Thalappil Pradeep

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Thalappil Pradeep
Professor T. Pradeep IIT Madras.jpg
Professor T. Pradeep in his laboratory 2015
Nationality Indian
Alma mater Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
Scientific career
Fields Molecular materials and surfaces
Institutions Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Thalappil Pradeep[1] is an Institute professor and Professor of chemistry in the Department of Chemistry[2] at the Indian Institute of Technology Madras.[3] He is also an Institute Chair Professor.

Early life[edit]

Pradeep [1] was born on July 8, 1963 to the couple, (Late) Thalappil Narayanan Nair and Pulakkat Panampattavalappil Kunjilakhmi Amma. Both his parents were school teachers. His father was a writer too, with pen name, N. N. Thalappil, who authored 14 books in Malayalam. Pradeep was educated in government schools all through. From 5th to 10th, he was educated at the Govt. High School, Mookkuthala where his father taught Malayalam and mother taught social studies. The school was built by Shri. Pakaravoor Chitran Namboothiripad, who donated it to the Government at a token price of Rs. 1. Most of the days he walked the 4 km trip to the school, as most of his classmates. Later, he was educated at the MES College, Ponnani for his Pre Degree, St. Thomas College, Thrissur for his BSc and Farook College, Kozhikode for his MSc.

Early research[edit]

Pradeep[4] earned a PhD degree in chemical physics working with Professors C. N. R. Rao[5] and M. S. Hegde at the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.[6] Subsequently, he spent about two years as a post-doctoral fellow at the University of California, Berkeley[7] and Purdue University, Indiana.[8] Since then, he has been working at the Indian Institute of Technology Madras,[3] where he is a full professor. He also held visiting positions at Purdue University,[8] Leiden University, in the Netherlands,[9] EPFL, Switzerland,[10] the Institute of Chemistry, Taiwan,[11] Pohang University of Science and Technology, South Korea[12] and the University of Hyogo, Japan.[13]

Current research and research group[edit]

Pradeep’s work is in the area of molecular materials and surfaces. The materials and phenomena he discovered have implications to clean environment, affordable clean water and ultrasensitive devices. Some of his discoveries have been translated to viable products and several of his recent findings[14] have immense scope for the benefit of the world at large and developing world in particular. Along with such studies, he pursued fundamental problems of relevance to the science of ice surfaces.[15] For studies of ultrathin surfaces of molecular solids such as ices, he developed unique instrumentation,[16] an important aspect of his research.

A summary of his most important findings of the recent past is presented here. Most of the results pertain to the past five years, although some earlier studies of relevance (till 2003) are also touched upon. All these studies and associated technological developments have happened at IIT Madras with his students and associates, using the support of Department of Science and Technology, Government of India.[17] Therefore, none of the findings described below are due to him alone.

Pradeep discovered several atomically precise clusters or nanomolecules of noble metals. These are molecules composed of a few atom core, protected with ligands, especially thiols which are fundamentally different from their bulk and plasmonic analogues in terms of their optical, electronic, and structural properties. Such clusters show distinct absorption spectra and well-defined luminescence, mostly in the visible and near-infrared regions, just as molecules. He introduced several new synthetic approaches to make new clusters (a summary of the methods is presented in reference[18]), showed some of the very first examples of chemistry with such materials and developed applications with them. Most recent of these examples is the introduction of inter-cluster reactions between clusters,[19] which demonstrate that nanoparticles behave like simple molecules and stoichiometric reactions of the type, A + B → C + D, can be written for these processes, where A, B, C and D are nanoparticles. To describe the structure and properties of such clusters, his group has introduced a system of nomenclature for such systems in general.[20]

