Thalys

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Thalys
Thalys.svg
Hoofddorp Thalys TGV-PBA 4534 trein 9340 Paris-Nord - Flickr - Rob Dammers.jpg
Thalys TGV in Hoofddorp, Netherlands
Overview
OwnerEurostar Group
Stations26
Websitewww.thalys.com
Service
TypeHigh-speed rail
Rolling stock
History
Commenced4 June 1996; 26 years ago (1996-06-04)
Technical
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge
Operating speed300 km/h (190 mph)
Route map
Amsterdam Centraal w:Nederlandse Spoorwegen Deutsche Bahn SNCB logo.svg Eurostar BSicon LOGO GVB.svg
Schiphol Airport Amsterdam Airport Schiphol w:Nederlandse Spoorwegen SNCB logo.svg
Rotterdam Centraal w:Nederlandse Spoorwegen SNCB logo.svg Eurostar RET metro logo.svg
Netherlands–Belgium border
Antwerpen-Centraal SNCB logo.svg w:Nederlandse Spoorwegen
Dortmund Hbf Deutsche Bahn Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn Dortmund Stadtbahn
Essen Hbf Deutsche Bahn Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn Essen Stadtbahn
Duisburg Hbf Deutsche Bahn Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn Duisburg Stadtbahn
Düsseldorf Airport Düsseldorf Airport Deutsche Bahn Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn
Düsseldorf Hbf Deutsche Bahn Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn Düsseldorf Stadtbahn
Köln Hbf Deutsche Bahn Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn Cologne Stadtbahn
Aachen Hbf Deutsche Bahn SNCB logo.svg
Germany–Belgium border
Liège-Guillemins SNCB logo.svg Deutsche Bahn
Brussels-South SNCB logo.svg w:Nederlandse Spoorwegen TGV Deutsche Bahn Eurostar Brussels Metro
Belgium–France border
Aéroport Charles de Gaulle 2 TGV Charles de Gaulle Airport TGV RER
Marne-la-Vallée–Chessy TGV Eurostar RER
Paris-Nord TGV TER Eurostar Paris Métro RER Transilien
Thalys Neige (winter)
Thalys Soleil (summer)

Thalys (French: [talis]) is a French-Belgian high-speed train operator originally built around the LGV Nord high-speed line between Paris and Brussels. This track is shared with Eurostar trains that go from Paris, Brussels or Amsterdam to London via Lille and the Channel Tunnel and with French domestic TGV trains. Thalys also serves Amsterdam (via the HSL-Zuid) and German cities in the Rhein-Ruhr, including Aachen, Cologne, Düsseldorf, Duisburg, Essen and Dortmund.

Thalys was created out of a political ambition formalised in October 1987 to establish a network of international high-speed railway services between the cities of Paris, Brussels, Cologne, and Amsterdam. The Thalys name was created in January 1995. The company procured a fleet of Alstom-built TGV trains to operate its services as they were viewed as the only existing rolling stock suitable to the task. On 4 June 1996, the first Thalys-branded train departed Paris, early services were more reliant on slower conventional lines as many of the new high speed lines were still under construction. Service speeds would improve with the opening of Belgium's HSL 1 line in December 1997 and the Dutch HSL-Zuid in December 2009, alongside other infrastructure works. Thalys' busiest route is the Paris - Belgium corridor; various airlines, such as Air France and KLM, have opted to discontinue directly competing flights with Thalys' high speed services.

The service was historically managed by Thalys International, which was 70% owned by SNCF (the national railway company of France) and 30% owned by the National Railway Company of Belgium (NMBS/SNCB)[1] and operated by THI Factory which is 60% owned by SNCF and 40% owned by NMBS/SNCB.[2] Between 2007 and 2013, the German national railway company Deutsche Bahn had also held a 10% stake in the company. On 30 March 2015, Thalys was restructured as a conventional train operating company, becoming less reliant on SNCF and SNCB. During September 2019, a plan to merge Thalys and the cross-Channel high speed train operator Eurostar was announced; approval of the merger was issued by the European Commission on 28 March 2022. In February 2022, Thalys International was integrated into THI Factory, which in turn was acquired by the holding company Eurostar Group during the following month.[3]

History[edit]

Background and establishment[edit]

Prior to the creation of Thalys, an express rail service had long been operated between the capital cities of Paris and Brussels, the earliest being run in 1924 in the form of the train service l'Étoile du Nord. By the 1970s, the conventional service connecting the two cities had a journey time of around two hours and 30 minutes.[citation needed] In the following decade, interest in an international high-speed train service along a similar route was gaining traction amongst various governments.[4]

