humors according to Galen's Four Temperaments: Thérèse is melancholic, Laurent is sanguine, Camille is phlegmatic, and Madame is choleric. For Zola, the interactions of these types of personalities could only have the result that plays out in his plot.
Also in his preface, Zola calls both Thérèse and Laurent "human brutes," and the characters are often given animal tendencies. Zola would take up this idea again in his La Bête humaine of 1890.
Similar to the human beast who acts based on instinct, the mechanical man acts like an "unthinking machine."
Literary significance and reception
Thérèse Raquin is generally considered to be Zola's first major work.
Upon its release in 1867, Thérèse Raquin was a commercial and artistic success for Zola; enough so that it was reprinted in book form in 1868. It gained additional publicity when critic Louis Ulbach (pen name: Ferragus) called Thérèse Raquin "putrid" in a long diatribe, upon which Zola capitalized for publicity and to which he referred in his preface to the second edition.
Film, TV, radio, theatrical
Zola adapted the novel into a play, first staged in 1873. It was not performed in London until 1891, under the auspices of the Independent Theatre Society, since the Lord Chamberlain's Office refused to license it.
Stage productions include:
- 2006 for the Royal National Theatre, London, adaptation written by Nicholas Wright.
- 2007 production of the Nicholas Wright adaptation by Quantum Theatre in Pittsburgh. Staged in the empty swimming pool of the Carnegie Free Library of Braddock
- 2008 production at Riverside Studios, London, adaptation by Pauline McLynn.
- 2009 production at Edinburgh Fringe Festival performed by pupils of The Cheltenham Ladies' College (adapted by Fiona Ross)
- 2014 production touring from Bath, adapted by Helen Edmundson
- 2015 Edmundson adaptation at the Roundabout Theater at Studio 54 (New York City)
The novel was made into several films, including:
- A 1915 silent film adaptation, which was made in Italy. It was directed by Nino Martoglio.
- A 1928 German silent film
- A 1950 BBC adaptation starring Sonia Dresdel as Thérèse.
- A 1953 French adaptation with Simone Signoret.
- A 1956 German made-for-TV movie adaptation.
- A 1965 Swedish made-for-TV movie adaptation.
- A 1966 German made-for-TV movie adaptation.
- A 1977 Mexican TV series adaptation.
- A 1979 Belgian made-for-TV movie adaptation.
- A 1980 BBC serial adaptation starring Kate Nelligan as Thérèse, Brian Cox as Laurent, and Alan Rickman as Vidal (Laurent's artist friend, who is unnamed in the novel).
- A 1985 Italian mini-series adaptation.
- A 1998 BBC Radio 4 radio adaptation starring Anna Massey as Thérèse.
- A 2009 BBC Radio 4, "Classic Serial" adaptation in two parts starring Charlotte Riley as Thérèse and Andrew Buchan as Laurent.
- The 2009 Korean horror film Thirst borrowed a number of plot elements from Thérèse Raquin.
- The 2013 English-language adaptation, In Secret, starring Elizabeth Olsen as Therese, Jessica Lange as Madame Raquin, Oscar Isaac as Laurent and Tom Felton as Camille. Directed by Charlie Stratton.
- The 2014 UK stage adaptation of Thérèse Raquin, with music by Craig Adams and Book and Lyrics by Nona Shepphard, featuring Julie Atherton as Thérèse, Tara Hugo as Madame, Jeremy Legat as Camille and Ben Lewis/Greg Barnett as Laurent. After a sold out run at The Finborough Theatre the Theatre Bench production transferred to Park Theatre in Finsbury Park and was nominated for a West End Frame award. A cast recording was released in 2015.
Neal Bell adapted the novel into a play under the same title. The following represents a short production history of Bell's play. It was first produced at New York University by Playwrights Horizons Theatre School on December 3, 1991, directed by Edward Elefterion, with Katie Bainbridge as the title role. Its first professional production was at the Williamstown Theatre Festival on June 30, 1993, directed by Michael Greif, with Lynn Hawley as Thérèse. On July 10, 1994, Michael Greif, in conjunction with La Jolla Playhouse in California, put up the West Coast premiere with Paul Giamatti in the role of Camille. Its professional New York premiere was on October 27, 1997, at the Classic Stage Company, directed by David Esbjornson, with Elizabeth Marvel as Thérèse Raquin. The Los Angeles premiere was directed by Charlie Stratton, with Leslie Hope as Thérèse
- 1867, France, Lacroix, December 1867, hardback
- 1887, Translation by Ernest A. Vizetelly
- 1962, Penguin Classics translation by L.W. Tancock
- 1992, Oxford World's Classics translation by Andrew Rothwell
- 1995, Penguin Classics translation by Robin Buss
- 2013, Vintage (Random House) translation by Adam Thorpe
- Zola, Émile. "Préface de la deuxième édition." Thérèse Raquin. Paris: Livre de Poche, 1997.
- Pearce JM (1987). "The locked in syndrome". Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 294 (6566): 198–9. doi:10.1136/bmj.294.6566.198. PMC 1245219. PMID 3101806.
- Thérèse Raquin
- Ferragus. "La littérature putride." Le Figaro. January 23, 1868.
- Raquin at the Roundabout
- Bell, Neal. Thérèse Raquin. New York: Broadway Play Publishing INC., 1998.
- Thérèse Raquin at Project Gutenberg (French)
- Theresa Raquin at Project Gutenberg (Vizetelly's English translation)
- Litteratureaudio audio version (French)
- Librivox audio version (Vizetelly's English translation)