Listen to this article

Thalassery

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Thalassery
തലശ്ശേരി
Land of 3 C's-Circus, Cake and Cricket
Town[1]
Clockwise from top:Hermann Gundert Statue, Kalaripayattu Training, Muzhappilangad Beach, Thalassery fort, Theyyam, Spice Market, Cannons near Pier
Thalassery is located in Kerala
Thalassery
Thalassery
Location of Thalassery in Kerala
Coordinates: 11°45′2.24″N 75°29′13.28″E / 11.7506222°N 75.4870222°E / 11.7506222; 75.4870222Coordinates: 11°45′2.24″N 75°29′13.28″E / 11.7506222°N 75.4870222°E / 11.7506222; 75.4870222
Country  India
State Kerala
District Kannur
Municipality 1 November 1866
Named for Spices (Tellicherry Pepper, Cinnamon)
Government
 • Body Municipality
 • Municipality Chairperson C K Rameshan
 • Sub Collector Dr. Navjot Khosa IAS
Area
 • Total 23.96 km2 (9.25 sq mi)
Elevation2.5 m-30 m 3 m (10 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 92,558
 • Density 3,900/km2 (10,000/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Malayalam, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 670 1xx
Telephone code 91 490
Vehicle registration KL 58 –
Sex ratio 1000:1125 /
Lok Sabha constituency Vadakara
Vidhan Sabha constituency Thalassery
Website www.thalasserymunicipality.in
Thalassery is located in the southern part of Kannur District

Thalassery (IPA: [t̪laʃeɾi]) (formerly Tellicherry[2]) is a commercial town[1] on the Malabar Coast in Kannur district, in the state of Kerala, India, bordered by the districts of Mahé (Pondicherry), Kozhikode, Wayanad and Kodagu (Karnataka).It is the largest populated municipality of North Malabar. The Europeans nicknamed the town "Paris" or in other words "The Paris of Kerala", as it was the sole French military base in Kerala in that era. Thalassery has been significant during the past 500 years in the development of Kerala. Thalassery municipality has a population just under 100,000.[3] Thalasssery has an area of 23.98 square kilometres (9.26 sq mi). It is 22 km south of the district headquarters in Kannur town. Thalassery is situated in an altitude ranging from 2.5m to 30m above mean sea-level.

Thalassery municipality was formed on 1 November 1866 according to the Madras Act 10 of 1865 (Amendment of the Improvements in Towns act 1850)[4] of the British Indian Empire, making it the second oldest municipality in the state. At that time the municipality was known as Thalassery Commission, and Thalassery was the capital of North Malabar. G. M. Ballard, the Malabar collector, was the first President of the municipal commission. Later a European barrister, A. F. Lamaral, became the first Chairman of Thalassery municipality.[5] Thalassery grew into a prominent place during European rule, due to its strategic geographic location.[6] Thalassery has played a significant historical, cultural, educational and commercial role in the history of India, especially during the colonial period. On 9 February 2014, Thalassery taluk was split in two[7] and Iritty taluk was formed. The north eastern hilly region of the former Thalassery Taluk such as Aralam, Ayyankunnu, Kottiyur, Kelakam is within the Iritty Taluk area.

Etymology[edit]

Thalassery (Hindi: त लश्शेरि) may have originated from the ancient Malayalam linguistic usage 'Thala' (Head) and 'Kacheri' (Office), thus Thalassery or 'head of offices'. It could also have emerged from Talakkathe cheri, a combination of 'Talakkate' (Upper or north) and 'Cheri' (Settlement). It could also be a combination of Thali(Brahminic habitation) and ssery i.e. Brahminic village. Thalassery could be a Brahminic village, as it hosts ancient Shree Ramaswamy shrines dedicated/connected to Rama (Rama-Vaishnavite/ Smartha sects settlements in various villages in and around Thalassery such as Tiruvangad, Andaloor, Makreri, Peralassery, Edakkad, Taliparamba, Cheruthazham, Mavilayi, Kadalayi, Trichambaram, Thrikykunnu near Koothuparamba, Kannapuram etc.), such a large number of shrines dedicated to or related to Rama in close vicinity is rare compared to other places in Kerala. The 1885 administration manual vol. 2 of the former Madras Presidency cites research in regional legends and folklore to indicate that the puranic name of Thalassery was Swetharanya pura.[6] The Upanishad Acharya Swethakethu is believed to have taken penance there and it is said that Shiva danced ananda thandava here. This is the stala purana of Tiruvangad Shree Ramaswamy Temple. Thalassery was also known as known as Tellicherry the anglicised form of the Malayalam name Thalassery during the European era and in the official documents until the end of 1990s but the name Thalassery is now used officially.