During October 1987, the political decision to create an network of high-speed services between the cities of Paris, Brussels, Cologne, and Amsterdam was made in Brussels.[4] However, in 1991, the Dutch parliament initially rejected the project; continued discussions led to an agreement being reached with Belgium for a route via Breda instead of Roosendaal. The building of the HSL-Zuid high speed line in the Netherlands was finally approved in 1996.[4] Meanwhile, Germany decided against the construction of a new railway between Aachen and Cologne, instead opting to renovate the existing track between Duren and Cologne, which resulted in a top speed of 250 kilometres per hour along this section.[4] On 28 January 1993, SNCF, SNCB/NMBS,[2] Nederlandse Spoorwegen and Deutsche Bundesbahn (which became part of Deutsche Bahn in 1994) signed an agreement to operate the axis on a joint basis.[5]

During January 1995, Westrail International was created by the French and Belgian national railways to operate the new international services. That same month, both the logo and brand of Thalys were also created; the word deliberately lacked any particular meaning, save for being pronounceable in the languages of all the countries served.[4] It was decided to procure Alstom-built TGV trains, similar to those already used by SNCF on the French national railways, as these were the only suitable rolling stock available at the time. Another key decision was to launch the service in advance of many of the planned high speed lines, being initially reliant upon slower conventional lines until these were eventually completed; the existing international services that used conventional rolling stock were deliberately withdrawn in preparation for the running of Thalys trains in early June 1996.[4]

On 4 June 1996, the first Thalys-branded train departed Paris, this maiden journey took two hours and seven minutes to reach to Brussels, and four hours and 47 minutes to arrive in Amsterdam.[6] Initially, Thalys services only operated four times per day between Amsterdam and Cologne, while a far greater volume were run between Paris and Belgium. While quite restricted early on, the number of Thalys services would be gradually expanded over time, as would the high speed network that supported it.[4]

Changes and improvements[edit]

During December 1997, the Belgian HSL 1 line, allowing 300 km/h (186.41 mph) and running from the French border to the outskirts of Brussels, was inaugurated.[4] On 14 December 1997, the first Thalys train from Paris to Brussels ran on the HSL 1, reducing travel time to 1:25 hours. At the same time, service commenced to Cologne and Aachen in Germany, and Bruges, Charleroi, Ghent, Mons, Namur and Ostend in Belgium. On 19 December 1998, the Thalys Neige service started to the ski resorts of Tarentaise Valley and Bourg-Saint-Maurice. In May 1999, the new high-speed line serving Charles de Gaulle Airport opened, and Thalys started direct services from Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport to Brussels, including codeshare agreements with Air France, American Airlines and Northwest Airlines. On 28 November 1999, Westrail International changed its name to Thalys International.[7]

In 2000, Thalys started a daily Service between Brussels and Geneva. With its Thalys Soleil (French for 'Thalys Sun'), it started offering direct connections to Provence, initially to Valence, and extended to Avignon and Marseille in 2002. Service between Brussels and Cologne was improved in December 2002 when trains began running on the new HSL 2 in Belgium. During 2003, Thalys services started to Brussels Airport and the Thalys Nuits d'Été service to Marne-la-Vallée. In 2007, Deutsche Bahn purchased a 10% shareholding, while SNCF reduced its stake to 62% and SNCB to 28%.[6][8]

Beginning on 14 June 2009, the journey between Brussels and Cologne was shortened by 19 minutes when the new high-speed line HSL 3 between Liège and Aachen opened using Deutsche Bahn's thrice-daily ICE trains running between Brussels and Frankfurt.[9] While HSL 3 was completed during 2007, Thalys trains had not been initially equipped with the European Train Control System (ETCS) signaling equipment necessary to use the new line. Following the completion of installation and testing work, Thalys began operating on HSL 3 on 13 December 2009. For the same reasons, Thalys started operating on the HSL 4/HSL-Zuid high-speed line between Antwerp and Amsterdam on 13 December 2009, two years after the line's construction.[10]

Since 29 August 2011, one return journey to Cologne has been extended to Essen Hauptbahnhof,[11] and since 30 October 2011, one return journey to Brussels had been extended to Brussels National Airport.[12]

On 9 June 2013, Deutsche Bahn permanently ceased the sale of tickets for Thalys services, forcing affected travellers to purchase separate tickets. The company also opted to sell its 10 per cent shareholding in Thalys, marking a general parting of ways between the two operators.[13]

Since the winter 2013 schedule, Thalys has operated services stopping at Düsseldorf Airport station.[14] On 12 April 2014, it launched a regular service between Lille Europe and Amsterdam Centraal.[15]

