# Tha (Indic)

Tha
Example glyphs
Bengali-Assamese
Tibetan
Thai
Malayalam
Sinhala
Ashoka Brahmi
Devanagari
Properties
Phonemic representation/tʰ/
IAST transliterationth Th
ISCII code pointC3 (195)

Tha is a consonant of Indic abugidas. In modern Indic scripts, tha is derived from the early "Ashoka" Brahmi letter after having gone through the Gupta letter .

## Āryabhaṭa numeration

Aryabhata used Devanagari letters for numbers, very similar to the Greek numerals, even after the invention of Indian numerals. The values of the different forms of थ are:[1]

• [tʰə] = 17 (१७)
• थि [tʰɪ] = 1,700 (१ ७००)
• थु [tʰʊ] = 170,000 ( ० ०००)
• थृ [tʰri] = 17,000,000 (१ ७० ०० ०००)
• थॢ [tʰlə] = 17×108 (१७×१०)
• थे [tʰe] = 17×1010 (१७×१०१०)
• थै [tʰɛː] = 17×1012 (१७×१०१२)
• थो [tʰoː] = 17×1014 (१७×१०१४)
• थौ [tʰɔː] = 17×1016 (१७×१०१६)

## Historic Tha

There are three different general early historic scripts - Brahmi and its variants, Kharoṣṭhī, and Tocharian, the so-called slanting Brahmi. Tha as found in standard Brahmi, was a simple geometric shape, with variations toward more flowing forms by the Gupta . The Tocharian Tha did not have an alternate Fremdzeichen form. The third form of tha, in Kharoshthi () was probably derived from Aramaic separately from the Brahmi letter.

### Brahmi Tha

The Brahmi letter , Tha, is probably derived from the Aramaic Teth , and is thus related to the modern Greek Theta.[2] Several identifiable styles of writing the Brahmi Tha can be found, most associated with a specific set of inscriptions from an artifact or diverse records from an historic period.[3] As the earliest and most geometric style of Brahmi, the letters found on the Edicts of Ashoka and other records from around that time are normally the reference form for Brahmi letters, with vowel marks not attested until later forms of Brahmi back-formed to match the geometric writing style.

Brahmi Tha historic forms
Ashoka
(3rd-1st c. BCE)
Girnar
(~150 BCE)
Kushana
(~150-250 CE)
Gujarat
(~250 CE)
Gupta
(~350 CE)

### Tocharian Tha

The Tocharian letter is derived from the Brahmi , but does not have an alternate Fremdzeichen form.

Tocharian Tha with vowel marks
Tha Thā Thi Thī Thu Thū Thr Thr̄ The Thai Tho Thau Thä

### Kharoṣṭhī Tha

The Kharoṣṭhī letter is generally accepted as being derived from the Aramaic Teth , and is thus related to Theta, in addition to the Brahmi Tha.[2]

## Devanagari Tha

Tha () is a consonant of the Devanagari abugida. It ultimately arose from the Brahmi letter , after having gone through the Gupta letter . Letters that derive from it are the Gujarati letter , and the Modi letter 𑘞.

### Devanagari-using Languages

In all languages, थ is pronounced as [tʰə] or [] when appropriate. Like all Indic scripts, Devanagari uses vowel marks attached to the base consonant to override the inherent /ə/ vowel:

Devanagari थ with vowel marks
Tha Thā Thi Thī Thu Thū Thr Thr̄ Thl Thl̄ The Thai Tho Thau Th
था थि थी थु थू थृ थॄ थॢ थॣ थे थै थो थौ थ्

### Conjuncts with थ

Devanagari exhibits conjunct ligatures, as is common in Indic scripts. In modern Devanagari texts, most conjuncts are formed by reducing the letter shape to fit tightly to the following letter, usually by dropping a character's vertical stem, sometimes referred to as a "half form". Some conjunct clusters are always represented by a true ligature, instead of a shape that can be broken into constituent independent letters. Vertically stacked conjuncts are ubiquitous in older texts, while only a few are still used routinely in modern Devanagari texts. The use of ligatures and vertical conjuncts may vary across languages using the Devanagari script, with Marathi in particular preferring the use of half forms where texts in other languages would show ligatures and vertical stacks.[4]

#### Ligature conjuncts of थ

True ligatures are quite rare in Indic scripts. The most common ligated conjuncts in Devanagari are in the form of a slight mutation to fit in context or as a consistent variant form appended to the adjacent characters. Those variants include Na and the Repha and Rakar forms of Ra. Nepali and Marathi texts use the "eyelash" Ra half form for an initial "R" instead of repha.