Thalassery was nicknamed The Paris of Kerala in the 19th century becauses it was the major town where the French military base in Kerala was located. Although the French abandoned Thalassery, moving their base to Mahé (5 km south of Thalassery) (named after the French administrator Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais) because spices could be easily transported to sea using canoes through Mahé river, the nickname remained.[citation needed]

History[edit]

Main article: History of Thalassery

Thalassery was a trade hub where Chinese, Arab, and Jewish traders had considerable influence in the spice market before that the Greeks and Romans was in the trade. It was the European invasion that brought significant change as they enforced the trade with their military.[8][page needed]

Vasco da Gama a painting- The trade alliance between Vasco da Gama and Kolathiri gave Portugal direct access to the spice trade market especially for pepper.
Thalassery Jagannath Temple, Kerala

The British established a trading post and built a factory at Tellicherry in 1694, having gained permission from Vadakkalankur, the prince regent of the Raja of Kolatunad. They had already been trading on the Malabar coast for much of that century, buying pepper from Moplah merchants, and had established a similar post at Travancore ten years earlier.[9]

Tellicherry Pepper- A Black pepper variety. This is a produce of Terre Exotique, France[10]
Jackfruit from Dharmadam
Veera Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja
Painting by Raja Ravi Varma

After the annexation of Malabar, the British called upon Thalassery, the Royal families and other major Nair and Namboothiri feudal lords to return, but this was heavily opposed by some local rulers. Along with heavy taxation and laws that curbed free movement, the appeal resulted in multiple uprisings against the British with heavy casualties to British forces. Thousands of soldiers were killed, but the resistance was eventually defeated.

Geography[edit]

Thalassery is in Kannur district.[11] The town has Dharmadam Panchayat in the north, Eranjoli and Kodiyeri in the east New Mahé in the south and the Arabian Sea on the west. The palm-fringed terrain has a scenic coastline and features four rivers, canals and hills with orange-hued rock. One of the four rivers is the Mahé River (Mayyazhi river). During the British Raj, the Mahé River was nicknamed the English Channel, because it separated British-ruled Thalassery from French-ruled Mahé. Muzhappilangad Beach,[12] the sole beach where driving is possible in Kerala (with a 4 km long drivable area),[13] is located within 6 km from the town centre.

Unlike southern Kerala, Thalassery region does not have lagoons (Kayal), although many rivers flow through the region. The coast has no delta formation. The coastal plain is only a few kilometres in width and is bordered by highlands. The north of Thalassery is Dharmadam, an island area surrounded by two rivers and the sea. On the eastern side, hilly areas start at Kuthuparamba.[14][15]

Demographics[edit]

As of 2011 India census,[16] Thalassery had a population of 92,558, making it Kerala's 8th largest city in population. Males constitute 47% of the population and females 53%. Thalassery has an average literacy rate of 86%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. Both male and female literacy are 86%. In Thalassery, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. The Thalassery urban agglomeration consists of the Thalassery municipality and panchayaths of Eranholi, Kadirur, Dharmadam, Muzhappilangad, Pinarayi and New Mahe with a present population of around 200,000.

Hindus make up 51% of the population, Muslims 46% and the rest mainly Christians.

Villages in Thalassery Taluk[edit]

Thalassery Taluk has 35 villages.