At the end of March 2015, Thalys dropped the Paris – Oostende and the Paris – Brussels – Mons – Charleroi – Namur – Liège routes; this withdrawal was reportedly due to a lack of funding from the Belgian government.[16]

On 30 March 2015, Thalys was restructured as a conventional train operating company, adopting the name THI Factory, and has since operated under its own train operator certificate.[17] Prior to this date, the ownership of Thalys' 26 multi-voltage TGVs had been divided between the four national railway operators holding stakes in the company; they were transferred to the company at this point. These change were promoted as making Thalys a truly independent company, reducing its interactions with both SNCF and SNCB; headquarters were established in Brussels, with a branch office in Paris.[18]

On 21 March 2016, services in Germany were extended to Dortmund.[19]

In March 2018, Thalys ceased all its operations from Lille-Europe, citing disappointing demand (despite lower-than-average ticket prices) and financial results.[citation needed]

Merger with Eurostar[edit]

In September 2019, the shareholders of the cross-Channel high speed train operator Eurostar and Thalys introduced a plan to merge the two companies, named project Green Speed. Both companies already operate in France, Belgium, and the Netherlands, with Eurostar also operating in the United Kingdom, and Thalys also operating in Germany, while SNCF already held a majority stake in both operators. The project was promoted as reducing costs and providing a more seamless experience to passengers via the use of a single ticketing system and loyalty program.[20][21]

During September 2020, the merger between Thalys and Eurostar International was confirmed,[22][23][24] In October 2021, it was announced that, upon the completion of the merger, it was intended for all of Thalys' services to be rebranded as Eurostar.[25] On 28 March 2022, the European Commission approved the merger.[26] The rebranding of Thalys services is planned to happen in 2024. To differentiate the services of the Eurostar brand, Thalys's rolling stock will retain its red livery.[27] In April 2022, THI Factory was acquired by a new holding company, Eurostar Group; its former shareholders received a corresponding stake in the new holding company.[28][29]

Routes[edit]

High-speed rail networks in Europe. Thalys line network shown in burgundy.

Beyond Brussels, the main cities Thalys trains reach are Antwerp, Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Liège, Aachen and Cologne. Trains to these destinations run partly on dedicated high-speed tracks, and partly on conventional tracks shared with normal-speed trains. The high-speed lines used by Thalys are HSL 1 between Paris and Brussels, HSL 4/HSL-Zuid between Antwerp and Amsterdam, and the HSL 2 and HSL 3 between Brussels and Aachen. For its seasonal operations within France, other high-speed lines are used.

Journeys from Brussels (Brussels-South) to Paris (Gare du Nord) are normally 1 hour and 22 minutes, for a distance of approximately 300 kilometres (190 mi). The peak service speed is 300 km/h (186 mph) while travelling a dedicated high-speed railway track, which is typically electrified at 25 kV AC OHLE.

The ligne à grande vitesse (LGV) link with Charles de Gaulle Airport allowed Air France to withdraw its air service between Paris and Brussels; instead, Air France books seats on Thalys trains.[30] Thalys has been given the IATA designator 2H. This is used in conjunction with American Airlines and Delta Air Lines. American Airlines has a code-sharing agreement with Thalys for rail service from Charles de Gaulle airport to Brussels-South. The airline alliance SkyTeam also has a code-sharing agreement with Thalys for rail service connecting its hub Amsterdam Schiphol Airport with Antwerp-Centraal and Bruxelles Midi/Brussel Zuid. Thalys and the Dutch flagcarrier KLM jointly collaborate on AirRail, an initiative to encourage passengers to travel by train to connect with KLM flights; this effort led to KLM ending its air route between Brussels and Amsterdam.[31][32]

Journey times between the Thalys stations
Paris Nord Bruxelles Midi Liege Aachen Hbf Cologne/
Köln Hbf
Düsseldorf Hbf Duisburg Hbf Dortmund Hbf Amsterdam Centraal Schiphol Airport Rotterdam Centraal Antwerpen Centraal
Paris Nord 1h22min 2h10min 2h35 3h14min 3h39min 3h53min 4h41min 3h17min 2h59min 2h37min 2h01min
Bruxelles-Midi 1h22min N/A 1h08min 1h47min 2h12min 2h25min 3h08min 1h50min 1h32min 1h10min N/A
Liege 2h10min N/A 22min 1h01min 1h26min 1h39min 2h22min x x x x
Aachen Hbf 2h35min 1h08min 22min 36min 1h08min 1h19min 2h02min x x x x
Cologne/Köln Hbf 3h14min 1h47min 1h01min 36min 24min 43min N/A x x x x
Düsseldorf Hbf 3h39min 2h12min 1h26min 1h08min 41min 14min N/A x x x x
Duisburg Hbf 3h53min 2h25min 1h39min 1h19min 43min 14min N/A x x x x
Dortmund Hbf 4h41min 3h08min 2h22min N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A x x
Amsterdam Centraal 3h17min 1h50min x x x x x x N/A N/A 1h12min
Schiphol Airport 2h59min 1h32min x x x x x x N/A N/A 54min
Rotterdam Centraal 2h37min 1h10min x x x x x x N/A N/A 32min
Antwerpen-Centraal 2h01min N/A x x x x x x 1h12min 54min 32min