• Repha र্ (r) + थ (tʰa) gives the ligature rtʰa: note

• Eyelash र্ (r) + थ (tʰa) gives the ligature rtʰa:

• थ্ (tʰ) + न (na) gives the ligature tʰna:

• थ্ (tʰ) + rakar र (ra) gives the ligature tʰra:

#### Stacked conjuncts of थ

Vertically stacked ligatures are the most common conjunct forms found in Devanagari text. Although the constituent characters may need to be stretched and moved slightly in order to stack neatly, stacked conjuncts can be broken down into recognizable base letters, or a letter and an otherwise standard ligature.

• छ্ (cʰ) + थ (tʰa) gives the ligature cʰtʰa:

• ढ্ (ḍʱ) + थ (tʰa) gives the ligature ḍʱtʰa:

• ड্ (ḍ) + थ (tʰa) gives the ligature ḍtʰa:

• द্ (d) + थ (tʰa) gives the ligature dtʰa:

• ङ্ (ŋ) + थ (tʰa) gives the ligature ŋtʰa:

• थ্ (tʰ) + च (ca) gives the ligature tʰca:

• थ্ (tʰ) + ड (ḍa) gives the ligature tʰḍa:

• थ্ (tʰ) + ज্ (j) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature tʰjña:

• थ্ (tʰ) + ल (la) gives the ligature tʰla:

• थ্ (tʰ) + ङ (ŋa) gives the ligature tʰŋa:

• थ্ (tʰ) + ञ (ña) gives the ligature tʰña:

• ठ্ (ṭʰ) + थ (tʰa) gives the ligature ṭʰtʰa:

• ट্ (ṭ) + थ (tʰa) gives the ligature ṭtʰa:

## Bengali Tha

The Bengali script থ is derived from the Siddhaṃ , and is marked by a similar horizontal head line, but less geometric shape, than its Devanagari counterpart, थ. The inherent vowel of Bengali consonant letters is /ɔ/, so the bare letter থ will sometimes be transliterated as "tho" instead of "tha". Adding okar, the "o" vowel mark, gives a reading of /t̪ʰo/. Like all Indic consonants, থ can be modified by marks to indicate another (or no) vowel than its inherent "a".

Bengali থ with vowel marks
tha thā thi thī thu thū thr thr̄ the thai tho thau th
থা থি থী থু থূ থৃ থৄ থে থৈ থো থৌ থ্

### থ in Bengali-using languages

থ is used as a basic consonant character in all of the major Bengali script orthographies, including Bengali and Assamese.

### Conjuncts with থ

Bengali থ exhibits conjunct ligatures, as is common in Indic scripts, with a tendency towards stacked ligatures.[5]

• ন্ (n) + থ (tʰa) gives the ligature ntʰa:

• ন্ (n) + থ্ (tʰ) + র (ra) gives the ligature ntʰra, with the ra phala suffix:

• র্ (r) + থ (tʰa) gives the ligature rtʰa, with the repha prefix:

• র্ (r) + থ্ (tʰ) + য (ya) gives the ligature rtʰya, with the repha prefix and ya phala suffix:

• স্ (s) + থ (tʰa) gives the ligature stʰa:

• স্ (s) + থ্ (tʰ) + য (ya) gives the ligature stʰya, with the ya phala suffix:

• থ্ (tʰ) + র (ra) gives the ligature tʰra, with the ra phala suffix:

• থ্ (tʰ) + ব (va) gives the ligature tʰva, with the va phala suffix:

• থ্ (tʰ) + য (ya) gives the ligature tʰya, with the ya phala suffix:

• ত্ (t) + থ (tʰa) gives the ligature ttʰa:

## Gujarati Tha

Tha () is the seventeenth consonant of the Gujarati abugida. It is derived from the Devanagari Tha with the top bar (shiro rekha) removed, and ultimately the Brahmi letter .

