Thai Forest Tradition

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Thai Forest Tradition (Dhutanga Kammaṭṭhāna)
Novices on thudong.jpg
Formation c. 1900 ; Isan, Thailand
Founders Mun Bhuridatta, Phra Ajahn
Sao Kantasīlo, Phra Ajahn
Leader Maha Bua Nyanasampanno, Phra Ajahn (d. 2011, de-facto incumbent)
Founding Maxims

The customs of the noble ones (ariyavamsa)

The Dhamma in accordance with the Dhamma (dhammanudhammapatipatti)

The Kammaṭṭhāna Forest tradition of Thailand (from Pali kammaṭṭhāna [kəmːəʈːʰaːnə], meaning either "meditation" or "meditation subject", literally "station of exercise",[1] 'basic occupation',[2] or 'place of work', see kammaṭṭhāna), commonly known in the West as the Thai Forest Tradition, is a lineage of Theravada Buddhist monasticism [3] which emerged from a modern revival of Early Buddhist practice.[4] The tradition follows a nikāya based doctrine, central to which is the importance of samadhi as a requisite for discernment, and the tradition distinguishes itself with the teaching of awakening as an awareness of the deathless dimension of the mind following release from saṃsāra rather than an annihilation of awareness.[5] Kammaṭṭhāna teachers describe this pure awareness as one transcending both the five aggregates and mere mental stillness, which can be distilled only through intense mental exertion to "cut" or "clear the path" through the tangle of mental defilements which bind an ordinary persons mind to this process.[6] The tradition gives a strong weight to scrupulous sīla (ethical observances),[7] and has a reputation for strict adherence to monastic code.[8]

The Kammaṭṭhāna tradition began circa 1900[9] as a grassroots movement led by Ajahns Mun Bhuridatta and Sao Kantasīlo.[10] Disillusioned with an increasingly scholastic culture being imposed on the Thai sangha by state religious authorities under King Chulalongkorn, Ajahn Mun and Ajahn Sao both took to the rural frontier of Isan. According to Mun, the primary motivation for their departure from the clerical mainstream was a rejection of the popular notion held by their contemporaries that the path to nibbana was lost to mankind.[11]

During their lifetime there was a consensus among Thai Buddhists of Ajahn Mun and Ajahn Sao's noble attainment , and since the tradition began, two generations of Kammaṭṭhāna practitioners who've followed their path of practice have subsequently been acclaimed as arahats, receiving a nationwide respect that traverses geographical and social boundaries, including ecclesiastical decoration from the Chakri Dynasty of Thailand.[12][13]

In the second half of the 20th century the Kammaṭṭhāna tradition took root in the West, having attracted the most Western students of any wilderness meditation tradition.[14] In spite of deforestation in Thailand, Kammaṭṭhāna practice continues on the outskirts of cities.[15] Visitors come to study meditation under the guidance of these forest practitioners in the seclusion offered in forest monasteries in Thailand and around the world.[16][17] Thanissaro Bhikkhu writes: "Kammatthana monks came to represent, in the eyes of many monastics and lay people, a solid and reliable expression of the Dhamma in a world of fast and furious modernization."[18]

Thai Forest Tradition (Dhutanga Kammaṭṭhāna)
Thai Squiggle.png

Kammaṭṭhāna

Dhutanga

Doctrine[edit]

The Primal Mind and the Deathless Dimension[edit]

See also: Luminous mind

J.L. Taylor talks about Ajahn Maha Bua's characterization of the path of practice, saying that Ajahn Mun "cleared the entangled and overgrown time-worn path", to show that the noble attainments were still available. According to Taylor: "Many forest teachers, as Mahaa Bua above, refer to the practice in terms of this primordial energy and metaphor, as a method of 'clearing the path' or 'cutting through' the mental entanglements ([Thai:] kilet; Pali: kilesa)."[19]

According to Ajahn Maha Bua, "the natural power of the mind is that it knows and does not die".[20] He asserts that ordinary people are unaware of this deathless aspect of the mind, which lies beyond disintegration, because of entanglement with conventional reality.