Market[edit]

Thalys targets a passenger market in France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Germany.

The percentage of income coming from different routes[33] demonstrates on which routes the company is most used:

  • Paris-Brussels: 55.6%
  • Paris-Belgium (outside Brussels): 8.9%
  • Paris-Belgium-Netherlands: 21.3%
  • Paris-Belgium-Germany: 11.8%
  • Others: 2.4%

52% of customers are from the leisure market, while 48% are from the business market. A large segment of Thalys's total sales and income comes from the connection between Paris and Brussels.[16]

Unlike many national train companies, Thalys does not allow children below 12 years old to travel alone. Children onboard Thalys services must be accompanied and possess appropriate travel documents as required by the relevant national authorities pertaining to the journey being made.[34]

Since 24 August 2010, there has been a supplement of €7 to Thalys (as well as other international high-speed tickets) tickets bought at SNCB/NMBS ticket offices at train stations (but not on tickets bought over the Internet). This is due to a reduction of a sales fee paid by Thalys and Eurostar to the Belgian rail company.[35] The sales prices have evolved, by June 2019, the "booking fee" (as it is referred to as) had risen to €9.[citation needed]

Thalys yearly passengers and revenue
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Passengers 4.72[36] 4.98[37] 5.5[38] 5.8[39] 6.0[40] 5.8[41] 5.95[42] 6.15[43] 6.5[44] 6.2[45] 6.5[46] 6.07[47] 6.45[47] 6.65[48] 6.60[49] 6.69[50] 6.90[51] 6.70 7.20 7.51 7.85[52]
Revenue 60[53] 115[54] 190 220 266 294 310 301 318 335 363 364 392 382 432 470 479 487[55] 487[56] 457 509 527

All figures in millions. Revenue in millions of euros.

Accessibility[edit]

Thalys trains are wheelchair-accessible, with the assistance of the train staff. Bicycles are not allowed on Thalys unless disassembled or packed in a special wrap. Folding bikes are allowed.[57]

In February 2020, Thalys announced that its new first-and-last mile travel service 'My Driver by Thalys' enables passengers can choose between around 50 local taxi fleets to complete their rail journeys.[58]

Thalys Lounge[edit]

Thalys operates station lounges in Brussels and Paris. Opened on 9 July 2015, the newest lounge in Paris' Gare du Nord (not to be confused with Brussels' Gare du Nord, where Thalys trains pass through without stopping), located on Rue de Dunkerque [fr], offers travelers with a valid My Thalys World membership (Thalys' Loyalty Program) a variety of services, including free WiFi and a luggage storage service. For business travelers, a fully equipped meeting room is available for up to six people.[59]

Rolling stock[edit]

A Thalys PBA and PBKA coupled in Paris Nord

Thalys uses two models of trains, both of which are part of the TGV (train à grande vitesse) family of high-speed trains built by Alstom in France.

 Class  Image  Type   Top speed   Number   Built   Notes 
 km/h   mph 
PBA Thalys PBA redesign.jpg Electric multiple unit 300[60] 186 9[61] 1996 Tri-current; Operates only on the Paris–Brussels–Amsterdam route.
PBKA Thalys PBKA Refurbished Nederland.jpg Electric multiple unit 300 186 17 1997 Quadri-current; Operates on Paris–Brussels–Cologne–(Dortmund) and Paris-Brussels-Amsterdam routes.