  • Cheruvanchery, Chokli, Dharmadam and Erancholi
  • Eruvatty, Kadirur, Kandankunnu and Kannavam
  • Keezhallur, Kodiyeri, Kolavallur and Kolayad
  • Koodali, Kottayam, Kuthuparamba and Mananthery
  • Mangattidam, Mokery, New Mahe and Paduvilayi
  • Panniyannur, Panoor, Pathiriyad and Pattanur
  • Pattiam, Peringalam, Peringathur and Pinarayi
  • Puthur, Shivapuram, Thalassery and Thiruvangad
  • Tholambra, Thripangothur and Vekkalam

Culture[edit]

Main article: Culture of Thalassery

The British had considerable impact on local culture. As an ancient trade center, the trading and business relations that existed with the Europeans and the Arabs brought people and ideas from many other lands. The Christian missionaries and the educational reforms they brought played an important role in transforming society. The migration to Travancore during Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan's invasion was another factor, resulting in less social distance between upper and lower castes from the 18th to mid-20th centuries. This effect did not reach the Travancore Cochin area, which was not under the Madras Presidency, where inequality was greater.

"Mukathezhuthu"-The face painting of Theyyam, the religious ritual art form in Thalassery

The Government of Kerala has included Thalassery in its heritage city project. The project includes the preservation of historial structures.[17][18]

Thalassery Circus[edit]

Vishnu Pant Chhatre's Great Indian Circus's was established 1880 in Bombay, the first circus establishment in India. A tour of Thalassery led to the meeting of Chhatre with Keeleri Kunhikannan a martial arts trainer.[19] Keeleri Kunhikannan established the first dedicated circus school in India in 1901. He is known as "the father of Kerala Circus". A Circus Academy was inaugurated in Thalassery in 2010.[20]

Thalassery cuisine[edit]

Main article: Thalassery Cuisine
Thalassery Falooda

Thalassery is known for its biryani (in local dialect, biri-yaa-ni)[21] Unlike other biriyani cuisines Thalassery biryani uses Kaima/Jeerakasala rice instead of the usual basmati rice.[22] The influence of Arabian/Mughal culture is evident, especially in the dishes of the Muslim community, although many have become popular among all communities.

Thalassery Falooda is a regional variant of the Persian dessert. This is a cocktail of fruit salad, dry fruits such as black current, pista, cashew, almond(badam), rose milk and vanila icecream.

Another Thalassery dish is Kozhi-kkalu, made of sliced and fried tapioca. Pappadam-Pazham kuzhakkal, Aval um Poriyum kuzhakkal are other popular dishes.[23]

Muttamala, Taripoli, Pazham nirachatu (fried banana filled with grated coconut sugar or jaggery), Unnakaya, Kaayi pola, Chatti pathiri and Ari pathiri are other local dishes. Porridges such as Mutaari kachiyatu (ragi porridge), are popular.[23]

Theyyam in Thalassery[edit]

Theyyam is a ritual performance art form[24] that depict the cultural heritage of North Malabar, especially of ancient Kolathunad. Theyyam depicts Shiva bhutaganas, Kali and other deities and cultural heroes. The drama is enacted based on ancient stories and the language used is "Tottam pattu", a primitive form of Malayalam. Theyyam shows the Buddhist influence from centuries ago. Theyyam is usually held from October to May every year. The colour of Theyyam is typically red. Velan is described in the Sangam literature 500 CE. It could have been a tribal ritual art which evolved under Buddhism and the Brahminic revival of Hinduism. This art form is addressed as "Kaliyattom" North of Pazhayangadi Puzha, Kannur, as "Theyyam" South of the river and as "Tirayattom" around Thalassery.[25]

Muchilottu Bhagavathi Theyyam
Kundadi Chamundi Theyyam
Vishnumoorthi or Chamundi Theyyam

Kalari Payattu[edit]

Inside of Kalari

Kalari payattu is a martial art practiced in Kerala Dharmapattanam (the current Dharmadam), Kadirur, Kadathanad (the current Vadakara) and Kuthuparamba. The British East India Company established their authority by destroying the traditional military character of the community of Malabar.