An important point is that the Forest Ajahns assert that the primal radiance of the mind is still a samsaric phenomenon. Ajahn Maha Bua speaks of a "genuine mind", a term reserved only for the minds of arahants, and an "original mind", a term to refer to the luminous primal mind of ordinary people. This luminous or radiant mind is distinct from an awareness released, and an awareness released is also distinct from mental stillness and the five aggregates.[21] Ajahn Maha Bua writes:

If the mind is radiant, you can purify it because its radiance is unawareness incarnate, and nothing else. Meditators will see clearly for themselves the moment the mind passes from radiance to mental release: Radiance will no longer appear. Right here is the point where meditators clearly know this, and it's the point that lets them argue — because the truth has to be found true in the individual heart. Once a person knows, he or she can't help but speak with full assurance.[22]

Conventional descriptions of the Deathless dimension itself are limited. Thanissaro Bhikkhu notes that there are dangers in describing release, because people can attempt to replicate the description of release rather than following the path to release. Thanissaro does describe some of the lessons which are learned following release: "One is that the Buddha was right. There really is a deathless dimension, outside of space and time. And it really is free of suffering and stress."[23]

Customs of the Noble Ones and Dhamma in Accordance with the Dhamma[edit]

Thanissaro Bhikkhu talks about how Ajahn Mun's detractors would accuse him of not following traditional Thai Buddhist customs, where Ajahn Mun would reply saying "he wasn't interested in bending to the customs of any particular society — as they were, by definition, the customs of people with greed, anger, and delusion in their minds."[24] According to Thanissaro this concept dates back to the time of the Buddha: when the Buddha's father found out the Buddha was begging for alms he said: "This is shameful," . . . "No one in the lineage of our family has ever gone begging. It's against our family customs." To which the Buddha replied: "Your majesty," . . . "I now belong, not to the lineage of my family, but to the lineage of the noble ones. Theirs are the customs I follow."[25]

The practice of the Dhamma in accordance with the Dhamma refers to a part of the Mahaparinibbana Sutta where the Buddha encourages people to practice the Dhamma as proper worship of the tathagatha rather than worshipping him with flowers and incense. To practice the Dhamma in accordance with the Dhamma means that one should raise one's standards to the level of the Buddha's Dhamma, rather than lowering the Dhamma to meet one's standards. According Ajahn Mun's disciples, these two maxims were themes for his Dhamma talks more than any other topic.[26]

Necessity of Samadhi[edit]

Another theme which sets the Kammatthana tradition apart is the assertion by its teachers that states of deep samadhi are absolutely necessary for discernment to arise.[a] Ajahn Maha Bua warns about attempting to develop discernment without samadhi, relating it to "a knife which hasn't been sharpened", saying: "Whatever gets chopped doesn't cut through easily. It's a simple waste of energy."[27]

Ajahn Lee writes:

Most of us, though, tend to misunderstand the nature of discernment. We take imitation discernment, adulterated with concepts, and use it to smother the real thing, like a man who coats a piece of glass with mercury so that he can see his reflection and that of others, thinking he's found an ingenious way of looking at the truth. Actually, he's nothing more than a monkey looking in a mirror: One monkey becomes two and will keep playing with its reflection until the mercury wears off, at which point it becomes crestfallen, not knowing what the reflection came from in the first place. So it is when we gain imitation discernment, unwittingly, by thinking and conjecturing in line with concepts and preoccupations: We're headed for sorrow when death meets us face-to-face.[b][29]

Wrong Samadhi[edit]

Several of the Forest ajahns talk about wrong samadhi - where the mind may get lost, doesn't know if it's awake or asleep,[30] and / or there's no awareness at all.[31] Thanissaro identifies two states of wrong samadhi: Delusion samadhi, where the mind slips into a pleazant haze; and the state of non-perception, where, through a subtle form of aversion, one refuses to settle on even the most fleeting thought and enters a state without any perception at all.[32]

History[edit]

Introduction[edit]

Buddhism itself began as a forest tradition. The Buddha reached enlightenment in a forest, and throughout his life his teachings were at odds with what established brahmin priests were teaching.