Accidents and incidents[edit]

Thalys PBKA at Köln Messe/Deutz station with an Essen-bound train
  • On 9 May 1998, a truck was struck by a Thalys PBKA on an unprotected level crossing; it had attempted to cross the tracks at the crossing when the train arrived. The truck driver was killed in the impact and the train's power unit and first two passenger carriages derailed; the trainset was left heavily damaged. Six passengers were injured and the tracks and catenary were broken in the incident. Passenger carriages R1 and R2 had to be scrapped. The trainset was later repaired with the R1 and R2 carriages from a regular TGV trainset.
  • On 11 October 2008, a Thalys PBA set bound for Amsterdam collided with a national ICM train set at Gouda railway station in the Netherlands. The Thalys train set had been diverted via Gouda due to engineering work on its usual route. None of the passengers were seriously injured, but both trains incurred serious damage. An investigation concluded that staff of the ICM train was to blame, as they left the station while still under a red signal.[62][63]
  • On 21 August 2015, a gunman attacked passengers on an Amsterdam–Paris train near Arras. The incident was treated as a terrorist attack. Three passengers along with the gunman received non-fatal injuries.[64][65]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "A company on a human scale". Thalys. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  2. ^ a b "About Thalys: Corporate". thalys.com. Thalys. 17 December 2007. Archived from the original on 17 December 2007. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  3. ^ "Données de l'entité enregistrée | BCE Public Search". kbopub.economie.fgov.be. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "25th anniversary of Thalys: how did it start?". railtech.com. 2 June 2021.
  5. ^ "1976–1995 The train: economic development drive". thalystory.com. 24 November 2006. Archived from the original on 24 November 2006. Retrieved 8 November 2019.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  6. ^ a b "Thalys: History". thalys.com. Thalys. 8 June 2008. Archived from the original on 8 June 2008. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  7. ^ "Towards new Rail freight quality and concepts in the European Network in respect to market Demand" (PDF). trimis.ec.europa.eu. 4 October 2010.
  8. ^ "DB buys into Thalys". Today's Railways Europe. No. 140. 1 August 2007. p. 40. ISSN 1354-2753.
  9. ^ "ERTMS deployment in Belgium" (PDF). ertms.net. Retrieved 3 July 2022.
  10. ^ "Delays come to an end (EU HSR 2009)". eurotrib.com. 13 December 2009.
  11. ^ Hermsen, Stephen (22 December 2010). "Thalys verbindet das Ruhrgebiet mit Paris" [Thalys connects the Ruhr area with Paris]. DerWesten (in German). Essen: Funke Mediengruppe. Archived from the original on 16 May 2018. Retrieved 9 November 2019. Ab August 2011 ist das Ruhrgebiet direkt mit der Stadt der Liebe verbunden. Einmal täglich fährt dann der Schnellzug Thalys nicht mehr nur bis nach Köln, sondern auch über Düsseldorf und Duisburg nach Essen.
  12. ^ "Brussels Airport à 1h47 de Paris via Thalys" [Brussels Airport 1h47 from Paris via Thalys]. La Libre Belgique (in French). La Libre Belgique. 14 September 2011. Archived from the original on 24 September 2012. Retrieved 9 November 2019. Une liaison Thalys quotidienne entre Brussels Airport et Paris-Nord, via Bruxelles-Midi, sera ouverte dès le 30 octobre, ont annoncé mercredi Thalys et...
  13. ^ McWhirter, Alex (17 May 2013). "Deutsche Bahn to stop selling Thalys tickets". businesstravelnewseurope.com.
  14. ^ "Fahrkarten nach Paris, Brüssel, Amsterdam, Köln" [Tickets to Paris, Brussels, Amsterdam, Cologne]. thalys.com (in German). Thalys. 7 December 2013. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  15. ^ Vosman, Quintus (14 April 2014). "Thalys launches Amsterdam - Lile services". railjournal.com.
  16. ^ a b Gardner, Nicky; Kries, Susanne (26 March 2015). "Keeping Track of Thalys".
  17. ^ "Thalys is now a train operating company" (PDF) (Press release). Thalys International. 1 April 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 September 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2019. On Monday 30 March, Agnès Ogier, CEO of Thalys, Jo Cornu, CEO of SNCB, and Rachel Picard, Managing Director of Voyages SNCF, signed the agreements to complete Thalys' formal transformation into a train operating company.