The important atomically precise clusters he discovered are: Ag7/8,[21] Ag9[22], Au23,[23] Ag152[24] and the smallest molecular alloy, Ag7Au6.[25] He created methods to form highly uniform nanotriangles[26] and introduced a new family of materials called mesoflowers.[27] Combining luminescent atomically precise clusters with mesoflowers and nanofibres, he developed sensors at sub-zeptomole levels[28] which are probably the limits of fast molecular detection. A single mesoflower has been shown to detect nine molecules of trinitrotoluene (TNT). A recent example of this chemistry is the detection of 80 ions of Hg2+ with single nanofibers.[29] A number of atomically precise luminescent clusters have been made in proteins and their growth involves inter-protein metal transfer.[30] These clusters were shown to be excellent biolabels.[31] Early examples of cluster functionalisation[32] were demonstrated by him and the methods he introduced are shown to impart properties such as fluorescence resonance energy transfer to such systems[33] and these methodologies are now used for applications. Cluster functionalisation chemistry has recently been extended to make isomers of nanomolecules and these have been isolated in collaboration with Japanese scientists.[34] He has recently demonstrated supramolecular functionalisation of clusters.[35] Such clusters help assemble 1D nanostructures, leading to precise 3D structures.[36]

Simple methods of synthesis and analysis have been some of the focal themes of his research. In a recent work, molecular ionization was demonstrated at 1 V from a carbon nanotubes-impregnated paper.[37] This methodology was used to collect high quality mass spectra of diverse analytes. Besides the advantage of low internal energy of the ions, which preserves fragile species and intermediates, the methodology helps in miniaturising mass spectrometry. Ion-based chemistry is now used to synthesise structures such as metal grasslands, extending over cm2 areas.[38]

He discovered noble metal nanoparticle-based drinking water purification methods[39][40][41] and developed the world’s first drinking water filters utilising nanochemistry. The chemistry he developed was reductive dehalogenation of halocarbons at noble metal nanoparticle surfaces which when applied to several of the common pesticides present in surface waters of India, resulted in their degradation at room temperature and at extremely low concentrations, of the order of parts per billion. The process when occurs on supported nanoparticles, trace concentrations of halocarbon pesticides can be removed from a flowing water stream. Water purifiers based on this technology have been introduced in the market since 2007. As a result of this innovation, many activities have started in India and elsewhere and we are now certain of the impact of nanomaterials in clean water.[42] About 1.5 million of these filters have been sold in the market till now. IIT Madras received over Rs. 230 lakhs in royalties from this finding, the first of its kind in the Indian university system, in terms of royalty earnings and reach from a single patent.

He developed several new technologies in the recent past to tackle various other contaminants such as arsenic, lead, mercury and organics in water, which are the subject of a few issued and filed patents (26), (28). Such capabilities to bring contaminant concentrations under drinking water norms using diverse nanomaterials, feasible synthesis of such materials in quantities, creation of viable processes for their implementation along with the use of efficient sensors would make clean drinking water affordable using nanomaterials. Critical problem in achieving this goal is the development of advanced and affordable materials with no or reduced environmental impact. Some of the materials and technologies he has developed over the years have been combined to make affordable all-inclusive point-of-use drinking water purifiers,[14] which are being installed in various parts of the country, both as community and as domestic units. These advanced sand-like composites are made in water at room temperature, with no environmental cost. Gravity-fed water solutions using such materials without the use of electricity can make sustainable access to safe drinking water a reality.

With all these developments, ‘nanomaterials for water purification’ is recognised as one of the major themes of research in the area. Pradeep has shown that a completely home-grown nanotechnology, from lab to market is possible in India. His recent discovery of ultrasensitive single particle sensors with the capacity to detect a few tens of molecules and ions[28][29] may be combined with new materials to make simultaneous sensing and scavenging at ultratrace levels possible. The new materials he has developed have been put together to make community purifiers in arsenic affected areas of West Bengal which have been running for three years. A company incubated by IIT Madras to take such technologies forward has now been entrusted with the task of installing 2000 small scale community purifiers which will cater to 600,000 people in the arsenic affected areas. Another version of this technology for on-line filtration has also been implemented. This design is serving arsenic-free water to 150,000 people at present. The technology has now been approved for national implementation. In order to take such technologies globally and to make new ones in the drinking water sector, he has secured US$18 million in terms of venture funding.