### Gujarati-using Languages

The Gujarati script is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages. In both languages, થ is pronounced as [tʰə] or [] when appropriate. Like all Indic scripts, Gujarati uses vowel marks attached to the base consonant to override the inherent /ə/ vowel:

Tha Thā Thi Thī Thu Thū Thr Thl Thr̄ Thl̄ Thĕ The Thai Thŏ Tho Thau Th
Gujarati Tha syllables, with vowel marks in red.

### Conjuncts with થ

Gujarati થ exhibits conjunct ligatures, much like its parent Devanagari Script. Most Gujarati conjuncts can only be formed by reducing the letter shape to fit tightly to the following letter, usually by dropping a character's vertical stem, sometimes referred to as a "half form". A few conjunct clusters can be represented by a true ligature, instead of a shape that can be broken into constituent independent letters, and vertically stacked conjuncts can also be found in Gujarati, although much less commonly than in Devanagari. True ligatures are quite rare in Indic scripts. The most common ligated conjuncts in Gujarati are in the form of a slight mutation to fit in context or as a consistent variant form appended to the adjacent characters. Those variants include Na and the Repha and Rakar forms of Ra.

• ર્ (r) + થ (tʰa) gives the ligature RTha:

• થ્ (tʰ) + ર (ra) gives the ligature ThRa:

• થ્ (tʰ) + ન (na) gives the ligature ThNa:

## Telugu Tha

Telugu independent and subjoined Tha.

Tha () is a consonant of the Telugu abugida. It ultimately arose from the Brahmi letter . It is closely related to the Kannada letter . Most Telugu consonants contain a v-shaped headstroke that is related to the horizontal headline found in other Indic scripts, although headstrokes do not connect adjacent letters in Telugu. The headstroke is normally lost when adding vowel matras. Telugu conjuncts are created by reducing trailing letters to a subjoined form that appears below the initial consonant of the conjunct. Many subjoined forms are created by dropping their headline, with many extending the end of the stroke of the main letter body to form an extended tail reaching up to the right of the preceding consonant. This subjoining of trailing letters to create conjuncts is in contrast to the leading half forms of Devanagari and Bengali letters. Ligature conjuncts are not a feature in Telugu, with the only non-standard construction being an alternate subjoined form of Ṣa (borrowed from Kannada) in the KṢa conjunct.

## Malayalam Tha

Tha () is a consonant of the Malayalam abugida. It ultimately arose from the Brahmi letter , via the Grantha letter Tha. Like in other Indic scripts, Malayalam consonants have the inherent vowel "a", and take one of several modifying vowel signs to represent syllables with another vowel or no vowel at all.

### Conjuncts of ഥ

As is common in Indic scripts, Malayalam joins letters together to form conjunct consonant clusters. There are several ways in which conjuncts are formed in Malayalam texts: using a post-base form of a trailing consonant placed under the initial consonant of a conjunct, a combined ligature of two or more consonants joined together, a conjoining form that appears as a combining mark on the rest of the conjunct, the use of an explicit candrakkala mark to suppress the inherent "a" vowel, or a special consonant form called a "chillu" letter, representing a bare consonant without the inherent "a" vowel. Texts written with the modern reformed Malayalam orthography, put̪iya lipi, may favor more regular conjunct forms than older texts in paḻaya lipi, due to changes undertaken in the 1970s by the Government of Kerala.

• ത് (t) + ഥ (tʰa) gives the ligature ttʰa:

• ന് (n) + ഥ (tʰa) gives the ligature ntʰa:

• സ് (s) + ഥ (tʰa) gives the ligature stʰa:

## Odia Tha

Odia independent and subjoined letter Tha.