  18. ^ Briginshaw, David (10 November 2014). "Thalys set to become independent in 2015".
  19. ^ "Les trains Thalys Paris-Dortmund en circulation depuis le 21 mars 2016". KelBillet. 23 March 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  20. ^ "Eurostar-Thalys merger proposal revealed". International Railway Journal. 27 September 2019. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  21. ^ Coffey, Helen (30 September 2019). "Eurostar and Thalys could combine to form high-speed train network in response to climate change". The Independent. ISSN 0951-9467. OCLC 185201487. Archived from the original on 4 October 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019. Plans are afoot to merge two high-speed train companies – Eurostar and Thalys – to form one mega rail network spanning five countries, in a response to increasing demand for more sustainable travel options.
  22. ^ "Eurostar and Thalys to merge in 2021". Business Traveller. 16 September 2020. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
  23. ^ "Thalys-Eurostar merger planned under Green Speed initiative". Railway Gazette International. Europe: DVV Media Group. 27 September 2019. ISSN 0373-5346. Archived from the original on 18 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019. SNCF, SNCB and the Patina Rail investment vehicle announced on September 27 their intention to combine the Eurostar and Thalys high speed rail operations, reporting that outline proposals were being presented to their respective boards.
  24. ^ "Eurostar to merge with Thalys to form Green Speed". The Railway Magazine. No. 1424. 1 November 2019. p. 11. ISSN 0033-8923.
  25. ^ "Eurostar brand to remain after Thalys merger". Railway Gazette International. 5 October 2021. Retrieved 5 October 2021.
  26. ^ "Competition Policy". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  27. ^ Timothy (3 November 2021). "Eurostar ex-Thalys trains will keep 'ruby' red livery after 2024 merger". Trip By Trip. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  28. ^ "Eurostar, Thalys merge to bring more high-speed rail routes to Europe". Railway Technology. 2 May 2022. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  29. ^ "Eurostar - Thalys merger completed". railjournal.com. 13 May 2022.
  30. ^ Intermodal Transportation. Diane Publishing. United States Government Accountability Office. 1994. p. 27. ISBN 978-1428933378.
  31. ^ Robinson, Elliot (11 April 2022). "KLM and Thalys agree to continue developing AirRail product". globalrailwayreview.com.
  32. ^ "KLM to replace Brussels to Amsterdam flight with high-speed train service". globalrailwayreview.com. 17 September 2019.
  33. ^ "Chiffres Clés". thalys.com (in French). Thalys. 22 January 2008. Archived from the original on 22 January 2008. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  34. ^ "Travelling with Children". thalys.com. Retrieved 2 July 2022.
  35. ^ "Thalys et Eurostar économisent sur le dos de la SNCB" [Thalys and Eurostar save on the back of SNCB]. La Libre Belgique (in French). La Libre Belgique. 24 September 2010. Archived from the original on 9 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019. "L'augmentation de 7 euros, c'est l'un des effets de la libéralisation du trafic international effectif depuis le 1er janvier, précise Michel Praillet, secrétaire national CGSP Cheminot. Dans ce contexte, la commission versée à la SNCB est passée de 10% du prix des tickets à 5%, affirme Michel Praillet. Une diminution de moitié, donc, qui aggrave les problèmes financiers de la SNCB. Est-ce que la SNCB espère ramener les comptes à l'équilibre via ce supplément de 7 euros ? En tout cas, cela devrait combler une grosse partie de la diminution de recettes liées à la décision des opérateurs", ajoute-t-il.
  36. ^ "Thalys trook 57 procent meer treinreizigers in 1998; NMBS: Internationaal treinverkeer zit duidelijk in de lift" [Thalys drives 57 percent more train passengers in 1998; NMBS: International train traffic is clearly on the rise.]. De Financieel-Economische Tijd (in Dutch). Mediafin. 20 January 1999. p. 26. ISBN 9780760307687. ISSN 0771-6079. OCLC 917185135.
  37. ^ "Thalys vervoert bijna 5 miljoen passagiers" [Thalys carries almost 5 million passengers]. NRC Handelsblad (in Dutch). Mediahuis. 8 February 2000. p. 15. ISBN 9780760307687. ISSN 0002-5259. OCLC 795962805.
  38. ^ "Opnieuw goed jaar voor Thalys" [Another good year for Thalys]. De Financieel-Economische Tijd (in Dutch). Mediafin. 10 January 2001. p. 9. ISBN 9780760307687. ISSN 0771-6079. OCLC 917185135.
