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Thaha Syaifuddin (1816–1904) became Sultan of Jambi in 1855. However, he refused to renew treaties imposed on his predecessors by the Dutch, who invaded Jambi in 1858 and imposed a series of sultans who, under Dutch control, reigned over much of the sultanate until 1899. Thaha, however, continued to claim the sultanate and to rule over its less accessible parts until he was killed by Dutch soldiers in 1904. In 1977, he was elevated to National Hero of Indonesia, the country's highest honor.
- Ricklefs, Merle Calvin (2001). A History of Modern Indonesia Since C. 1200. Stanford University Press. p. 182. ISBN 9780804744805. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Kerlogue, Fiona G (2004). "Jambi". In Ooi, Keat Gin. Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 678. ISBN 9781576077702. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- "Daftar Nama Pahlawan Nasional Republik Indonesia (2)" [List of Names of National Heroes of the Republic of Indonesia (2)]. Awards of the Republic of Indonesia (in Indonesian). Indonesian State Secretariat. Archived from the original on 17 February 2013. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
- Mirnawati (2012). Kumpulan Pahlawan Indonesia Terlengkap [Most Complete Collection of Indonesian Heroes] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: CIF. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-979-788-343-0.