According to Buddhist texts, while the Buddha was alive, he stated that the teaching he expounded or dhamma would only survive in the world uncorrupted for 500 years, after which point if one wished to reach arahantship they would have to tease out the impurities themselves, and fill in the blanks of the aspects of the Dhamma which had been lost through their own efforts.[33]

The Thai Forest Tradition believes that the caliber of monastic practice in Theravada Buddhism has followed a cycle. As monastic practice grows lax in a Buddhist region, the governing body of that region may bring more disciplined monks in from another region to elevate the level of practice,[34] or one or more individuals may disengage from the larger sangha to revive the spirit of the Buddha's teaching.[35]

The Thai Forest Tradition grew out of a reform movement known as the Dhammayuttika Nikaya or "Thammayut". The Thammayut was an attempt to renovate the existing Thai customary Buddhism, which its founders characterised as so infused with Thai folk beliefs as to not be recognizable as what the Buddha actually taught. While the greater Thammayut order was primarily concerned with academic reflection, Ajahn Mun and Ajahn Sao Kantasīlo — its two founders — were more concerned with the practices they believed the Pāli Canon outlined as leading to arahantship.[citation needed]

Because of this difference, the Kammaṭṭhāna tradition has been organizationally defined throughout its history by its relationship with the state-sponsored ecclesiastical hierarchy. Pioneers of the Kammaṭṭhāna tradition lived at a time of Thaification, cultural and religious assimilation, and would experience alienation throughout this process for giving priority to classical Buddhist practice. For the better part of a century the tradition battled to maintain it's niche among a myriad of flavors of Buddhism in the region, all during precarious times for the region as a whole — the Rattanakosin Kingdom was a period when the state's urgent priority was uniting Thailand as a nation to face imminent threats of Western imperialism in Asia.[citation needed]

Establishment of the Dhammayuttika Nikaya[edit]

Vajirañāṇo Bhikkhu, later King Mongkut of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, founder of the Dhammayuttika Nikaya

The Dhammayuttika Nikaya or Thammayut began in 1833 as a reform movement led by Prince Mongkut, son of King Rama II of Siam. It remained a reform movement until passage of the Sangha Act of 1902, which formally recognized it as the lesser of Thailand's two Theravada denominations.[36]

Prince Mongkut was a bhikkhu (ordination name: Vajirañāṇo) for 27 years (1824–1851) before becoming the King of Siam (1851–1868). The then 20-year-old prince entered monastic life in 1824. Over the course of his early meditation training, Mongkut was frustrated that his teachers could not relate the meditation techniques they were teaching to the original teachings of the Buddha. Also, he noticed what he saw as serious discrepancies between the rules given in the Pāli Canon and the actual practices of Thai bhikkhus. Mongkut, concerned that the ordination lines in Siam were broken by a lack of adherence to this monastic code, sought out a different lineage of monks with practice that is more in line with the vinaya.[c][37]

Mongkut eventually found a lineage among the Mons that had a stronger practice. He reordained among this group, and began the reform movement in the Siamese region that would become the Thammayut order. In the founding of the Thammayut order Mongkut made an effort to remove all non-Buddhist, folk religious, and superstitious elements which over the years had become part of Thai Buddhism. Additionally, Thammayut bhikkhus are expected to eat only one meal a day (not two) and the meal was to be gathered during a traditional alms round.[38]

His brother Rama III complained about his involvement with an ethnic minority, so a monastery was built for Prince Mongkut on the border of the state of Bangkok.[39] In 1836, Mongkut became the first abbot of this monastery, Wat Bowonniwet Vihara, and the monastery would become the administrative center of the Thammayut order until the present day.[40]

Soon after, Mongkut had other monks who were close to him reordain among this lineage of Mon bhikkhus. Among these monks were Vajirañāṇavarorasa, Mongkut's son; and Somdet Phra Wannarat "Thap", a grade Nine Pali scholar.[41]

According to Taylor, Vajirañāṇavarorasa's autobiography talks about how "Thap had differences with somewhat more 'worldly' monks at Wat Bowornniwet, which led to dissension in the movement and eventual division into four primary competing factions (monastic lines or 'stems')." In the mid-nineteenth century these branches became so estranged from each other that each of the branches developed their own styles for chanting, interpretations and translations of Pali texts, and differed on issues related to the monastic code.[42]