Tha () is a consonant of the Odia abugida. It ultimately arose from the Brahmi letter , via the Siddhaṃ letter Tha. Like in other Indic scripts, Odia consonants have the inherent vowel "a", and take one of several modifying vowel signs to represent syllables with another vowel or no vowel at all. Like other Oriya letters with an open top, ଥ takes the subjoined matra form of the vowel i (ଇ):

Odia Tha with vowel matras
Tha Thā Thi Thī Thu Thū Thr̥ Thr̥̄ Thl̥ Thl̥̄ The Thai Tho Thau Th
ଥା ଥି ଥୀ ଥୁ ଥୂ ଥୃ ଥୄ ଥୢ ଥୣ ଥେ ଥୈ ଥୋ ଥୌ ଥ୍

As is common in Indic scripts, Odia joins letters together to form conjunct consonant clusters. The most common conjunct formation is achieved by using a small subjoined form of trailing consonants. Most consonants' subjoined forms are identical to the full form, just reduced in size, although a few drop the curved headline or have a subjoined form not directly related to the full form of the consonant. The second type of conjunct formation is through pure ligatures, where the constituent consonants are written together in a single graphic form. ଥ generates conjuncts only by subjoining and does not form ligatures. The subjoined form of ଥ is identical to a subjoined form of Cha used in limited contexts.

## Kaithi Tha

Kaithi consonant and half-form Tha.

Tha (𑂟) is a consonant of the Kaithi abugida. It ultimately arose from the Brahmi letter , via the Siddhaṃ letter Tha. Like in other Indic scripts, Kaithi consonants have the inherent vowel "a", and take one of several modifying vowel signs to represent syllables with another vowel or no vowel at all.

Kaithi Tha with vowel matras
Tha Thā Thi Thī Thu Thū The Thai Tho Thau Th
𑂟 𑂟𑂰 𑂟𑂱 𑂟𑂲 𑂟𑂳 𑂟𑂴 𑂟𑂵 𑂟𑂶 𑂟𑂷 𑂟𑂸 𑂟𑂹

### Conjuncts of 𑂟

As is common in Indic scripts, Kaithi joins letters together to form conjunct consonant clusters. The most common conjunct formation is achieved by using a half form of preceding consonants, although several consonants use an explicit virama. Most half forms are derived from the full form by removing the vertical stem. As is common in most Indic scripts, conjucts of ra are indicated with a repha or rakar mark attached to the rest of the consonant cluster. In addition, there are a few vertical conjuncts that can be found in Kaithi writing, but true ligatures are not used in the modern Kaithi script.

• 𑂟୍ (tʰ) + 𑂩 (ra) gives the ligature tʰra:

• 𑂩୍ (r) + 𑂟 (tʰa) gives the ligature rtʰa:

## Comparison of Tha

The various Indic scripts are generally related to each other through adaptation and borrowing, and as such the glyphs for cognate letters, including Tha, are related as well.

