Buddhism in Thailand

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Buddhism in Thailand is largely of the Theravada school, which is followed by 90% of the population. Buddhism in Thailand has also become integrated with folk religion[1] as well as Chinese religions from the large Thai Chinese population.[2] Buddhist temples in Thailand are characterized by tall golden stupas, and the Buddhist architecture of Thailand is similar to that in other Southeast Asian countries, particularly Cambodia and Laos, with which Thailand shares cultural and historical heritage.

Historical background[edit]

Thai depiction of Maitreya Bodhisattva. 8th century CE

Early traditions[edit]

During the 5th to 13th centuries, Southeast Asian empires were influenced directly from India and followed Mahayana Buddhism. The Chinese pilgrim Yijing noted in his travels that in these areas, all major sects of Indian Buddhism flourished.[3] Srivijaya to the south and the Khmer Empire to the north competed for influence and their art expressed the rich Mahāyāna pantheon of bodhisattvas. From the 9th to the 13th centuries, the Mahāyāna and Hindu Khmer Empire dominated much of the Southeast Asian peninsula. Under the Khmer Empire, more than 900 temples were built in Cambodia and in neighboring Thailand.

After the decline of Buddhism in India, missions of Sinhalese monks gradually converted the Mon people and the Pyu city-states from Ari Buddhism to Theravāda and over the next two centuries also brought Theravāda Buddhism to the Bamar people, Thailand, Laos and Cambodia, where it supplanted previous forms of Buddhism.[4] Theravada Buddhism was made the state religion only with the establishment of the Sukhothai Kingdom in the 13th century.[5]

13th–19th centuries[edit]

Thai novice monks

The details of the history of Buddhism in Thailand from the 13th to the 19th century are obscure, in part because few historical records or religious texts survived the Burmese destruction of Ayutthaya, the capital city of the kingdom, in 1767. The anthropologist-historian S. J. Tambiah, however, has suggested a general pattern for that era, at least with respect to the relations between Buddhism and the sangha on the one hand and the king on the other hand. In Thailand, as in other Theravada Buddhist kingdoms, the king was in principle thought of as patron and protector of the religion (sasana) and the sangha, while sasana and the sangha were considered in turn the treasures of the polity and the signs of its legitimacy. Religion and polity, however, remained separate domains, and in ordinary times the organizational links between the sangha and the king were not close.[5]

Replica of Ashok pillar at Wat Umong in Chiang Mai, Thailand, 13th century. Shows the establishment of Buddhism by Lanna Dynasty's King Mangrai in northern Thailand

Among the chief characteristics of Thai kingdoms and principalities in the centuries before 1800 were the tendency to expand and contract, problems of succession, and the changing scope of the king's authority. In effect, some Thai kings had greater power over larger territories, others less, and almost invariably a king who sought successfully to expand his power also exercised greater control over the sangha. That control was coupled with greater support and patronage of the ecclesiastical hierarchy. When a king was weak, however, protection and supervision of the sangha also weakened, and the sangha declined. This fluctuating pattern appears to have continued until the emergence of the Chakri Dynasty in the last quarter of the 18th century.[5]

Modern era[edit]

Buddhist monk chants paritta to a group of Siamese women in 1900.

By the 19th century, and especially with the coming to power in 1851 of King Mongkut, who had been a monk himself for twenty-seven years, the sangha, like the kingdom, became steadily more centralized and hierarchical in nature and its links to the state more institutionalized. As a monk, Mongkut was a distinguished scholar of Pali Buddhist scripture. Moreover, at that time the immigration of numbers of monks from Burma was introducing the more rigorous discipline characteristic of the Mon sangha. Influenced by the Mon and guided by his own understanding of the Tipitaka, Mongkut began a reform movement that later became the basis for the Dhammayuttika order of monks. Under the reform, all practices having no authority other than custom were to be abandoned, canonical regulations were to be followed not mechanically but in spirit, and acts intended to improve an individual's standing on the road to nirvana but having no social value were rejected. This more rigorous discipline was adopted in its entirety by only a small minority of monasteries and monks. The Mahanikaya order, perhaps somewhat influenced by Mongkut's reforms but with a less exacting discipline than the Dhammayuttika order, comprised about 95 percent of all monks in 1970 and probably about the same percentage in the late 1980s. In any case, Mongkut was in a position to regularize and tighten the relations between monarchy and sangha at a time when the monarchy was expanding its control over the country in general and developing the kind of bureaucracy necessary to such control. The administrative and sangha reforms that Mongkut started were continued by his successor. In 1902 King Chulalongkorn (Rama V, 1868–1910) made the new sangha hierarchy formal and permanent through the Sangha Law of 1902, which remained the foundation of sangha administration in modern Thailand.[5]