He created 3D organised structures of nanoparticles called superlattices[43] and used them for surface enhanced Raman imaging[44][45] and specific gas sensing applications.[46]

In his earlier research (during 2003-2007), Pradeep discovered that binding of metallic nanoparticles on metallic carbon nanotube bundles made the latter semiconducting and consequently the nanoparticle-nanotube composite became luminescent in the visible region.[47] This luminescence was reversible by the exposure of specific gases such as hydrogen as they occupied the interstitial sites of the bundle. He showed a transverse electrokinetic effect in metal nanoparticle assemblies which resulted in a potential when a liquid was flown over it.[48][49] Using spectroscopic and scattering techniques, he showed that long chain monolayers on metal nanoparticle surfaces were rotationally frozen.[50][51] This is in contrast to the monolayers on planar surfaces, which are in a rotator phase at room temperature (RT). All of these results have implications to the applications of nanoparticles in diverse areas.

Other aspect of his research is on ice, the solid form of water. He found novel processes occurring at the very top of ice surfaces which are of particular relevance to atmospheric chemistry. Among the various examples, he has shown that the vapour pressures of gases oscillate over melting ice;[52] the study has implications to the fundamental understanding of dynamics of gas phase over condensed systems. He showed that the elementary reaction, H+ + H2O → H3O+ in the gas phase and in liquid water happens differently on ice surfaces, namely one channel follows, H+ + H2O(ice) → H2+ + OH.(ice), when H+ collides ice at ultra low kinetic energies.[53] In other words, while H+ makes hydronium ion in liquid water, it results in dihydrogen cation on ice. He showed that molecular transport of even slightly different molecules is largely different within ice.[54] To discover and understand such processes, especially at the very top of ice, he built the very first ultra low energy (1-10 eV) ion scattering spectrometer, a new tool in extremely surface sensitive spectroscopy, working at cryogenic temperatures as in space.[16] In this experiment, mass and energy selected ions undergo collisions at ultra-thin molecular surfaces prepared on single crystals and the product ions are studied by a mass spectrometer. The surfaces are simultaneoulsy characterised by a range of techniques such as reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry.

The current research group add link is a mix of diverse expertise. The group members are largely chemists along with some chemical engineers, physicists, computer science graduates, biologists and instrumentation engineers. The group has almost all the tools required for advanced materials science within itself. Other facilities are available in the institute. There are also intense collaborations with scientists across the world.


Two companies have been incubated.

1.InnoNano Research Private Limited (a start-up company at IIT Madras). The company uses various technologies, captured in sixteen patents. Company has established production facilities now and has already received orders worth $4 million.

2.Safewater Nano Pte. Ltd. The company is incorporated in Singapore, to take our water technologies to international markets, at a funding of $18 million.

Both are co-owned by IIT Madras.

Several other patents have been licensed.


In English[edit]

1. T. Pradeep (Ed.), Advances in Physical Chemistry, Allied Publishers, New Delhi, 1999.

2. T. Pradeep, Nano: The Essentials Understanding Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, 2007, reprinted 2008, 2009, 2010 (twice), 2011, 2012, 2014 and 2015.

3. S. K. Das, S. U. S. Choi, W. Yu, T. Pradeep, Nanofluids Science and Technology, John Wiley, New York (2008).

4. Nano: The Essentials Understanding Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, McGraw-Hill, April 2008.

(International edition).

5. Nano: The Essentials Understanding Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, in Japanese, Kyorisu Press, August 2011.

6. T. Pradeep and others, A Textbook on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, McGraw-Hill Education, New Delhi 2012. (This book is now a textbook in several universities for advanced nanoscience and nanotechnology courses). Reprinted 2014.

7. David E. Reisner and T. Pradeep (Eds.), Aquananotechnology: Global Prospects, CRC Press, New York, 2015.

There are several books in which his articles are included.

A few are below:

1. Detection and extraction of pesticides from drinking water using nanotechnologies, T. Pradeep and Anshup, in Nanotechnology applications for clean water N. Savage, M. Diallo, J. Duncan, A. Street and R. Sustich (Ed), William Andrew, New York, 2008.