It wasn't until Vajirañāṇavarorasa took control of a new phase of sangha reforms in 1892[d] that the administrative Thammayut hierarchy would begin to form a cohesive vision.(Taylor, Page 70)[43] Thanissaro notes though that in the early twentieth century, Ajahn Mun's Kammaṭṭhāna lineage formed a distinct camp within the Thammayut order which was at odds with Vajirañāṇavarorasa's reforms.[44]

Ajahn Mun's Search[edit]

Originally ordained in a traditional order, Mun Bhuridatta reordained with the Thammayut. Ultimately unsatisfied with Thammayut's scholastic ideal, Ajahn Mun left the wat of his preceptor and went to study with Sao Kantasīlo in a small monastery just outside of the town. Studying for several years with Ajahn Sao, Ajahn Mun left on his own in search of any teacher who may have found the noble attainments, travelling as far as Laos and Burma, as well as central Thailand.[45]

A Grassroots Following[edit]

Thai Forest Ajahns Seated.jpg

In the years following Ajahn Mun's arahantship, he attracted a following of monks desiring a more disciplined approach to Buddhist practice. Ajahn Mun's style of teaching has been described as "a warrior's approach",[46] putting his students in situations where they would develop practical skills needed to advance on the path. Rather than a single meditation technique, he taught skills that related to meditation practice.

At this time, a new state religion was in development that was a compromise between Customary Buddhism and the Thammayut's Reform Buddhism. The Thammayut monks, being the best educated, were drafted to teach a new Bangkok curriculum based on "Victorian notions of reason and utility"[47] in outlying areas.

Respect Among the Mainstream[edit]

Tension between the forest tradition and the Thammayut administrative hierarchy escalated in 1926, when Somdet Mahawirawong (Tisso Uan) ordered Ajahn Sing Khantiyagamo and his following of 50 monks and 100 nuns and laypeople to leave a forest under Tisso Uan's jusrisdiction. Thanissaro mentions that this tension would remain for two decades, and Tisso Uan would maintain even after Ajahn Mun's death in 1949 that Ajahn Mun was unqualified to teach.[48]

According to Ajahn Lee's Autobiography, The relationship between the Dhammayut ecclesia and the kammattthana monks changed in the 1950s, when Tisso Uan had become ill. When Ajahn Lee Dhammadaro had come to visit him one day, he simply walked in and sat quietly in a corner of the room. When asked by Tisso Uan what he was doing, he said 'giving you a gift of stillness'. Tisso Uan was moved by the example that Ajahn Lee had set, and began to study meditation with him.[49]

Tisso Uan eventually recovered, and a friendship between Tisso Uan and Ajahn Lee began that would cause Tisso Uan to completely reverse his opinion of the Kammaṭṭhāna tradition, and Tisso Uan grew to become an accomplished meditator. Ajahn Lee Dhammadaro writes about what Tisso Uan said to him: "People who study and practice the Dhamma get caught up on nothing more than their own opinions, which is why they never get anywhere. If everyone understood things correctly, there wouldn’t be anything impossible about practicing the Dhamma." Tisso Uan would then invite Ajahn Lee to teach in the city: "The monks and novices — and the laypeople as well — haven’t benefited enough from having you here. If you can, I’d like you to find the time to teach them too."[50] Thanissaro claims it was this relationship between Tisso Uan and Ajahn Lee and the subsequent invitation that would bring the teachings of the forest tradition into mainstream society.[51]

All sources agree that from this point the Forest tradition would have respect among the Dhammayut ecclesia, however the dynamics and causes of tensions between the Dhammayut and forest monks — and the eventual reconciliation — are not agreed on among scholars. Kamala Tiyavanich cites cynical motives for the Dhammayut's acceptance of Kammatthana practice, saying that the Dhammayut was experiencing tensions with Mahanikai monks, and that the Dhammayut began to associate themselves with forest monks because of an incline in the forest monks popularity.[52] however Thanissaro criticizes this thesis, saying it "simply does not accord with the facts".[53] According to Thanissaro's thesis, the Dhammayut support was based on a respect for the Forest tradition's ideals, and their role in converting a significant number of communists in Northeast Thailand. [54]

Cold War Period[edit]

Tensions arose between the dictatorial Thai government and a newly formed communist party in Thailand. During this period, several if not all of the major figures in the Kammaṭṭhāna tradition alive at the time were accused of communist sympathies.[citation needed]

Deforestation[edit]

Thailand's borders with Laos and Cambodia are reflected by the brown on the Thai side in this true-colour satellite image, which shows the effects of heavy deforestation in the country.