Influences[edit]

See also: Thai folklore
Detail of the entrance gate of Wat Phra That Lampang Luang

Three major forces have influenced the development of Buddhism in Thailand. The most visible influence is that of the Theravada school of Buddhism, imported from Sri Lanka. While there are significant local and regional variations, the Theravada school provides most of the major themes of Thai Buddhism. By tradition, Pāli is the language of religion in Thailand. Scriptures are recorded in Pāli, using either the modern Thai script or the older Khom and Tham scripts. Pāli is also used in religious liturgy, despite the fact that most Thais understand very little of this ancient language. The Pāli Tipiṭaka is the primary religious text of Thailand, though many local texts have been composed in order to summarise the vast number of teachings found in the Tipiṭaka. The monastic code (Pātimokkha) followed by Thai monks is taken from the Pāli Theravada Canon.

The second major influence on Thai Buddhism is Hindu beliefs received from Cambodia, particularly during the Sukhothai Kingdom. Hinduism played a strong role in the early Thai institution of kingship, just as it did in Cambodia, and exerted influence in the creation of laws and order for Thai society as well as Thai religion. Certain rituals practiced in modern Thailand, either by monks or by Hindu ritual specialists, are either explicitly identified as Hindu in origin, or are easily seen to be derived from Hindu practices. While the visibility of Hinduism in Thai society has been diminished substantially during the Chakri Dynasty, Hindu influences, particularly shrines to the god Brahma, continue to be seen in and around Buddhist institutions and ceremonies.

A bhikkhu chants evening prayers inside a monastery located near the town of Kantharalak, Thailand

Folk religion—attempts to propitiate and attract the favor of local spirits known as phi—forms the third major influence on Thai Buddhism. While Western observers (as well as urbane and Western-educated Thais) have often drawn a clear line between Thai Buddhism and folk religious practices, this distinction is rarely observed in more rural locales. Spiritual power derived from the observance of Buddhist precepts and rituals is employed in attempting to appease local nature spirits. Many restrictions observed by rural Buddhist monks are derived not from the orthodox Vinaya, but from taboos derived from the practice of folk magic. Astrology, numerology, and the creation of talismans and charms also play a prominent role in Buddhism as practiced by the average Thai—practices that are proscribed in Buddhist texts (see Digha Nikaya 2, ff).

Additionally, more minor influences can be observed stemming from contact with Mahayana Buddhism. Early Buddhism in Thailand is thought to have been derived from an unknown Mahayana tradition. While Mahayana Buddhism was gradually eclipsed in Thailand, certain features of Thai Buddhism—such as the appearance of the bodhisattva Lokeśvara in some Thai religious architecture, and the belief that the king of Thailand is a bodhisattva himself—reveal the influence of Mahayana concepts.

Budai, Wat Don Phra Chao, Yasothon, Thailand

The only other bodhisattva prominent in Thai religion is Maitreya, often depicted in Budai form, and often confused with Phra Sangkajai (Thai: พระสังกัจจายน์), a similar but different figure in Thai Buddhist folklore. Images of one or both can be found in many Thai Buddhist temples, and on amulets as well. Thai may pray to be reborn during the time of Maitreya, or dedicate merit from worship activities to that end.