2. Gold nanoparticles, P. R. Sajanlal and T. Pradeep, Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia (2011).

3. Noble metal nanoparticles, T. S. Sreeprasad and T. Pradeep, Springer Handbook of Nanomaterials, R. Vajtai (Ed.), Springer, Heidelberg, 2013.

4. Noble metal clusters in protein templates, T. Pradeep, A. Baksi and P. L. Xavier in Functional nanometer-sized clusters of transition metals: Synthesis, properties and applications, W. Chen and S. Chen (Ed.), RSC Publishing, London, 2014.

5. Detection and extraction of pesticides from drinking water using nanotechnologies (Second Edition), T. Pradeep, Anshup and M. S. Bootharaju, in Nanotechnology applications for clean water A. Street, R. Sustich, J. Duncan and N. Savage (Ed.), Elsevier, 2014.

In Malayalam[edit]

1. ‘Vipathinte Kalochakal’, T. Pradeep, National Book Stall, Kottayam, 1990.

2. ‘Aanava Prathisandhi’ T. Pradeep and K. Vijayamohanan, DC Books, Kottayam, 1991.

3. Chapter in, “Anusakthi Aapathu”, Ed. RVG Menon, Sugathakumari, 1991.

4. “Kunjukanangalku Vasantham Nanotechnologikku Oramukham”, DC Books, Kottayam, 2007. This is based on a series of articles in Mathrubhumi Illustrated Weekly published during 2006-2007. (Won the Kerala Sahitya Academi Award of 2010)

5. Chapter in, Rasathanthram: Jeevithavum Bhavium (translated as Chemistry: Life and Future), Kerala Sastra Sahitya Parishad, Trissur, 2011.

There are several popular science articles in English and Malayalam.


Pradeep is a recipient of several awards including the Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar Prize, BM Birla Science Prize, National Award for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, India Nanotech Innovation Award and J.C. Bose National Fellowship. He is an adjunct professor in a couple of universities. He is a Fellow of the Indian National Science Academy, Indian Academy of Sciences, Indian National Academy of Engineering, National Academy of Sciences and Royal Society of Chemistry. He has received the lifetime achievement research award of IIT Madras and is designated as Institute Professor.

Views on nanotechnology[edit]

Pradeep has been advocating the use of noble metal based nanotechnology for purifying the environment.[42] As scientific understanding of the health effects of contaminants increases, it is likely that their allowed limits will be continuously revised. The contaminants levels are expected to reach molecular limits in the years to come. This implies that the technologies we use have to become molecule-specific and nanotechnology becomes the obvious choice.[55]


