Thailand virus

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Thailand virus
Virus classification
Group: Group V ((−)ssRNA)
Order: Unassigned
Family: Bunyaviridae
Genus: Hantavirus
Species: Thailand virus

Thailand virus (THAIV) is a single-stranded, enveloped, negative-sense RNA hantavirus.[1]

Natural reservoir[edit]

THAIV was first isolated from rodents in two Thai provinces, Nakhon Pathom and Nakhon Ratchasima, in 1994.[2] The greater bandicoot rat (Bandicota indica) was found to be the primary reservoir for THAIV. Serological studies have revealed, but not confirmed, other rodents in Thailand as possible reservoirs, including the black rat (Rattus rattus), Polynesian rat (R. exulans), brown rat (R. norvegicus) and lesser rice-field rat (R. losea).[1][3][4][5][6]


Thailand virus (THAIV) is genetically diverse from other hantaviruses. The L, M, and S nucleotide segments reveal its most recent ancestor in common to be the Seoul virus(SEOV). However, four recently isolated THAIV strains from R.Rattus show genetic diversity between themselves and are distinct from SEOV in that they show geographical clustering. This is a distinct feature of all hantaviruses, except for SEOV. The SEOV strains have been primarily isolated from R. norvegicus. [7][8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Sirima Pattamadilok, Byoung-Hee Lee, Sanit Kumperasart, Kumiko Yoshimatsu, Megumi Okumura, Ichiro Nakamura, Koichi Araki, Yuvaluk Khoprasert, Prayadh Dangsupa, Pornpitak Panlar, Burkhard Jandrig, Detlev H. Krüger, Boris Klempa, Thomas Jäkel, Jonas Schmidt, Rainer Ulrich, Hiroaki Kariwa & Jiro Arikawa (2006). "Geographical distribution of hantaviruses in Thailand and potential human health significance of Thailand virus". American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 75 (5): 994–1002. PMID 17124002. 
  2. ^ Xiao SY, LeDuc JW, Chu YK, Schmaljohn CS: Phylogenetic analysis of virus isolates in the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae. Virology 1994, 198:205–217.
  3. ^ Tantivanich S, Ayuthaya PI, Usawattanakul W, Imphand P: Hantaanvirus among urban rats from a slum area in Bangkok.Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 1992, 23:504–509.
  4. ^ Nitatpattana N, Henrich T, Palabodeewat S, Tangkanakul W, Poonsuksombat D, Chauvancy G, Barbazan P, Yoksan S, Gonzalez JP: Hantaan virus antibody prevalence in rodent populations of several provinces of north-eastern Thailand. Amer J Trop Med Hyg 2006.
  5. ^ Nitatpattana N, Chauvency G, Dardaine J, Poblap T, Jumronsawat K, Tangkanakul W, Poonsuksombat D, Yoksan S, Gonzalez JP: Serological study of Hantavirus in the rodent population of Nakhon Pathom and Nakhon Ratchasima provinces in Thailand.Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2000, 31:277–282.
  6. ^ Elwell MR, Ward GS, Tingpalapong M, Leduc JW: Serologic evidence of Hantaan-like virus in rodents and man in Thailand.Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 1985, 16:349–354.
  7. ^ Plyusnin A, Morzunov S: Virus evolution and genetic diversity of hantaviruses and their rodent hosts. In Curr Top Microbiol Immunol Edited by Schmaljohn C, Nichol SN. 2001, 256:47–75.
  8. ^ Nemirov K, Vaheri A, Plyusnin A: Hantaviruses:co-evolution with natural hosts.Recent Res Devel Virol 2004, 6:201–228.

External links[edit]