In the last half of the 20th century, the vast majority of Thailand's rainforest were lost. Millions of villagers in the forest were (sometimes violently) driven from their homes as villages were bulldozed over to make room for eucalyptus plantations.

The final closure of the forest began after devastating floods occurred in southern Thailand. In November 1988 floods and landslides, triggered by rain falling on denuded hillsides, wiped out several southern villages and killed hundreds of people. For the first time the Bangkok government was forced to face the consequences of uncontrolled exploitation of the forest. Responding to an intense public outcry, the government suspended and later banned all logging activities in the country. It is no surprise that such ecological disasters have struck Thailand. Three decades of rapacious land clearing had wiped out 82 percent of Thailand’s forests, and in places the countryside had become a dust bowl. In this context, many wandering monks decided that they had to hold their ground when they found a suitable forest. They knew that if they retreated, they risked losing it forever.

—Kamala Tiyanavich[55]

Forest monks in Thailand were on the front line in the battle against logging companies and eucalyptus farmers to preserve Thailand's rainforests. In spite of their efforts the areas around what were once forest wats in wilderness areas have now been largely developed.

The Tradition in the West[edit]

The Thai Forest Tradition is one of the major monastic orders of Theravada Buddhism in the West.

United States[edit]

The first monastery catering to Western practitioners was Wat Pah Nanachat, founded in Thailand for the training of western bhikkhus in 1975.

Another monastery is Abhayagiri Buddhist Monastery, about 13 miles (21 km) north of Ukiah, California, the monastery has its origins in the 1980s when the UK-based Ajahn Sumedho, foremost western disciple of the Thai meditation master Ajahn Chah, started getting requests to teach in California. Visits by either himself or one of his senior monks or nuns resulted in the Sanghapala Foundation being set up in 1988. The monastery's first 120 acres (0.49 km2) were given directly to Ajahn Sumedho by Chan Master Hsuan Hua, founder of the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas in Talmage, California, before he died in 1995. Currently, the monastery rests on 280 acres (1.1 km2) of mountainous forest land.

A well-known American monk, Thanissaro Bhikkhu, also known as Ajaan Geoff, (born 1949) is an American Theravada Buddhist monk of the Dhammayuttika Nikaya, Kammaṭṭhāna tradition. He is currently the abbot of Metta Forest Monastery in San Diego County, California. Ṭhānissaro Bhikkhu is a notably skilled and prolific translator of the Pāli Canon.[56] He is also the author of many free Dhamma books.[57]

England[edit]

Chithurst Buddhist Monastery was the first English monastery. In 1976, Ajahn Sumedho met George Sharp, Chairman of the English Sangha Trust. The Trust had been established in 1956 for the purpose of establishing a suitable residence for the training of Buddhist monks in England. By the 1970s, the Trust possessed a property in Hampstead that was not yet deemed suitable for what was desired. During a brief stay in London in 1978, Ajahn Sumedho, while undertaking the traditional alms round of Theravada monks (on Hampstead Heath), encountered a lone jogger who was struck by the Bhikkhu's outlandish attire. The jogger had, by chance, just acquired a piece of overgrown woodland in West Sussex. After expressing an interest in Buddhism, the gentleman attended a ten-day retreat at the Oaken Holt Buddhist Center near Oxford after which he offered the forest as a gift to the Sangha. In 1979 George Sharp purchased Chithurst House (a property adjacent to the wood) on behalf of The English Sangha Trust. Chithurst House gained legal recognition as a monastery in 1981. The monastery was named Cittaviveka, a Pali word meaning "the mind of non-attachment".

Harnham Buddhist Monastery, Aruna Ratanagiri was founded in June of the same year. Amaravati Buddhist Monastery (now the main headquarters of the U.K. monasteries) was established in 1984 and formally opened in 1985. A fourth location is The Forest Hermitage (Santidhamma & Bhavanadhamma) (founded by Ajahn Khemadhammo).