Comparison of Tha in different scripts
 Aramaic Kharoṣṭhī 𐨠 Ashoka Brahmi Kushana Brahmi[a] Tocharian[b] Gupta Brahmi Pallava Kadamba - Bhaiksuki 𑰞 Siddhaṃ Grantha 𑌥 Cham ꨔ Sinhala ථ Pyu /Old Mon[c] - Tibetan Newa 𑐠 Ahom 𑜌 Malayalam ഥ Telugu థ Burmese ထ Lepcha ᰋ Ranjana Saurashtra ꢢ Dives Akuru 𑤜 Kannada ಥ Kayah Li ꤓ Limbu ᤌ Soyombo[d] 𑩬 Khmer ថ Tamil - Chakma 𑄗 Tai Tham ᨳ Meitei Mayek ꯊ Gaudi - Thai ถ Lao ຖ Tai Le ᥗ Marchen 𑱻 Tirhuta 𑒟 New Tai Lue ᦏ Tai Viet ꪖ / ꪗ Aksara Kawi 'Phags-pa ꡉ Odia ଥ Sharada 𑆡 Rejang - Batak - Buginese - Zanabazar Square 𑨚 Bengali-Assamese Takri 𑚚 Javanese ꦡ Balinese ᬣ Makasar - Hangul[e] - Northern Nagari - Dogri 𑠚 Laṇḍā - Sundanese - Baybayin - Modi 𑘞 Gujarati થ Khojki 𑈚 Khudabadi 𑋎 Mahajani 𑅤 Tagbanwa - Devanagari Nandinagari 𑦾 Kaithi Gurmukhi ਥ Multani 𑊗 Buhid - Canadian Syllabics[f] - Soyombo[g] 𑩬 Sylheti Nagari ꠕ Gunjala Gondi 𑵴 Masaram Gondi[h] 𑴜 Hanuno'o -
Notes
1. ^ The middle "Kushana" form of Brahmi is a later style that emerged as Brahmi scripts were beginning to proliferate. Gupta Brahmi was definitely a stylistic descendant from Kushana, but other Brahmi-derived scripts may have descended from earlier forms.
2. ^ Tocharian is probably derived from the middle period "Kushana" form of Brahmi, although artifacts from that time are not plentiful enough to establish a definite succession.
3. ^ Pyu and Old Mon are probably the precursors of the Burmese script, and may be derived from either the Pallava or Kadamba script
4. ^ May also be derived from Devangari (see bottom left of table)
5. ^ The Origin of Hangul from 'Phags-pa is one of limited influence, inspiring at most a few basic letter shapes. Hangul does not function as an Indic abugida.
6. ^ Although the basic letter forms of the Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics were derived from handwritten Devanagari letters, this abugida indicates vowel sounds by rotations of the letter form, rather than the use of vowel diacritics as is standard in Indic abugidas.
7. ^ May also be derived from Ranjana (see above)
8. ^ Masaram Gondi acts as an Indic abugida, but its letterforms were not derived from any single precursor script.

## Character encodings of Tha

Most Indic scripts are encoded in the Unicode Standard, and as such the letter Tha in those scripts can be represented in plain text with unique codepoint. Tha from several modern-use scripts can also be found in legacy encodings, such as ISCII.

Character information
Preview
Unicode name DEVANAGARI LETTER THA BENGALI LETTER THA TELUGU LETTER THA ORIYA LETTER THA KANNADA LETTER THA MALAYALAM LETTER THA GUJARATI LETTER THA GURMUKHI LETTER THA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 2341 U+0925 2469 U+09A5 3109 U+0C25 2853 U+0B25 3237 U+0CA5 3365 U+0D25 2725 U+0AA5 2597 U+0A25
UTF-8 224 164 165 E0 A4 A5 224 166 165 E0 A6 A5 224 176 165 E0 B0 A5 224 172 165 E0 AC A5 224 178 165 E0 B2 A5 224 180 165 E0 B4 A5 224 170 165 E0 AA A5 224 168 165 E0 A8 A5
Numeric character reference &#2341; &#x925; &#2469; &#x9A5; &#3109; &#xC25; &#2853; &#xB25; &#3237; &#xCA5; &#3365; &#xD25; &#2725; &#xAA5; &#2597; &#xA25;
ISCII 195 C3 195 C3 195 C3 195 C3 195 C3 195 C3 195 C3 195 C3

Character information
Preview
Ashoka
Kushana
Gupta
𐨠 𑌥
Unicode name BRAHMI LETTER THA KHAROSHTHI LETTER THA SIDDHAM LETTER THA GRANTHA LETTER THA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 69667 U+11023 68128 U+10A20 71070 U+1159E 70437 U+11325
UTF-8 240 145 128 163 F0 91 80 A3 240 144 168 160 F0 90 A8 A0 240 145 150 158 F0 91 96 9E 240 145 140 165 F0 91 8C A5
UTF-16 55300 56355 D804 DC23 55298 56864 D802 DE20 55301 56734 D805 DD9E 55300 57125 D804 DF25
Numeric character reference &#69667; &#x11023; &#68128; &#x10A20; &#71070; &#x1159E; &#70437; &#x11325;