In modern times, additional Mahayana influence has stemmed from the presence of Overseas Chinese in Thai society. While some Chinese have "converted" to Thai-style Theravada Buddhism, many others maintain their own separate temples in the East Asian Mahayana tradition. The growing popularity of Guanyin, a form of Avalokiteśvara, may be attributed to the Chinese presence in Thailand.

Government ties[edit]

While Thailand is currently a constitutional monarchy, it inherited a strong Southeast Asian tradition of Buddhist kingship that tied the legitimacy of the state to its protection and support for Buddhist institutions. This connection has been maintained into the modern era, with Buddhist institutions and clergy being granted special benefits by the government, as well as being subjected to a certain amount of government oversight.

In addition to the ecclesiastic leadership of the sangha, a secular government ministry supervises Buddhist temples and monks. The legal status of Buddhist sects and reform movements has been an issue of contention in some cases, particularly in the case of Santi Asoke, which was legally forbidden from calling itself a Buddhist denomination, and in the case of the ordination of women attempting to revive the Theravada bhikkhuni lineage have been prosecuted for attempting to impersonate members of the clergy.[citation needed]

To obtain a passport for travel abroad, a monk must have an official letter from Sangha Supreme Council granting the applicant permission to travel abroad; Buddhist monk identification card; a copy of House/Temple Registration; and submit any previous Thai Passport or a certified copy thereof.[6]

In addition to state support and recognition—-in the form of formal gifts to monasteries made by government officials and the royal family (for example, Kathin)—-a number of special rights are conferred upon Buddhist monks. They are granted free passage on public transportation, and most train stations and airports have special seating sections reserved for members of the clergy. Conversely, ordained monastics are forbidden from standing for office or voting in elections.

Calls for state establishment[edit]

In 2007, calls were made by some Thais for Buddhism to be recognized in the new national constitution as a state religion. This suggestion was initially rejected by the committee charged with drafting the new constitution.[7] This move prompted a number of protests from supporters of the initiative, including a number of marches on the capital and a hunger strike by twelve Buddhist monks.[8] Some critics of the plan, including scholar and social critic Sulak Sivaraksa, have claimed that the movement to declare Buddhism a national religion is motivated by political gain, and may be being manipulated by supporters of ousted Prime Minister Thaksin Sinawatra.[8]

The Constitution Drafting Committee later voted against the special status of Buddhism, provoking the religious groups. The groups condemned the Committee and the constitution draft.[9] On August 11, Sirikit, the Queen of Thailand, expressed her concern over the issue. According to her birthday speech, Buddhism is beyond politics. Some Buddhist organizations announced a halt to the campaigns the next day.[10]

Government service[edit]

No law directly prohibits a member of the Buddhist institutions, such as a monk, a novice and a nun, from being a candidate in an examination for recruitment of government officers. Though both the Council of Ministers and the Sangha Supreme Council, the supervising body of the Thai Buddhist communities, have ordered such prohibition on grounds of appropriateness, according to the Memorandum of the Cabinet's Administrative Department No. NW98/2501 dated 27 June 1958 and the Order of the Sangha Supreme Council dated 17 March 1995.[11]

Elections[edit]

The members of the Buddhist community and the communities of other religions are not entitled to elect or be elected as a holder of any government post. For instance, the 2007 Constitution disfranchises "a Buddhist monk, a Buddhist novice, a priest or a clergy member" ("ภิกษุ สามเณร นักบวช หรือนักพรต").[12]

The Sangha Supreme Council also declared the same prohibition, pursuant to its Order dated 17 March 1995.[13] At the end of the Order was a statement of grounds given by Nyanasamvara, the Supreme Patriarch. The statement said:[13]

"The members of the Buddhist community are called samaṇa, one who is pacified, and also pabbajita, one who refrains from worldly activities. They are thus needed to carefully conduct themselves in a peaceful and unblamable manner, for their own sake and for the sake of their community. ... The seeking of the representatives of the citizens to form the House of Representatives is purely the business of the State and specifically the duty of the laity according to the laws. This is not the duty of the monks and novices who must be above the politics. They are therefore not entitled to elect or be elected. And, for this reason, any person who has been elected as a Representative will lose his membership immediately after becoming a Buddhist monk or novice. This indicates that the monkhood and noviceship are not appropriate for politics in every respect. ...