Other western countries[edit]

The Thai Forest Tradition also exists in:

Practices[edit]

Recitation of the mantra "buddho"[edit]

The recitation of "buddho" is sometimes used as a secondary aid when one is practicing Mindfuness Immersed in the Body or Mindfulness of Breathing. [58]

Ajahn Phut Thaniyo notes how Ajahn Sao would give the meditation word "buddho" with very limited preliminary instructions:

If the person asked, "What does 'Buddho' mean?" Ajaan Sao would answer, "Don't ask."

"What will happen after I've meditated on 'Buddho'?"

"Don't ask. Your only duty is simply to repeat the word 'Buddho' over and over in your mind."

That's how he taught: no long, drawn-out explanations.[59]

Using "buddho" as a meditation object, once the mind gets settled into samadhi the meditator is instructed to drop "buddho" to pursue deeper jhana.[60]

Vassa (Rains Retreat)[edit]

Vassa (in Thai, phansa), is a period of retreat for monastics during the rainy season (from July to October in Thailand). Many young Thai men traditionally ordain for this period, before disrobing and returning to lay life.

Precepts and Ordination[edit]

Main article: patimokkha

There are several precept levels: Five Precepts, Eight Precepts, Ten Precepts and the patimokkha. The Five Precepts (Pañcaśīla in Sanskrit and Pañcasīla in Pāli) are practiced by laypeople, either for a given period of time or for a lifetime. The Eight Precepts are a more rigorous practice for laypeople. Ten Precepts are the training-rules for sāmaṇeras and sāmaṇerīs (novitiate monks and nuns). The Patimokkha is the basic Theravada code of monastic discipline, consisting of 227 rules for bhikkhus and 311 for nuns bhikkhunis (nuns).

Temporary or short-term ordination is so common in Thailand that men who have never been ordained are sometimes referred to as "unfinished." Long-term or lifetime ordination is deeply respected. The ordination process usually begins as an anagarika, in white robes.

Customs[edit]

A prominent characteristic of the Forest Tradition is great veneration paid toward Sangha elders. As such, it is vitally important to treat elders with the utmost respect. Care must be taken in addressing all monks, who are never to be referred to solely by the names they received upon ordination. Instead, they are to be addressed with the title "Venerable" before their name, or they may be addressed using just the Thai words for "Venerable," Ayya or Than (for men). All monks, on the other hand, can be addressed with the general term "Bhante". For monks and nuns who have been ordained 10 years or more, the title Ajahn, meaning "teacher", is reserved. For community elders the title Luang Por is often used, which in Thai can roughly translate into "Venerable Father".

In Thai culture, it is considered impolite to point the feet toward a monk or a statue in the shrine room of a monastery. It is equally considered impolite to address a monk without making the anjali gesture of respect. When making offerings to the monks, it is considered inappropriate to approach them at a higher level than they are at - for instance, if a monk is sitting it would be inappropriate to approach that monk and stand over them while making an offering.

In practice, the extent to which this cultural code of behavior is enforced will vary greatly, with some communities being more lax about such cultural codes than others. The one element which the forest monastic community are not lax about is the standard Theravada monastic code (vinaya).

Although Forest monasteries exist in extremely rural environments, they are not isolated from society. Monks in such monasteries are expected to be an integral element in the surrounding society in which they find themselves.