The Mysorean invaders destroyed traditional institutions, landholding patterns and supremacy of local rulers, along with the power and prestige of the Malabar militia, leading to the decline of Kalari.[26] On 20 February 1804, Robert Richards, the Principal Collector of Malabar, wrote to Lord William Bentinck, President and General-in Council, Fort. St. George, asking permission to take action against persons carrying arms, either imposing death penalty or deportation for life.Lord Bentinck issued an order on 22 April 1804, that those who concealed weapons or disobeyed the orders of the British against carrying arms, would be deported. At the time of the Pazhassi rebellion, British soldiers raided rebel homes to confiscate their arms.[27][28]

Kadal palam

Thalassery is one of the major centres of Vadakkan Kalari. Kalari Payattu had a revival after a resurgence of public interest from Thalassery in 1920. A public protest was led by C V Narayanan Nair.[29]

Places of worship[edit]

  • St.Theresa cathredal mahe

St. Theresa's Cathedral, Mahe (7 km from Thalassery)

  • Sree Jagannath Temple

Sree Gnanodayayogam is a social organisation of North Malabar and the governing body of Sree Jagannath Temple, Thalassery.

Holy grove for snakes
  • Sree Andaloor Kavu

The presiding deity is Rama, worshiped as a forest dweller as depicted in Araṇya Kāṇḍa, Kishkindha Kāṇḍa, Sundara Kāṇḍa and Yuddha Kāṇḍa of Ramayana. Lakshmana and Hanuman who accompanied Rama in his forest life are other deities worshiped there.

  • Odathil Palli

The 200-year-old Odathil Palli mosque is in Thalassery. Its site used to be a sugarcane garden of the Dutch. It changed hands to the British East India Company. It has typical Kerala architecture and it is in the heart of Tellicherry. The crown on the roof is made of gold. The mosque is still in use for worship.

  • Thiruvangad Sree Ramaswami Temple
The Thiruvangad Shree Ramaswamy Temple pond

Sree Ramaswami Temple is dedicated to Sree Rama, in Thiruvangad. It is one of the four important temples dedicated to Sree Rama in Kerala. (The other three are at Triprayar, Thiruvilluamala and Kadalur.)

  • Other Major Shrines

Other religious structures include St. Theresa's Cathedral, Mahe (7 km from Thalassery), Chirakkakavu Bhagavathi Temple, Shri Moozhikkara Bhagavati Temple, Kottayam Shiva Temple, Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swami Temple, Mariamman Koil, Melut Sri Muthappan Madappura, Kaitheri Neelakaringali Amma Temple, Shri Porkali Bhagavathi Temple and Arakkal Dhanwantari Temple.

Cricket[edit]

ThalasseryMunicipal Stadium

Thalassery Stadium, located close to the sea, hosts Ranji Trophy cricket matches quite often. Lord Arthur Wellesley is believed to have introduced this game in Kerala in the 18th century for British soldiers garrisoned in the Tellichery Fort.[30] India's first cricket club, which was later named the Town Cricket Club, was formed in 1850 at Tellichery by Wellesley.[30][31][32] The Tellichery Cricket ground was the hub of cricket activities those days. An exhibition match was conducted in this ground to raise funds during the First World War.[30] English cricketer Colin Cowdrey's father was a tea planter in Thalassery, where he used to play cricket in the 1890s. Cowdrey played in Thalassery during the British regime.

Thalassery Cricket Ground celebrated its 200th birthday in 2002 by hosting a match between the former cricketers of India and Sri Lanka. In 2008 a new stadium only for cricket was inaugurated in Conor Vayal near Venus Junction in Thalassery, as a project of the Kerala Cricket Association.