  1. ^ a b "Pradeep research group". 
  2. ^ "Department of Chemistry IITM". Retrieved 14 Feb 2016. 
  3. ^ a b "Indian Institute of Technology Madras". Retrieved 18 October 2013. 
  4. ^ "Profile of Professor T. Pradeep". Retrieved 18 October 2013. 
  5. ^ "C. N. R. Rao". 30 June 1934. Retrieved 18 October 2013. 
  6. ^ "Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore". Retrieved 18 October 2013. 
  7. ^ "University of California, Berkeley". Retrieved 18 October 2013. 
  8. ^ a b Purdue Marketing & Media, Purdue University. "Purdue University, Indiana". Retrieved 18 October 2013. 
  9. ^ "Leiden University, Netherlands". Retrieved 18 October 2013. 
  10. ^ "EPFL, Switzerland" (in French). 17 September 2013. Retrieved 18 October 2013. 
  11. ^ Institute of Chemistry, Taiwan Archived 24 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ "Pohang University of Science and Technology, South Korea". Retrieved 18 October 2013. 
  13. ^ "University of Hyogo, Japan". Retrieved 18 October 2013. 
  14. ^ a b "Biopolymer reinforced synthetic granular nanocomposites for affordable point-of-use water purification, M. Udhaya Sankar, Sahaja Aigal, Amrita Chaudhary, Anshup, Shihabudheen M. Maliyekkal, A. Anil Kumar, Kamalesh Chaudhari and T. Pradeep, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 110 (2013) 8459-8464 (DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1220222110)" (PDF). 
  15. ^ "Probing molecular solids with low energy ions, Soumabha Bag, Radha Gobinda Bhuin, Ganapati Natarajan and T. Pradeep, Ann. Rev. Anal. Chem., 6 (2013) 97-118 (DOI: 10.1146/annurev-anchem-062012-092547)" (PDF). 
  16. ^ a b "Development of ultralow energy (1-10 eV) ion scattering spectrometry coupled with reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption for the investigation of molecular solids, Soumabha Bag, Radha Gobinda Bhuin, Rabin Rajan J. Methikkalam, Luke Kephart, Jeff Walker, Kevin Kuchta, Dave Martin, Jian Wei and T. Pradeep, Rev. Sci. Instrum., 85 (2014) 014103 (DOI:" (PDF).  External link in |title= (help)
  17. ^ "Department of Science and Technology, India". 
  18. ^ "New protocols for the synthesis of stable Ag and Au nanocluster molecules, T. Udayabhaskararao and T. Pradeep, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 4 (2013) 1553-1564 (DOI:" (PDF). 
  19. ^ "Inter-cluster reactions between Au25(SR)18 and Ag44(SR)30, K. R. Krishnadas, Atanu Ghosh, Ananya Baksi, Indranath Chakraborty, Ganapati Natarajan and T. Pradeep, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 138 (2016) 140–148 (DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b09401)" (PDF). 
  20. ^ "A unified framework for understanding the structure and modifications of atomically precise monolayer protected gold clusters, Ganapati Natarajan, Ammu Mathew, Yuichi Negishi, Robert L. Whetten and T. Pradeep, J. Phys. Chem. C, 119 (2015) 27768−27785 (DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b08193)" (PDF). 
  21. ^ "Luminescent Ag7 and Ag8 Clusters by Interfacial Synthesis, T. Udaya Bhaskara Rao and T. Pradeep, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 49 (2010) 3925-3929 DOI: 10.1002/anie.200907120" (PDF). 
  22. ^ "Ag9 quantum cluster through a solid state route, Thumu Udaya B. Rao, Boodeppa Nataraju and T. Pradeep, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 132 (2010) 16304 - 16307 (DOI: 10.1021/ja105495n)" (PDF). 
  23. ^ "Bright, NIR Emitting Au23 from Au25-Characterization and Applications Including Bio-labeling, M. A. Habeeb Muhammed, Pramod Kumar Verma, Samir Kumar Pal, R. C. ArunKumar, Soumya Paul, R. V. Omkumar and T. Pradeep, Chem. Eur. J.,15 (2009)10110-10120" (PDF). 