  39. ^ Van der Heide, Lolke (27 July 2002). "Vliegen zonder vleugels ; Hogesnelheidstrein komt nog niet los van strijd om nationaal belang" [Flying without wings; High-speed train is not yet released from the struggle for national interest]. NRC Handelsblad (in Dutch). Mediahuis. p. 11. ISBN 9780760307687. ISSN 0002-5259. OCLC 795962805.
  40. ^ "Thalys: zes miljoen passagiers in 2002" [Thalys: six million passengers in 2002]. Nieuws.nl (in Dutch). Nort Groep. 6 January 2003. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 9 November 2019.
  41. ^ "Thalys vervoert minder passagiers" [Thalys carries fewer passengers]. NRC Handelsblad (in Dutch). Mediahuis. 16 January 2004. ISBN 9780760307687. ISSN 0002-5259. OCLC 795962805. Archived from the original on 10 November 2019. Retrieved 9 November 2019. De hogesnelheidstreinen van de Thalys hebben in 2003 2,4 procent minder mensen vervoerd dan het jaar ervoor. Het totaal aantal kwam uit op 5,8 miljoen, het concern was uitgegaan van 6,5 miljoen reizigers. Dat is gisteren bekendgemaakt
  42. ^ "Recordjaar voor Thalys" [Record year for Thalys]. AD Rotterdams Dagblad (in Dutch). DPG Media. 20 January 2005. p. 716.
  43. ^ "Kort Nieuws" [Short News]. Algemeen Dagblad (in Dutch). DPG Media. 3 January 2006. p. 3.
  44. ^ "6,5 miljoen reizigers voor Thalys" [6.5 million travelers for Thalys]. De Tijd (in Dutch). Mediafin. 10 January 2007. p. 4. ISBN 9780760307687. ISSN 0771-6079. OCLC 917185135.
  45. ^ "Thalys verliest reizigers maar behoudt omzet" [Thalys loses travelers but retains revenue]. De Tijd (in Dutch). Mediafin. 16 January 2008. p. 6. ISBN 9780760307687. ISSN 0771-6079. OCLC 917185135.
  46. ^ "THALYS POURSUIT SA CROISSANCE EN 2008: HAUSSE DE SON CHIFFRE D'AFFAIRES DE 9,2% AUGMENTATION DU TRAFIC DE 5,2%" [THALYS CONTINUES ITS GROWTH IN 2008: INCREASE IN REVENUE BY 9.2% INCREASE TRAFFIC BY 5.2%] (PDF) (Press release) (in French). Paris: Thalys International. 22 January 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2019. Pour la 5ème année consécutive, Thalys affiche une belle croissance, avec un chiffre d'affaires enprogression de 9,2%, soit un total de 392,1 millions d'euros en 2008.
  47. ^ a b "Flink meer reizigers voor Thalys" [A lot more travelers for Thalys]. de Volkskrant (in Dutch). Brussels: DPG Media. ANP. 25 January 2001. OCLC 781575477. Retrieved 10 November 2019. BRUSSEL – Het spoorbedrijf Thalys heeft vorig jaar een omzet geboekt van 432 miljoen euro, 13 procent meer dan een jaar eerder. Het aantal passagiers steeg met 6,25 procent tot 6,45 miljoen.
  48. ^ "Meer reizigers en hogere omzet voor Thalys in 2011" [More travelers and higher sales for Thalys in 2011] (PDF) (Press release) (in Dutch). Rotterdam: Thalys International. 31 January 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 10 November 2019. Thalys heeft het jaar 2011 afgesloten met een omzet van 470 miljoen euro; een stijging van 8,4% ten opzichte van 2010. Ook het aantal reizigers nam met 3,1% toe. Meer dan 6,6 miljoen mensen werden vorig jaar vervoerd door Thalys
  49. ^ "Hogere omzet voor Thalys in 2012" [Higher turnover for Thalys in 2012] (PDF) (Press release) (in Dutch). Rotterdam: Thalys International. 21 February 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 10 November 2019. Rotterdam - Thalys sluit het jaar 2012 af met een omzet van 479 miljoen euro, een stijging van 2,1% ten opzichte van 2011. In totaal reisden 6,6 miljoen mensen met Thalys. Over het gehele netwerk is dat een daling van 1% in vergelijking met het jaar ervoor. Het aantal reizigers tussen Nederland, Brussel en Parijs is echter gestegen.
  50. ^ "Hogere omzet voor Thalys in 2013" [Higher turnover for Thalys in 2013] (PDF) (Press release) (in Dutch). Rotterdam: Thalys International. 17 February 2014. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 10 November 2019. Rotterdam, 17 februari 2014 – Thalys sluit het jaar 2013 af met een omzet van 487 miljoen euro, een stijging van 1,9% ten opzichte van 2012. In totaal reisden bijna 6,7 miljoen mensen met Thalys in 2013. Over het gehele netwerk is dat een stijging van 1,8% in vergelijking met het jaar ervoor. Vooral het treinverkeer tussen Nederland en België is met een toename van 46,3% aanzienlijk gestegen. Tussen Nederland en Frankrijk is er een lichte stijging van verkeer van 0,6% ten opzichte van 2012.
