Thai Sign Language (TSL) or Modern Standard Thai Sign Language (MSTSL), is the national sign language of Thailand's Deaf community and is used in most parts of the country by the 20% of the estimated 56,000 pre-linguistically deaf people who go to school. Thai Sign Language was acknowledged as "the national language of deaf people in Thailand" in August 1999, in a resolution signed by the Minister of Education on behalf of the Royal Thai Government. As with many sign languages, the means of transmission to children occurs within families with signing deaf parents and in schools for the deaf. A robust process of language teaching and enculturation among deaf children has been documented and photographed in the Thai residential schools for the deaf.
^Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Thai Sign Language". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
^Reilly, Charles & Suvannus, Sathaporn (1999). Education of deaf people in the kingdom of Thailand. In Brelje, H.William (ed.) (1999). Global perspectives on education of the deaf in selected countries. Hillsboro, OR: Butte. pp. 367–82. NB. This is a prevalence estimate 1/1000 people as deaf. Based on 2007 figures of Thailand's population, an estimate of 67,000 deaf people is more accurate. Furthermore, hearing-speaking people are beginning to learn and use the Thai Sign Language.
^Reilly, Charles and Reilly, Nipapon (2005). The Rising of Lotus Flowers: The Self-Education of Deaf Children in thai Boarding Schools. Washington, D.C.: Gallaudet University Press.
^Woodward, James C. (1996). Modern Standard Thai Sign Language, influence from ASL, and its relationship to original Thai sign varieties. Sign Language Studies 92:227–52. (see page 245)
^Suvannus, Sathaporn (1987). Thailand. In Van Cleve, 282–84. In: Van Cleve, John V. (1987) (ed.) Gallaudet encyclopedia of deafness and deaf people. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.
^Woodward (1997). Sign languages and deaf identities in Thailand and Vietnam. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC, November.
^Ethnologue report on Chiang Mai Sign Language. See also: Woodward, James (2000). Sign languages and sign language families in Thailand and Viet Nam, in Emmorey, Karen, and Harlan Lane, eds., The signs of language revisited : an anthology to honor Ursula Bellugi and Edward Klima. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, p.23-47
^a Sign-language names reflect the region of origin. Natural sign languages are not related to the spoken language used in the same region. For example, French Sign Language originated in France, but is not related to French.