Character information
Preview 𑨚 𑐠 𑰞 𑆡
Unicode name TIBETAN LETTER THA TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER THA PHAGS-PA LETTER THA ZANABAZAR SQUARE LETTER THA NEWA LETTER THA BHAIKSUKI LETTER THA SHARADA LETTER THA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 3920 U+0F50 4000 U+0FA0 43081 U+A849 72218 U+11A1A 70688 U+11420 72734 U+11C1E 70049 U+111A1
UTF-8 224 189 144 E0 BD 90 224 190 160 E0 BE A0 234 161 137 EA A1 89 240 145 168 154 F0 91 A8 9A 240 145 144 160 F0 91 90 A0 240 145 176 158 F0 91 B0 9E 240 145 134 161 F0 91 86 A1
UTF-16 3920 0F50 4000 0FA0 43081 A849 55302 56858 D806 DE1A 55301 56352 D805 DC20 55303 56350 D807 DC1E 55300 56737 D804 DDA1
Numeric character reference &#3920; &#xF50; &#4000; &#xFA0; &#43081; &#xA849; &#72218; &#x11A1A; &#70688; &#x11420; &#72734; &#x11C1E; &#70049; &#x111A1;

Character information
Preview
Unicode name MYANMAR LETTER THA TAI THAM LETTER HIGH THA NEW TAI LUE LETTER HIGH THA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 4113 U+1011 6707 U+1A33 6543 U+198F
UTF-8 225 128 145 E1 80 91 225 168 179 E1 A8 B3 225 166 143 E1 A6 8F
Numeric character reference &#4113; &#x1011; &#6707; &#x1A33; &#6543; &#x198F;

Character information
Preview
Unicode name KHMER LETTER THA LAO LETTER THO SUNG THAI CHARACTER THO THUNG TAI VIET LETTER LOW THO TAI VIET LETTER HIGH THO
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 6032 U+1790 3734 U+0E96 3606 U+0E16 43670 U+AA96 43671 U+AA97
UTF-8 225 158 144 E1 9E 90 224 186 150 E0 BA 96 224 184 150 E0 B8 96 234 170 150 EA AA 96 234 170 151 EA AA 97
Numeric character reference &#6032; &#x1790; &#3734; &#xE96; &#3606; &#xE16; &#43670; &#xAA96; &#43671; &#xAA97;

Character information
Preview 𑄗 𑜌 𑤜
Unicode name SINHALA LETTER MAHAAPRAANA TAYANNA KAYAH LI LETTER HTA CHAKMA LETTER THAA TAI LE LETTER THA AHOM LETTER THA DIVES AKURU LETTER THA SAURASHTRA LETTER THA CHAM LETTER THA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 3502 U+0DAE 43283 U+A913 69911 U+11117 6487 U+1957 71436 U+1170C 71964 U+1191C 43170 U+A8A2 43540 U+AA14
UTF-8 224 182 174 E0 B6 AE 234 164 147 EA A4 93 240 145 132 151 F0 91 84 97 225 165 151 E1 A5 97 240 145 156 140 F0 91 9C 8C 240 145 164 156 F0 91 A4 9C 234 162 162 EA A2 A2 234 168 148 EA A8 94
UTF-16 3502 0DAE 43283 A913 55300 56599 D804 DD17 6487 1957 55301 57100 D805 DF0C 55302 56604 D806 DD1C 43170 A8A2 43540 AA14
Numeric character reference &#3502; &#xDAE; &#43283; &#xA913; &#69911; &#x11117; &#6487; &#x1957; &#71436; &#x1170C; &#71964; &#x1191C; &#43170; &#xA8A2; &#43540; &#xAA14;

Character information
Preview 𑘞 𑦾 𑩬 𑵴
Unicode name MODI LETTER THA NANDINAGARI LETTER THA SOYOMBO LETTER THA SYLOTI NAGRI LETTER THO GUNJALA GONDI LETTER THA KAITHI LETTER THA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 71198 U+1161E 72126 U+119BE 72300 U+11A6C 43029 U+A815 73076 U+11D74 69791 U+1109F
UTF-8 240 145 152 158 F0 91 98 9E 240 145 166 190 F0 91 A6 BE 240 145 169 172 F0 91 A9 AC 234 160 149 EA A0 95 240 145 181 180 F0 91 B5 B4 240 145 130 159 F0 91 82 9F
UTF-16 55301 56862 D805 DE1E 55302 56766 D806 DDBE 55302 56940 D806 DE6C 43029 A815 55303 56692 D807 DD74 55300 56479 D804 DC9F
Numeric character reference &#71198; &#x1161E; &#72126; &#x119BE; &#72300; &#x11A6C; &#43029; &#xA815; &#73076; &#x11D74; &#69791; &#x1109F;