"When a monk or novice is involved in or supports an election of any person..., the monk or novice is deemed to have breached the unusual conduct of pabbajita and brought about disgrace to himself as well as his community and the Religion. Such a monk or novice would be condemned by the reasonable persons who are and are not the members of this Religion. A pabbajita is therefore expected to stay in impartiality and take a pity on every person...without discrimination. Moreover, the existence of both the monks and the Religion relies upon public respect. As a result, the monks and novices ought to behave in such a way that deserves respect of the general public, not merely a specific group of persons. A monk or novice who is seen by the public as having failed to uphold this rule would then be shunned, disrespected and condemned in various manners, as could be seen from many examples. ..."

Ordination and clergy[edit]

A Buddhist Monk recites prayers in Thailand.
Buddhist Monk is receiving food from villagers
The funeral pyre at Wat Chedi Luang, Chiang Mai, for Chan Kusalo, the patriarch of northern Thailand

Like in most other Theravada nations, Buddhism in Thailand is represented primarily by the presence of Buddhist monks, who serve as officiants on ceremonial occasions, as well as being responsible for preserving and conveying the teachings of the Buddha.

During the latter half of the 20th century, most monks in Thailand began their careers by serving as temple boys (Thai: เด็กวัด dek wat, "children of the wat"). Temple boys are traditionally no younger than eight and do minor housework. The primary reason for becoming a temple boy is to gain a basic education, particularly in basic reading and writing and the memorization of the scriptures chanted on ritual occasions. Prior to the creation of state-run primary schools in Thailand, village temples served as the primary form of education for most Thai boys. Service in a temple as a temple boy was a necessary prerequisite for attaining any higher education, and was the only learning available to most Thai peasants. Since the creation of a government-run educational apparatus in Thailand, the number of children living as temple boys has declined significantly. However, many government-run schools continue to operate on the premise of the local village temple.

Boys now typically ordain as a sāmaṇera or novitiate monks (Thai: สามเณร samanen, often shortened to nen Thai: เณร). In some localities, girls may become sāmaṇerī. Novices live according to the Ten Precepts but are not required to follow the full range of monastic rules found in the Pātimokkha. There are a few other significant differences between novices and bhikkhus. Novices often are in closer contact with their families, spending more time in the homes of their parents than monks. Novices do not participate in the recitation of the monastic code (and the confessions of violations) that take place on the uposatha days. Novices technically do not eat with the monks in their temple, but this typically only amounts to a gap in seating, rather than the separation observed between monks and the laity. Novices usual ordain during a break from secular schooling, but those intending on a religious life, may receive secular schooling at the wat.

Child monks in Thailand

Young men typically do not live as a novice for longer than one or two years. At the age of 20, they become eligible to receive upasampada, the higher ordination that establishes them as a full bhikkhu. A novice is technically sponsored by his parents in his ordination, but in practice in rural villages the entire village participates by providing the robes, alms bowl, and other requisites that will be required by the monk in his monastic life.

Temporary ordination is the norm among Thai Buddhists. Most young men traditionally ordain for the term of a single vassa or rainy season (Thai phansa). Those who remain monks beyond their first vassa typically remain monks for between one and three years, officiating at religious ceremonies in surrounding villages and possibly receiving further education in reading and writing (possibly including the Kham or Tai Tham alphabets traditionally used in recording religious texts). After this period of one to three years, most young monks return to lay life, going on to marry and begin a family. Young men in Thailand who have undergone ordination are seen as being more suitable partners for marriage; unordained men are euphemistically called 'unripe', while those who have been ordained are said to be 'ripe'. A period as a monk is a prerequisite for many positions of leadership within the village hierarchy. Most village elders or headmen were once monks, as were most traditional doctors, spirit priests, and some astrologists and fortune tellers.[citation needed]