Education[edit]

The educational renaissance of Malabar started from Thalassery due to the influence of European missionaries. Government Brennen College, Thalassery, founded in 1862, is one of the oldest educational institutions in India. The Kannur University campus is located in Palayad, north of Thalassery.[33] The Basel Evangelic Mission Parsi High school is an English Medium school (established 1856) in Malabar. Dr. Hermann Gundert was a tutor there. Kaikose Ruderasha, a Parsi, donated funds to build the institute with the assistance of German missionaries.[34] Around the 1970s Muslim educational trusts such as MES, founded by Dr. Abdul Gafoor, played a considerable role in educating the Muslim community.[35]

Nettur Technical Training Foundation (NTTF)-Established by the Christian Missionaries of Switzerland

Other colleges include Government Brennen College, College of Engineering Thalassery, Medical College, Anjarakandy, Co-operative College of Nursing, Nettur and Co-operative College of Physiotherapy and para-medical sciences, Nettur.

Other educational facilities include Sports Authority of India Centre, Nettur Technical Training Foundation, Kerala School of Fine Arts, Kendriya Vidyalaya, Govt. Brennen College of Teacher Education, IHRD College of Applied Science, BKJM School of Nursing, St Joseph's Higher Secondary School, Sacred Heart Girls High School, Basel Evangelical Mission Parsi High School MES Bava Residential School, Thiruvangad, Thiruvangad Girls Higher Secondary School, Madrasathul Mubaraka Higher Secondary School, Government Girls Higher Secondary School and Government Brennen Higher Secondary School.

Economy[edit]

Thalasserry Co-op Hospital

The economy is mainly dependent on the expatriates working in the Persian Gulf.Trade and commerce in Thalassery is mainly in wholesale traders, small scale industries and agriculture. The seaport no longer operates. Few industries operate in Thalassery majority of them in the two industrial estates one in Palayad the other near Chirakkara in Thalassery. International trade from Thalassery is now only a fraction of the colonial-era trade. Thalassery fishing harbor is a key sea food trade hub in the region. Major medical facilities include Malabar Cancer Centre, Moozhikkara, Government General Hospital, Tellicherry Co-Operative Hospital Indiragandhi Co-operative Hospital, Josgiri Hospital, Mission Hospital, Santhosh Hospital, Tely Hospital, Kay paral Hospital, Shemi Hospital, Keerthi Hospital.

Transport[edit]

Thalassery Railway Station operates under the Palakkad Railway Division of the Southern Railway. It is a Class 'A' railway station. It is on the Shoranur - Mangalore line. No direct line connects Thalasery to Mysore, although a feasibility study for such a route was funded in 2013.[36][37]

Thalassery railway station

The town has four bus stations. New Bus Stand (1982) is the primary terminus. Inter-state buses to Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Mysore operate from there. KSRTC bus depot is located at Konor vayal. Passengers to Bangalore, Thiruvananthapuram and Madurai depart from that station. KSRTC and private buses are available to Kodagu and Wayanad. Moffusil bus station is located near the New Bus stand. Town buses also originate from the Old bus stand in General Hospital Road. The nearest airport is Kozhikode International Airport, about 93 km south. On completion of proposed airport at Mattannur, the nearest airport for Thalasserry will be Kannur International Airport which will be around 25 km from the town.[38] Mangalore and Cochin airports could be alternate choices.

Kanyakumari-Mumbai NH-66 passes through Thalassery. Kozhikode is 66 km from Thalassery. Thalassery Coorg Road is a major road linking Kerala to Kudaku(Karnataka State). Interstate buses ply on this route in a frequency of one in an hour.[39]

Tourism[edit]

The Thalassery carnival, the Beach fest in Muzhappilangad beach and Dharmadam beach are notable attractions.[40] The area's four rivers (Anjarakkandi, Dharmadam, Koduvally and Mahe) around Thalassery town and four beaches (Muzhappilangad, Dharmadam, Thalassery (2 beaches)) with more in Kannur also attract visitors.

It is an important center of Kalari payattu and health tourism.[41] Other visitors come to experience Theyyam and explore the area's history, such as Tellicherry Fort.