Character information
Preview 𑒟 𑱻
Unicode name TIRHUTA LETTER THA LEPCHA LETTER THA LIMBU LETTER THA MEETEI MAYEK LETTER THOU MARCHEN LETTER THA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 70815 U+1149F 7179 U+1C0B 6412 U+190C 43978 U+ABCA 72827 U+11C7B
UTF-8 240 145 146 159 F0 91 92 9F 225 176 139 E1 B0 8B 225 164 140 E1 A4 8C 234 175 138 EA AF 8A 240 145 177 187 F0 91 B1 BB
UTF-16 55301 56479 D805 DC9F 7179 1C0B 6412 190C 43978 ABCA 55303 56443 D807 DC7B
Numeric character reference &#70815; &#x1149F; &#7179; &#x1C0B; &#6412; &#x190C; &#43978; &#xABCA; &#72827; &#x11C7B;

Character information
Preview 𑚚 𑠚 𑈚 𑋎 𑅤 𑊗
Unicode name TAKRI LETTER THA DOGRA LETTER THA KHOJKI LETTER THA KHUDAWADI LETTER THA MAHAJANI LETTER THA MULTANI LETTER THA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 71322 U+1169A 71706 U+1181A 70170 U+1121A 70350 U+112CE 69988 U+11164 70295 U+11297
UTF-8 240 145 154 154 F0 91 9A 9A 240 145 160 154 F0 91 A0 9A 240 145 136 154 F0 91 88 9A 240 145 139 142 F0 91 8B 8E 240 145 133 164 F0 91 85 A4 240 145 138 151 F0 91 8A 97
UTF-16 55301 56986 D805 DE9A 55302 56346 D806 DC1A 55300 56858 D804 DE1A 55300 57038 D804 DECE 55300 56676 D804 DD64 55300 56983 D804 DE97
Numeric character reference &#71322; &#x1169A; &#71706; &#x1181A; &#70170; &#x1121A; &#70350; &#x112CE; &#69988; &#x11164; &#70295; &#x11297;

Character information
Preview
Unicode name BALINESE LETTER TA TAWA JAVANESE LETTER TA MURDA
Encodings decimal hex dec hex
Unicode 6947 U+1B23 43425 U+A9A1
UTF-8 225 172 163 E1 AC A3 234 166 161 EA A6 A1
Numeric character reference &#6947; &#x1B23; &#43425; &#xA9A1;

Character information
Preview 𑴜
Unicode name MASARAM GONDI LETTER THA
Encodings decimal hex
Unicode 72988 U+11D1C
UTF-8 240 145 180 156 F0 91 B4 9C
UTF-16 55303 56604 D807 DD1C
Numeric character reference &#72988; &#x11D1C;

## References

1. ^ Ifrah, Georges (2000). The Universal History of Numbers. From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer. New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 447–450. ISBN 0-471-39340-1.
2. ^ a b Bühler, Georg (1898). "On the Origin of the Indian Brahmi Alphabet". archive.org. Karl J. Trübner. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
3. ^ Evolutionary chart, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal Vol 7, 1838 [1]
4. ^ Pall, Peeter. "Microsoft Word - kblhi2" (PDF). Eesti Keele Instituudi kohanimeandmed. Eesti Keele Instituudi kohanimeandmed. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
5. ^ "The Bengali Alphabet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-09-28.
^note Conjuncts are identified by IAST transliteration, except aspirated consonants are indicated with a superscript "h" to distinguish from an unaspirated cononant + Ha, and the use of the IPA "ŋ" and "ʃ" instead of the less dinstinctive "ṅ" and "ś".