Monks who do not return to lay life typically specialize in either scholarship or meditation. Those who specialize in scholarship typically travel to regional education centers to begin further instruction in the Pāli language and the scriptures, and may then continue on to the major monastic universities located in Bangkok. The route of scholarship is also taken by monks who desire to rise in the ecclesiastic hierarchy, as promotions within the government-run system is contingent on passing examinations in Pāli and Dhamma studies.[citation needed]

The Thai tradition supports laymen to go into a monastery, dress and act as monks, and study while there. The time line is based on threes, staying as a monk for three days, or three weeks, or three months or three years, or example of three weeks and three days. This retreat is expected of all male Thai, rich or poor, and often is scheduled after high school. Such retreat brings honor to the family and blessings (merit) to the young man. Thai make allowances for men who follow this practice, such as holding open a job.[citation needed]

Scandals[edit]

It is not uncommon to read lurid tales of misbehaviour by Buddhist monks in the Thai media. There have been reports of sexual assault, embezzlement, drug-taking, extravagant lifestyles, even murder. Thailand's 38,000 temples, populated by 300,000 monks, are easy targets for corruption, handling between US$3–3.6 billion yearly in donations, mostly untraceable cash.[14][15] In a case that captured the attention of the nation, Wirapol Sukphol, better known as Monk Luang Pu Nen Kham Chattiko, was photographed in July 2013 wearing Ray-Ban sunglasses, holding a Louis Vuitton bag full of US dollars, and "...was later found to be a trafficker of methamphetamines, an abuser of women and the lover of a pregnant 14-year-old."[16][17]

Reform movements[edit]

  • The Dhammayuttika Nikaya (Thai: ธรรมยุตนิกาย) began in 1833 as a reform movement led by Prince Mongkut, son of King Rama II of Siam. It remained a reform movement until passage of the Sangha Act of 1902, which formally recognized it as the lesser of Thailand's two Theravada denominations.[18] Mongkut was a bhikkhu under the name of Vajirañāṇo for 27 years (1824–1851) before becoming King of Siam (1851–1868). In 1836 he became the first abbot of Wat Bowonniwet Vihara. After the then 20-year-old prince entered monastic life in 1824, he noticed what he saw as serious discrepancies between the rules given in the Pāli Canon and the actual practices of Thai bhikkhus and sought to upgrade monastic discipline to make it more orthodox. Mongkut also made an effort to remove all non-Buddhist, folk religious, and superstitious elements which over the years had become part of Thai Buddhism.[19] Thammayut monks were expected to eat only one meal a day (not two) and the meal was to be gathered during a traditional alms round.
Thai Forest Tradition (Dhutanga Kammatthana)
Thai Squiggle.png

Kammatthana Meditation

Forest Austerities
  • The Dhammakaya Movement was founded in Thailand in the 1970s "as a fundamentalist extension of the Thai Buddhist nationalism fashioned in the 1920s and 1930s"[21] and has been subject to controversy. In 1999[22][23] and again in 2002,[24][25] leaders of the organization were accused of charges ranging from fraud and embezzlement to corruption. At that time, social critic Sulak Sivaraksa criticized the Dhammakaya Movement for promoting greed by emphasizing donations to the temple as a way to make merit. Widespread negative media coverage a this time was symptomatic of the movement being made the scapegoat for commercial malpractice in the Thai Buddhist temple community[26][27] in the wake of the 1997 Asian financial crisis.[28][29] In 2006, the Thai National Office for Buddhism cleared the Dhammakaya Foundation and Phrathepyanmahamuni of all accusations[30] when Phrarajbhavanavisudh agreed to return all the allegedly embezzled funds to name of his temple. Phrarajbhavanavisudh was subsequently restored to the position of abbot of Wat Phra Dhammakaya.[31]
  • The Santi Asoke (Thai: สันติอโศก "Peaceful Asoka") or Chao Asok ("People of Asoka") was established by Phra Bodhirak after he "declared independence from the Ecclesiastical Council (Sangha) in 1975"[32] and has been described as "a transformation of the "forest monk" revival of [the 1920s and 1930s]" and "is more radical [than the Dhammakaya Movement] in its criticism of Thai society and in the details of its own vision of what constitutes a truly religiomoral community."[21] It has been strongly criticised for its involvement in politics, its charismatic leadership and its strong criticism of Thai society.[21]

Position of women[edit]

Although women in Thailand traditionally cannot ordain as bhikkhuni, they can choose to take part in quasi-monastic practices at temples and practice centers as mae ji.