Dharmadam Beach and Island
Overbury's Folly, Thalassery

Thalassery Pier (Kadalpaalam), Overbury's Folly, Pazhassi Dam and Reservoir garden[42] and Malayala Kala Gramam, New Mahe,(7 km from Thalassery)[43][44] are other attractions

Muzhappilangad Beach

A shipwreck is visible near the Thalassery shore.[45]

Political violence[edit]

This area is an epicenter of political violence between Hindus and Communists. Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M)) and the BJP-led Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) have been fighting in this area for supremacy for the last 50 years. Clashes in 2008 left seven people killed and many have been injured. The High Court of Kerala called this manslaughter a “compelling sport” and suggested permanent deployment of Central forces in the affected areas.[46]

Notable residents[edit]

William Logan-The author of Malabar Manual

Climate[edit]

Thalassery experiences a Tropical monsoon climate under the Köppen climate classification. The wet season starts in June as the South-west monsoon first hits the coastal Kerala and continues until the end of September. A brief pre-monsoon Mango showers interval occurs sometime during April. Precipitation from the North-East Monsoon sets in during the second half of October through November.

Climate data for Thalassery
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 32.2
(90)
32.6
(90.7)
33.3
(91.9)
33.5
(92.3)
32.8
(91)
30.1
(86.2)
29
(84)
29.2
(84.6)
30.2
(86.4)
31
(88)
31.9
(89.4)
32.1
(89.8)
31.49
(88.69)
Average low °C (°F) 22.9
(73.2)
23.8
(74.8)
25.5
(77.9)
26.3
(79.3)
26
(79)
24.4
(75.9)
23.7
(74.7)
23.9
(75)
24.2
(75.6)
24.2
(75.6)
24.1
(75.4)
22.8
(73)
24.32
(75.78)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 3
(0.12)
3
(0.12)
11
(0.43)
70
(2.76)
285
(11.22)
900
(35.43)
1,078
(42.44)
544
(21.42)
267
(10.51)
227
(8.94)
103
(4.06)
21
(0.83)
3,512
(138.28)
Source #1: WWO[47]
Source #2: Climate-Data.org[48]

See also[edit]