Teachers[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Although several camps within Theravada make the assertion that at least the first jhana is a necessary precursor for liberation, the Forest Ajahns assert that deeper samadhi (third, fourth jhana and formless for those Ajahns which follow the jhana model) is the primary activity which will aid in the development of discernment.
  2. ^ The restThe crucial factor in natural discernment comes solely from training the mind to be like a diamond that gives off its own light — surrounded by radiance whether in dark places or bright. A mirror is useful only in places already well-lit. If you take it into the dark, you can't use it to see your reflection at all. But a cut jewel that gives off its own light is brilliant everywhere. This is what the Buddha meant when he taught that there are no closed or secret places in the world where discernment can't penetrate. This jewel of discernment is what will enable us to destroy craving, clinging, and obscured awareness, and to attain the highest excellence: Liberation — free from pain, death, annihilation, and extinction — existing naturally through the reality of deathlessness (amata-dhamma).[28]
  3. ^ There are several rules in the Theravada monastic code by which a monk is "defeated" - he is no longer a monk even if he continues to wear robes and is treated as one. Although every ordination ceremony in Theravada Buddhism is performed by ten monks to hedge against the possibility of ones ordination being rendered invalid by having one of these defeated monks as preceptor. It is speculated that in spite of this, Mongkut was concerned that the lineages of regional traditions in the area were broken, and he made every attempt to commission a phalanx of monks in Siam with the highest probability of an unbroken lineage that may be traced to the Buddha.
  4. ^ Officially Pusso Saa was sangharaja, however Taylor notes that he held this position as a figurehead.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Kamma." The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary. 2015. p 193. http://dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.1:1:315.pali (retrieved May 02, 2015)
  2. ^ http://www.dhammatalks.org/Archive/Writings/CrossIndexed/Uncollected/MiscEssays/The%20Traditions%20of%20the%20Noble%20Ones.pdf
  3. ^ "Kammatthana." "A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist Terms". Access to Insight (Legacy Edition), 17 December 2013, http://www.accesstoinsight.org/glossary.html (retrieved May 02, 2015).
  4. ^ J.L. Taylor, Forest Monks and the Nation-State (Singapore: ISEAS 1993).
  5. ^ Buddhist Religions. Robinson, Johnson, Thanissaro. Fifth Edition. Wadsworth (2005). Page 167.
  6. ^ J.L. Taylor, Forest Monks and the Nation-State (Singapore: ISEAS 1993). Page 16-17
  7. ^ Patipada: Venerable Acariya Mun's Path of Practice, by Maha Bua Nyanasampanno. Chapter XVI: The Customs of Kammatthana Bhikkhus. Wisdom Library. December 21, 2010. http://www.wisdomlib.org/buddhism/book/patipada/d/doc4238.html (retrieved May 02, 2015).
  8. ^ Buddhist Religions. Robinson, Johnson, Thanissaro. Fifth Edition. Wadsworth (2005). Page 167.
  9. ^ "Theravada Buddhism: A Chronology". Access to Insight (Legacy Edition), 30 November 2013, http://www.accesstoinsight.org/history.html (retrieved May 02, 2015).
  10. ^ "The Customs of the Noble Ones", by Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Access to Insight (Legacy Edition), 7 June 2010, http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/customs.html (retrieved May 02, 2015).
  11. ^ Venerable Ācariya Mun Bhuridatta Thera: A Spiritual Biography. Ajahn Maha Boowa Nanasampanno. Forest Dhamma Books. May 2004.
  12. ^ J.L. Taylor, Forest Monks and the Nation-State (Singapore: ISEAS 1993). Page 18.
  13. ^ Tambiah, Buddhist Saints of the Forest and the Cult of Amulets (Cambridge 1984). Page 3.
  14. ^ "The Customs of the Noble Ones", by Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Access to Insight (Legacy Edition), 7 June 2010, http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/customs.html (retrieved May 02, 2015).
  15. ^ Forest Recollections: Wandering Monks in Twentieth-Century Thailand, by Kamala Tiyavanich. University of Hawaii Press, The (1st edition). April 1997.
  16. ^ The Buddha Comes to Sussex [Video File]. Everyman [Ajahn Chah Documentary]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JznA4ueq2vE (retrieved May 02, 2015).
  17. ^ The Mindful Way - Buddhist Monks of the Forest Tradition in Thailand with Ajahn Chah [Video File].BBC Open University [Thomas Field]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Anf1yhX9VQo (retrieved May 02, 2015).
  18. ^ "The Customs of the Noble Ones", by Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Access to Insight (Legacy Edition), 7 June 2010, http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/customs.html (retrieved May 02, 2015).
  19. ^ J.L. Taylor, Forest Monks and the Nation-State (Singapore: ISEAS 1993). Page 16-17
  20. ^ The Radiant Mind is Unawareness, from "Straight from the Heart: Thirteen Talks on the Practice of Meditation", by Venerable Acariya Maha Boowa Ñanasampanno, translated from the Thai by Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Access to Insight (Legacy Edition), 30 November 2013, http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/thai/boowa/straight.html .
  21. ^ Buddhist Religions. Robinson, Johnson, Thanissaro. Fifth Edition. Wadsworth (2005). Page 167.
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