  51. ^ "Thalys verliest reizigers door terreur". Gazet van Antwerpen (in Flemish). Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  52. ^ "Nombre record de passagers pour Thalys en 2019". RTBF Info (in French). 13 January 2020. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  53. ^ Botman, Hans (27 March 1999). "Thalys raast door" [Thalys rushes through]. Algemeen Dagblad (in Dutch). DPG Media. p. 49.
  54. ^ Van Gelder, Harry (22 March 1997). "Thalys levert NS komende jaren 200 miljoen verlies op" [Thalys will cause NS to lose 200 million in the coming years]. de Volkskrant (in Dutch). Amsterdam: DPG Media. OCLC 781575477. Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2019. De Thalys, de hogesnelheidstrein die sinds juni 1996 vijf keer per dag van Amsterdam naar Parijs rijdt, bezorgt de Nederlandse Spoorwegen de komende acht jaar een verlies van minstens 200 miljoen gulden....
  55. ^ "Fors meer reizigers voor Thalys naar België. Totale reizigersgroei beperkt" [Significantly more travelers for Thalys to Belgium. Total passenger growth limited]. treinreiziger.nl (in Dutch). 17 February 2014. Archived from the original on 4 January 2018. Retrieved 10 November 2019. Het is op tal van plaatsen te lezen: hogesnelheidstrein Thalys heeft vorig jaar 46,3 procent meer reizigers tussen Nederland en België vervoerd. Dat is een forse groei, maar de reizigers naar België blijven in de Thalys in de minderheid. De totale treinmarkt tussen Nederland en België is met zes procent gegroeid.
  56. ^ "20 jaar Thalys: de cijfers". www.bruzz.be (in Dutch). Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  57. ^ "Can I take my bike? Provisions for cyclists on the Thalys". raileurope.co.uk. Rail Europe, Inc. 1 December 2010. Archived from the original on 1 December 2010. Retrieved 10 November 2019. You can take your bike as carry-on luggage as long as it either folds up or, with the front wheel removed, can be held in a loose cover measuring up to 190 cm × 90 cm (74.80 in × 35.43 in).
  58. ^ "My Driver by Thalys' service adds new mobility options". globalrailwayreview.com. 11 February 2020.
  59. ^ "Conditions of Access to Thalys lounges & partner lounges". thalys.com. Retrieved 2 July 2022.
  60. ^ "Manufacturers must share the risk". Railway Gazette International. DVV Media Group. 1 October 1997. ISSN 0373-5346. Archived from the original on 1 October 2012. Retrieved 10 November 2019.
  61. ^ "Thalys: Key figures". thalys.com. Thalys. 16 September 2008. Archived from the original on 16 September 2008. Retrieved 8 November 2019.
  62. ^ "Twee treinen botsen bij Gouda" [Two trains collide at Gouda]. NU.nl (in Dutch). Gouda: Sanoma. 11 October 2008. Archived from the original on 22 May 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2019. GOUDA - Bij station Gouda zijn zaterdagochtend twee treinen op elkaar gebotst. Het gaat om de intercity van Den Haag naar Groningen en de Thalys van Parijs naar Amsterdam. Volgens een woordvoerder van het Korps landelijke politiediensten (KLPD) zijn er door het ongeval geen mensen gewond geraakt.
  63. ^ "Treinbotsing Gouda door samenloop" [Train collision Gouda due to confluence]. ivw.nl (in Dutch). Inspectie Verkeer en Waterstaat. 18 May 2009. Archived from the original on 17 June 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2019. De zijdelingse aanrijding bij Gouda tussen de intercity en de Thalys op zaterdag 11 oktober 2008 is het gevolg geweest van een opeenvolging van onjuiste handelingen door de conducteurs en machinist van de intercity. Dit blijkt uit onderzoek van de Inspectie Verkeer en Waterstaat. Bij de aanrijding met lage snelheid vielen geen gewonden, wel was de materiele schade groot.
  64. ^ "France train shooting: Hollande thanks 'heroes' who foiled gunman". BBC News. 22 August 2015. Archived from the original on 21 August 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2019. French President François Hollande has thanked three American men hailed as heroes for overpowering a heavily-armed gunman on a train in northern France.
  65. ^ "Deux blessés par balle dans un Thalys reliant Amsterdam à Paris" [Two shot dead in Thalys between Amsterdam and Paris]. Le Monde (in French). Agence France-Presse. 21 August 2015. ISSN 1950-6244. Archived from the original on 21 August 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2019. Un homme a ouvert le feu, vendredi 21 août, dans un train Thalys entre Amsterdam et Paris, avant d'être maîtrisé par des passagers.

Further reading[edit]