  24. ^ "The superstable 25-kDa monolayer protected silver nanoparticle: Measurements & interpretation as an icosahedral Ag152(SCH2CH2Ph)60 cluster, Indranath Chakraborty, Anuradha Govindarajan, Jayanthi Erusappan, Atanu Ghosh, Bokwon Yoon, Robert L. Whetten, Uzi Landman and T. Pradeep, Nano Lett., 12 (2012) 5861-5866 (DOI:" (PDF). 
  25. ^ "Ag7Au6: A 13 atom alloy quantum cluster, T. Udayabhaskararao, Yan Sun, Nirmal Goswami, Samir Kumar Pal, K. Balasubramanian and T. Pradeep, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 51 (2012) 2155-2159 (DOI: 10.1002/anie.201107696)" (PDF). 
  26. ^ "Electric-field-assisted growth of highly uniform and oriented gold nanotriangles on conducting glass substrates, P. R. Sajanlal and T. Pradeep, Adv. Mater., 20 (2008) 980-983. DOI: 10.1002/adma.200701790". Advanced Materials. 20: 980–983. doi:10.1002/adma.200701790. 
  27. ^ "Mesoflowers: A new class of highly efficient surface-enhanced Raman active and infrared-absorbing materials, P. R. Sajanlal, T. Pradeep, Nano Res., 2 (2009) 306-320" (PDF). 
  28. ^ a b "Selective visual detection of TNT at the sub-zeptomole level, Ammu Mathew, P. R. Sajanlal, and T. Pradeep, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 51 (2012) 9596-9600 (DOI: 10.1002/anie.201203810)" (PDF). 
  29. ^ a b "Approaching sensitivity of tens of ions using atomically precise cluster-nanofiber composites, Atanu Ghosh, Vedhakkani Jeseentharani, Mohd Azhardin Ganayee, Rani Hemalatha, Kamalesh Chaudhari, Cherianath Vijayan and T. Pradeep, Anal. Chem., 86 (2014) 10996–11001 (DOI: 10.1021/ac502779r)" (PDF). 
  30. ^ "Understanding the evolution of luminescent gold quantum clusters in protein templates, Kamalesh Chaudhari, Paulrajpillai Lourdu Xavier and T. Pradeep, ACS Nano, 5 (2011) 8816-8827 (DOI: 10.1021/nn202901a)" (PDF). 
  31. ^ "Luminescent quantum clusters of gold in bulk by albumin-induced core etching of nanoparticles: Metal ion sensing, metal enhanced luminescence and biolabeling, Madathumpady Abubaker Habeeb Muhammed, Pramod Kumar Verma, Samir Kumar Pal, Archana Retnakumari, Manzoor Koyakutty, Shantikumar Nair, and T. Pradeep, Chem. Eur. J.,16 (2010) 10103-10112 DOI: 10.1002/chem.201000841" (PDF). 
  32. ^ "Ligand exchange of Au25SG18 leading to functionalized gold clusters: Spectroscopy, kinetics and luminescence, E. S. Shibu, M. A. Habeeb Muhammed, T. Tsukuda and T. Pradeep, J. Phys. Chem. C, 112 (2008) 12168 - 12176. Doi:10.1021/jp800508d" (PDF). 
  33. ^ "Quantum Clusters of Gold Exhibiting FRET, M. A. Habeeb Muhammed, Ajay Kumar Shaw, Samir Kumar Pal and T. Pradeep, J. Phys. Chem. C, 112 (2008) 14324-14330" (PDF). 
  34. ^ "Separation of precise compositions of noble metal clusters protected with mixed ligands, Yoshiki Niihori, Miku Matsuzaki, T. Pradeep and Yuichi Negishi, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 135 (2013) 4946-4949 (DOI:" (PDF). 
  35. ^ "Supramolecular functionalization and concomitant enhancement in properties of Au25 clusters, Ammu Mathew, Ganapati Natarajan, Lauri Lehtovaara, Hannu Hakkinen, Ravva Mahesh Kumar, Venkatesan Subramanian, Abdul Jaleel and T. Pradeep, ACS Nano, 8 (2014) 139-152 (DOI: 10.1021/nn406219x)" (PDF). 
  36. ^ "Cluster mediated crossed bilayer precision assemblies of 1D nanowires, Anirban Som, Indranath Chakraborty, Tuhina Adit Maark, Shridevi Bhat and T. Pradeep, Adv. Mater., 28 (2016) 2827-2833 (DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505775)" (PDF). 
  37. ^ "Molecular ionization from carbon nanotube paper, R. Narayanan, D. Sarkar, R. G. Cooks and T. Pradeep, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 53 (2014) 5936 –5940 (DOI: 10.1002/anie.201311053)" (PDF). 
  38. ^ "Metallic nanobrushes made using ambient droplet sprays, Depanjan Sarkar, M. K. Mahitha, Anirban Som, Anyin Li, Michael Wleklinski, R. G. Cooks and T. Pradeep, Adv. Mater., 28 (2016) 2223–2228 (DOI: 10.1002/adma.201505127)" (PDF). 
