Thado Minsaw of Prome
|Thado Minsaw of Prome
|King of Prome|
|Predecessor||Mingyi Swa (as Viceroy)|
|Governor of Tharrawaddy|
|Reign||1459 – 1482|
|Consort||Myat Hpone Pyo of Prome
Saw Myat Lay
|Father||Narapati I of Ava|
|Mother||Atula Thiri Maha Yaza Dewi of Ava|
Thado Minsaw of Prome (Burmese: သတိုးမင်းစော, pronounced: [ðədó mɪ́ɴsɔ́]; died 1526) was the founder of Prome Kingdom, and reigned the minor kingdom from 1482 to 1526. In 1524, he entered into an alliance with the Confederation of Shan States, and participated in the 1525 sack of Ava (Inwa).
Ancestry and early life
|Ancestry of Thado Minsaw|
He had two elder brothers, four elder sisters and a younger sister. He was married to his first cousin Myat Hpone Pyo, who was the youngest daughter of his maternal uncle Minye Kyawswa II, governor of Prome. He grew up in Ava until 1459 when his father appointed him governor of Tharrawaddy, the southernmost town on the border with the Hanthawaddy Kingdom.
Governor of Tharrawaddy
His first dozen years at Tharrawaddy were non-eventful. He was reappointed to the post when his eldest brother Thihathura I succeeded the Ava throne in 1468. In late 1472/early 1473, Thado Minsaw entered into an alliance with his elder brother Mingyi Swa, the viceroy of Prome, to raise a rebellion against their brother. They expected to receive military aid from King Dhammazedi of Hanthawaddy but the plan did not materialize. Both brothers submitted to Thihathura in February 1473.[note 1] Thihathura forgave his brothers and reappointed them to their former positions.
King of Prome
After Thihathura died in 1480, the new king Minkhaung II was greeted by a major rebellion by his brother Minye Kyawswa, the governor of Yamethin. In 1482, Thado Minsaw's another elder brother viceroy of Prome, Mingyi Swa also died. Thado Minsaw took advantage of the war between his nephews Minkhaung II and Minye Kyawswa in Upper Burma by taking over Prome, and declaring himself independent. He raised his brother Mingyi Swa's chief queen Saw Myat Lay as his chief queen. Minkhaung II managed to send an army to reclaim Prome. But the Avan army could not take Prome, and retreated after a month. Ava could not send another force again as the much more serious Yamethin rebellion (and rebellions by the Shan States of Mohnyin and Kale) consumed its resources for the next two decades. Prome became an independent kingdom with territories that included Tharrawaddy in the south and Myede in the north.
Thado Minsaw largely stayed out of the fighting in Upper Burma. He forged a peaceful relationship with Hanthawaddy, the most powerful kingdom in the region. He changed his policy in the 1520s when Ava was on its last legs suffering from the sustained assaults by Confederation of Shan States. He entered into a league with Sawlon, the confederation's leader. On 22 March 1525 (14th waning of Tabaung 886 ME), the combined armies of Confederation and Prome sacked the city of Ava. The king of Ava, Shwenankyawshin, who was Thado Minsaw's grandnephew, escaped. Prome and Confederation forces looted the city. The Prome armies brought back the famed poet monk Shin Maha Rattathara. Prome remained in a league with the Confederation, which continued its attacks on Ava.
- (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 102): Tabaung 834 ME = 28 January 1473 to 26 February 1473
- Chronicles (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 215) simply say that he died in 888 ME (30 March 1526 to 29 March 1527). But based on the chronicles' reporting elsewhere, he died sometime between 30 March 1526 and October 1526 for the following reasons. First, chronicles say his successor Bayin Htwe ruled for six years. Since Bayin Htwe surrendered in late 1532, it means he came to power in 1526. Secondly, Chronicles say Bayin Htwe was attacked by the Confederation because he did not send help in the Confederation's assault on Ava, which began in November 1526.
- Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 215
- Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 84
- Maha Yazawin Vol. 2 2006: 84
- Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 101–102
- Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 113–114
- Maha Yazawin Vol. 2 2006: 93–97
- Sein Lwin Lay 2006: 105–106
- Harvey 1925: 106–107
- Harvey, G. E. (1925). History of Burma: From the Earliest Times to 10 March 1824. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd.
- Kala, U (1724). Maha Yazawin (in Burmese). 1–3 (2006, 4th printing ed.). Yangon: Ya-Pyei Publishing.
- Royal Historical Commission of Burma (1832). Hmannan Yazawin (in Burmese). 1–3 (2003 ed.). Yangon: Ministry of Information, Myanmar.
- Sein Lwin Lay, Kahtika U (1968). Mintaya Shwe Hti and Bayinnaung: Ketumadi Taungoo Yazawin (in Burmese) (2006, 2nd printing ed.). Yangon: Yan Aung Sarpay.
Thado Minsaw of PromeBorn: 1440s Died: 1526
|King of Prome
|Governor of Tharrawaddy