Unlike in Burma and Sri Lanka, the bhikkhuni lineage of women monastics was never established in Thailand. Women primarily participate in religious life either as lay participants in collective merit-making rituals or by doing domestic work around temples. A small number of women choose to become mae ji, non-ordained religious specialists who permanently observe either the Eight or Ten Precepts. Mae ji do not receive the level of support given to bhikkhu and their position in Thai society is the subject of some discussion.

Recently, there have been efforts to attempt to introduce a bhikkhuni lineage in Thailand as a step towards improving the position of women in Thai Buddhism. The main proponent of this movement has been Dhammananda Bhikkhuni, who is the Abbess of Songdhammakalyani Monastery, which was founded by her mother, Venerable Voramai, a Mahayana bhikkhuni, in the 1960s.[33] Unlike similar efforts in Sri Lanka, these efforts have been extremely controversial in Thailand.[34] Women attempting to ordain have been accused of attempting to impersonate monks (a civil offense in Thailand), and their actions have been denounced by many members of the ecclesiastic hierarchy.

No one denies that men and women have an equal chance to attain enlightenment. In Mahayana Buddhism, practised in Taiwan, mainland China, Hong Kong and Tibet, female ordinations are common, but in countries that adhere to the Theravada branch of the religion, such as Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Myanmar, women were banned from becoming ordained about eight centuries ago, "for fear that women entering monastic life instead of bearing children would be a disruption of social order", according to Kittipong Narit, a Buddhist scholar at Bangkok's Thammasat University.[16]