  39. ^ "Halocarbon mineralization and catalytic destruction by metal nanoparticles, A. Sreekumaran Nair and T. Pradeep, Current Science., 84 (2003) 1560-1564" (PDF). 
  40. ^ "Extraction of chlorpyrifos and malatheon from water by metal nanoparticles, A. Sreekumaran Nair and T. Pradeep, J. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology., 7 (2007) 1-7. Doi:10.1166/jnn.2007.733" (PDF). 
  41. ^ "Detection and extraction of endosulfan by metal nanoparticles, A. Sreekumaran Nair, Renjis T. Tom, and T. Pradeep, J. Environ. Monitoring., 5 (2003) 363-365" (PDF). 
  42. ^ a b "Noble metal nanoparticles for water purification: A critical review, T. Pradeep and Anshup, Invited critical review, Thin Solid Films, 517 (2009) 6441-6478" (PDF). 
  43. ^ "Functional noble metal nanoparticle superlattices grown at interfaces, K. Kimura and T. Pradeep, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 13 (2011) 19214-19225 (DOI: 10.1039/c1cp22279a)" (PDF). 
  44. ^ "Gold nanoparticle superlattices: Novel SERS active substrates, E. S. Shibu, K. Kimura, T. Pradeep, Chem. Mater., 21 (2009) 3773-3781" (PDF). 
  45. ^ "Fluorescent gold nanoparticle superlattices". Advanced Materials. 20: 4719–4723. doi:10.1002/adma.200800632. 
  46. ^ "Gold nanoparticle superlattices as functional solids for concomitant conductivity and SERS tuning, Edakkattuparambil Sidharth Shibu, Jobin Cyriac, T. Pradeep and J. Chakrabarti, Nanoscale, 3 (2011) 1066-1072 (DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00670j)" (PDF). 
  47. ^ "Metal-semiconductor transition induced visible fluorescence in single walled carbon nanotube-noble metal nanoparticle composites, Chandramouli Subramaniam, T. S. Sreeprasad, T. Pradeep*, G. V. Pavan Kumar, Chandrabhas Narayana, T. Yajima, Y. Sugawara, Hirofumi Tanaka, Takuji Ogawa and J. Chakrabarti, Phys. Rev. Lett., 99 (2007) 167404(1-4). Doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.99.167404" (PDF). 
  48. ^ "Flow induced transverse potential in nanoparticle assemblies, C. Subramaniam, T. Pradeep and J. Chakrabarti, Phys. Rev. Lett., 95 (2005) 164501(1-4). Also in Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology.,12 (2005) 164501(1-4). Doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.164501" (PDF). 
  49. ^ "Transverse electrokinetic effect: Experiments and theory, C. Subramanian, T. Pradeep and J. Chakrabarti, J. Phys. Chem. C, 111 (2007) 19103-19110" (PDF). 
  50. ^ "Dynamics of alkyl chains in monolayer protected Au and Ag clusters and silver thiolates: a comprehensive QENS investigation, T. Pradeep, S. Mitra, A. Sreekumaran Nair and R. Mukhopadhyay, J. Phys. Chem. B., 108 (2004) 7012-7020" (PDF). 
  51. ^ "Towards Understanding Structure and Phase Transitions of Self-Assembled Monolayers on Two- and Three- Dimensional Surfaces: An Overview of Current Efforts, N. Sandhyarani and T. Pradeep, Int. Rev. Phys. Chem., 22, Issue 2(2003) 221-262" (PDF). 
  52. ^ "Concentration of CO2 over melting ice oscillates, S. Usharani, J. Srividhya, M. S. Gopinathan and T. Pradeep, Phys. Rev. Lett., 93 (2004) 048304-4" (PDF). 
  53. ^ "Formation of H2+ by ultra low energy collisions of protons with water ice surfaces, Soumabha Bag, Martin R. S. McCoustra and T. Pradeep, J. Phys. Chem. C, 115 (2011) 13813-13819 (DOI: 10.1021/jp203310k)" (PDF). 
  54. ^ "Probing the difference in diffusivity of chloromethanes through water ice in the temperature range of 110-150 K, Jobin Cyriac and T. Pradeep, J. Phys. Chem. C, 111 (2007) 8557-8565" (PDF). 
  55. ^ "Pradeep on the need for nanotechnology for drinking water purification – CII Journal" (PDF). 

News and external links[edit]