The important locations in an around Thalassery

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Analysis of Census of India-Kerala State-Government of India" (PDF). Censusindia.gov.in. Government of India. Retrieved 3 January 2016. 
  2. ^ "Govt approves change in names of 25 towns". The Times of India. 12 February 2012. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
  3. ^ "Census of India Website : Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India". Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 2016-08-07. 
  4. ^ "CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF CENTRAL ACTS (Updated up to 17-10-2014)". Lawmin.nic.in. Retrieved 2016-08-07. 
  5. ^ August 8, 2016, 3:13 am. "ചരിത്രം | Thalassery Municipality". Thalasserymunicipality.in. Retrieved 2016-08-07. 
  6. ^ a b Team Thalassery. "THALASSERY - History". Thalassery.info. Retrieved 2016-08-07. 
  7. ^ "Chandy inaugurates Iritty taluk". The Hindu. 10 February 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014. 
  8. ^ Nair, K.P. Prabhakaran (2011). Agronomy and Economy of Black Pepper and Cardamom: The "King and "Queen of Spices. Elsevier. ISBN 9780123918772. 
  9. ^ Swai, Bonaventure (July 1978). "Notes on the Colonial State with Reference to Malabar in the 18th and 19th Centuries". Social Scientist. 6 (12): 44–65. doi:10.2307/3516674. JSTOR 3516674. (subscription required (help)). 
  10. ^ "Terre Exotique - Épicerie fine en ligne". Terreexotique.fr. Retrieved 2016-08-07. 
  11. ^ "Kannur (Cannanore) | city, municipality". Wikimapia.org. Retrieved 2016-08-07. 
  12. ^ "Google Maps". Maps.google.co.in. Retrieved 2016-08-07. 
  13. ^ Neglect ruins Muzhappilangad beach. The Times of India. (12 November 2012).
  14. ^ "Malabar Coast - India Environment Portal | News, reports, documents, blogs, data, analysis on environment & development | India, South Asia". India Environment Portal. Retrieved 2016-08-07. 
  15. ^ "Malabar Biodiversity". Terrestrial-biozones.net. Retrieved 2016-08-07. 
  16. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  17. ^ [1][dead link]
  18. ^ [2][dead link]
  19. ^ Menon 2007, p. 436.
  20. ^ "Circus is trying to regain its lost sheen in Thalassery". The Economic Times. 17 August 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2013. 
  21. ^ [3][dead link]
  22. ^ "My Experiments With Food". Myexperimentswithfood.blogspot.in. Retrieved 2016-08-07. 
  23. ^ a b "Thalassery to Kochi via food". The Hindu. November 27, 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  24. ^ "The Science of "Theyyam"". theyyamcalendar. 2010. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  25. ^ "History of Theyyam". Kerala Tourism. 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  26. ^ ":: Choorakkody Kalari Sangam :: Villiappally". Choorakkodykalari.com. Retrieved 2014-07-22. 
  27. ^ Robert Richards, Papers on the Administration of Malabar District
  28. ^ Team Thalassery (1944-06-27). "THALASSERY - Personality - C V Narayanan Nair". Thalassery.info. Retrieved 2016-08-07. 
  29. ^ Abraham, Santhosh. "COLONIALISM AND THE MAKING OF CRIMINAL CATEGORIES IN BRITISH INDIA" (PDF). Commonlii.org. Retrieved 2016-08-07. 
  30. ^ a b c [4][dead link]
  31. ^ "Official Website Of Information And Public Relation Department Of Kerala". Prd.kerala.gov.in. Retrieved 2016-08-07. 
  32. ^ "Thalassery celebrates a 'double century'". The Hindu. 2002-03-31. Retrieved 2016-08-07. 
  33. ^ [5][dead link]
  34. ^ Team Thalassery. "THALASSERY - Education - BEMP Higher Secondary school". Thalassery.info. Retrieved 2016-08-07. 
  35. ^ [6][dead link]
  36. ^ Thalassery-Mysore Rail Link: Survey Via Long Route Raises Eye Brows. "The New Indian Express". (16 December 2013).
  37. ^ Thalassery-Mysore rail link: Railways to conduct resurvey. The Times of India. (4 September 2012).
  38. ^ [7][dead link]
  39. ^ [8][dead link]
  40. ^ "Muzhappilangad beach fest from April 12 - KERALA". The Hindu. 2013-04-11. Retrieved 2016-08-07. 
  41. ^ "Welcome to Hindustan Kalari Sangam :: Kalarippayattu ::". Hindustankalari.com. Retrieved 2014-07-22. 
  42. ^ [9][dead link]
  43. ^ "Malayala Kalagramam - renowned centre form arts & Culture at New Mahe, Kannur". Kerala Tourism. Retrieved 2016-08-07. 
  44. ^ "Places - Malayala Kala Gramam". Kannur Tourism. 2010-09-09. Retrieved 2016-08-07. 
  45. ^ Kurup, K. K. N. (1985). History of the Tellicherry Factory, 1683-1794. Sandhya Publications. 
  46. ^ "Only Centre can end Kannur violence: High Court". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 12 March 2008. 
  47. ^ "Thalassery". World Weather Online. Retrieved 2 August 2012. 
  48. ^ "Climate: thalassery". En.climate-data.org. Retrieved 18 February 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Menon, A Sreedhara (1 January 2007). A Survey Of Kerala History. DC Books. ISBN 978-81-264-1578-6. 
  • Renjith, Moorkoth, ed (2000). Thalassery Millennium Manual. 
  • Skaria Zacharia, ed. Thalassery Rekhakal. Kottaym: DC Books. 
  • Thalassery Arivukal K. M. Govi. Thalassery: Sanjayan Samskarika Vedi, 2011

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Kottayam Province of Chirakkal Kingdom
Tellicherry, Madras Presidency, British India
1 November 1866 according to the Madras Act 10 of 1865
(Amendment of the Improvements in Towns act 1850)
Succeeded by
Thalassery taluk, Kerala state, India
(States Reorganisation Act, 1956)