Most objections to the reintroduction of a female monastic role hinge on the fact that the monastic rules require that both five ordained monks and five ordained bhikkhunis be present for any new bhikkhuni ordination. Without such a quorum, critics say that it is not possible to ordain any new Theravada bhikkhuni. The Thai hierarchy refuses to recognize ordinations in the Dharmaguptaka tradition (the only currently existing bhikkhuni ordination lineage) as valid Theravada ordinations, citing differences in philosophical teachings and (more critically) monastic discipline.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 'Lamphun's Little-Known Animal Shrines' in: Forbes, Andrew, and Henley, David, Ancient Chiang Mai Volume 1. Chiang Mai ,Cognoscenti Books, 2012.
  2. ^ "CIA World Factbook: Thailand". Central Intelligence Agency. 2007-02-08. Retrieved 2007-03-07. 
  3. ^ Sujato, Bhikkhu. Sects & Sectarianism: The Origins of Buddhist Schools. 2006. p. 72
  4. ^ Gombrich, Richard F. (2006). Theravāda Buddhism : a social history from ancient Benares to modern Colombo (2nd ed. ed.). London: Routledge. p. 3. ISBN 978-0415365093. 
  5. ^ a b c d Tuchrello, William P. "The Society and Its Environment" (Religion: Historical Background section). Thailand: A Country Study. Federal Research Division, Library of Congress; Barbara Leitch LePoer, ed. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.[1]
  6. ^ Ministry of Foreign Affairs - required documents[dead link][dead link]
  7. ^ Charoensuthipan, Penchan. "Thai Buddhists call for top status 'unnecessary'". Retrieved 2007-04-18. 
  8. ^ a b Monks push for Buddhism to be named Thailand’s religion[dead link][dead link]
  9. ^ Osathanon, Prapasri; Nerisa Nerykhiew (2007-07-01). "Drafters reject Buddhism as state religion". The Nation. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-08-18. 
  10. ^ "Buddhist groups, monks halt campaigns against draft charter". The Nation. 2007-08-12. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-08-18. 
  11. ^ ประกาศสำนักงานสภาความมั่นคงแห่งชาติ ลงวันที่ 21 พฤศจิกายน 2556 [Announcement of the National Security Council Office dated 21 November 2013] (PDF) (in Thai). Bangkok: National Security Council. Dec 2013. Retrieved 2014-01-22. 
  12. ^ "Section 100 of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand, Buddhist Era 2550 (2007)". Asian Legal Information Institute. 2007. Retrieved 2014-01-22. 
  13. ^ a b Matichon (2007-06-16). หมายเหตุคำสั่งมหาเถรสมาคม พ.ศ. 2538 [A statement of grounds attached to the 1995 Order of the Sangha Supreme Council] (in Thai). Sanook!. Retrieved 2014-01-22. [dead link]
  14. ^ Fifield, Anna (2015-05-15). "Hardliner tries to reform Thailand’s Buddhist monks behaving badly". Washington Post (The Guardian). Retrieved 16 May 2015. 
  15. ^ Ekachai, Sanitsuda (2015-06-17). "Monks need to break from feudal ways". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 18 June 2015. 
  16. ^ a b "Thai TV anchor turned monk fights for women's right to be ordained". South China Morning Post (Post Magazine). 2015-05-10. Retrieved 21 May 2015. 
  17. ^ Frederickson, Terry (2013-07-08). "Pilot reveals monk's scandalous life". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 21 May 2015. 
  18. ^ Buddhism in Contemporary Thailand, Prof. Phra Thepsophon, Rector of Mahachulalongkorn Buddhist University. Speech at the International Conference on Buddhasasana in Theravada Buddhist countries: Issue and The Way Forward in Colombo, Sri Lanka, January 15, 2003, Buddhism in Thailand, Dhammathai - Buddhist Information Network
  19. ^ Ratanakosin Period, Buddhism in Thailand, Dhammathai - Buddhist Information Network
  20. ^ "The Customs of the Noble Ones", by Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Access to Insight (Legacy Edition), 7 June 2010, http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/customs.html .
  21. ^ a b c Marty, Martin E.; Appleby, R. Scott, eds. (1994). Fundamentalisms observed (Pbk. ed., 2. [Dr.]. ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 668. ISBN 978-0226508788. 
  22. ^ "'I Will Never Be Disrobed' says Thai abbot of Dhammakaya Temple", and "Between Faith and Fund-Raising", Asiaweek 17 September 1999
  23. ^ David Liebhold (1999) Trouble in Nirvana: Facing charges over his controversial methods, a Thai abbot sparks debate over Buddhism's future Time Asia 28 July 1999 [2]
  24. ^ Yasmin Lee Arpon (2002) Scandals Threaten Thai Monks' Future SEAPA 11 July 2002 [3]
  25. ^ Controversial monk faces fresh charges The Nation 26 April 2002
  26. ^ Wiktorin, Pierre (2005) De Villkorligt Frigivna: Relationen mellan munkar och lekfolk i ett nutida Thailand (Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International) p.137 ISSN 1653-6355
  27. ^ Julian Gearing (1999) Buddhist Scapegoat?: One Thai abbot is taken to task, but the whole system is to blame Asiaweek 30 December 1999 [4]<
  28. ^ Bangkokbiznews 24 June 2001 p.11
  29. ^ Matichon 19 July 2003
  30. ^ Bangkok Post 23 August 2006
  31. ^ Yuwa Song News Today 23 August 2006
  32. ^ Sanitsuda Ekachai. "The Man behind Santi Asoke". Retrieved July 13, 2010. [dead link]
  33. ^ Willis, Jan (2013-01-21). "Building a Place for the Theris". Lion's Roar. Retrieved 21 Apr 2015. 
  34. ^ Kurz, Sopaporn (2007-07-22). "Bhikkhuni says she is glum on future of ordination". The Nation (The Buddhist Channel). Retrieved 21 Apr 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]