Thangmi language

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Thangmi
Thāmī, Thangmi Khan,Thani
Thangmi Kham and Thangmi Wakhe
Pronunciation thang-mi
Region Nepal and India
Ethnicity Thami
Native speakers
23,200 (2011 census)[1]
Dialects
  • Dolakha
  • Sindhupalcok
Language codes
ISO 639-3 thf
Glottolog than1259[2]

Thangmi, also called Thāmī, Thangmi Kham, Thangmi Wakhe, and Thani, is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken in central-eastern Nepal and northeastern India by the Thami people. The Thami refer to their language as Thangmi Kham or Thangmi Wakhe while the rest of Nepal refers to it as Thāmī. The majority of these speakers, however, live in Nepal in their traditional homeland of Dolakhā District. In India, the Thami population is concentrated mostly in Darjeeling.[3] The Thangmi language is written using the Devanagari script.[4]

Distribution[edit]

Thangmi is spoken in:

Ethnic Thami outside Dolakha and Sindhupalcok districts no longer speak Thangmi.

Classification[edit]

Devanagari is the script that the Thangmi language uses.

The Thangmi language seems to have many similarities with other languages in Nepal. For example, Barām, Kiranti and Newar. Studies from Konow (1909), Shafer (1966), Stein (1970), Toba (1990), van Driem (1992) and Turin demonstrate that Thangmi is closely related to the Rai and Newar languages.

Grammar[edit]

Thangmi English Pronoun
gai I first person singular
ni we first person plural
naɳ
you second person singular
niɳ
you second person plural
to he, she, it third person singular
tobaɳ
they third person plural

Dialects[edit]

Dolakhā vs. Sindhupālcok[edit]

Dolakha, Nepal

Thangmi consists of two dialects, Dolakhā (East) and Sindhupālcok (West). They differ in terms of phonology, nominal, and verbal morphology and in lexicon. The majority of the Thangmi speaking population use the Dolakhā dialect while only a handful speak in Sindhupālcok. The Dolakhā dialect offers a more complete verbal agreement system while the Sindhupālcok dialect has a more complex nominal morphology.

Kinship
English Dolakhā Sindhupālcok
younger brother hu calaca hu
younger sister hu camaica hu
father's eldest brother jekhapa jhya?apa
father's younger brother ucyapa pacyu
father's eldest sister nini jhya?ama
father's younger sister nini nini
mother's eldest brother palam palam
mother's younger brother malam mou
mother's eldest sister jekhama jhya?ama
mother's younger sister macyu phus?ama

Thangmi songs[edit]

The Thami population are people who are rich in cultural and traditions. Their language is a large part of who they are and they portray this in their cultural, mostly in music. The Nepal Tham Society (NTS) produced a handful of Thangmi songs that were recorded in 2007. The lyrics were written by Singh Bahadur Thami, Devendra Thami and Lok Bahadur Thami. Here are some examples:

[1]

[2]

[3]

Comparative vocabulary[edit]

The following 210-word list of five Thami dialects is from Regmi, et al. (2014).[5] The dialects covered are:

Baram words from Kansakar (2010)[6] are also provided for comparison.

Gloss Babre Lapilang Suspa Kshamavati Daduwa Chokati Baram
body mɑŋ mɑŋ mɑŋ mɑŋ jiu aŋ (IA loan)
head kɑpu kɑpu kɑpu kɑpu kɑpu kəpu
hair cimyɑŋ cimeŋ cimeŋ mus mus sjam
face kʰen kʰen kʰen kʰen kʰen mik
eye mese mese mesek mese mese mik
ear kulnɑ kulnɑ kulnɑ kulnɑ kulŋɑ kuna
nose ciŋɑ ciŋyɑ ciŋɑ cĩyɑ̃ ciyɑ̃ cina
mouth uɡo uɡo uɡo ogo ogo anam
teeth suwɑ suwɑ suwɑ suwɑ suwɑ swa
tongue cile cile cile cile cile ce le
breast cucu cyucyu cucu nunu cucu nənu
belly bɑŋkɑl bɑŋkɑl bɑŋkɑl bʌŋɡʌl bʌŋɡɑl ujaŋ
arm/hand lɑʔ lɑʔ lɑk hit
elbow uru ɽuŋ uru uru kuino kuina (IA loan)
palm oilyɑ lɑʔ lɑk pɑti lapʈa
finger cʰumpi cʰumpi cumpi cyukuri cukuri əŋla (IA loan)
fingernail pin pin pin pin pin luŋdziŋ
leg konʈe konʈe konʈe konʈe lɑi undzik
skin ʃebi ʃebi ʃebi ʃebi ʃebi chala (IA loan)
bone koʃɑ koʃɑ koʃɑ koʃyɑ koʃyɑ haɖ (IA loan)
heart loŋse loŋse loŋsek loŋse loŋse muʈu (IA loan)
blood cɑi cɑi cɑi cʌi cʌi cihui
urine uʃi uʃi uʃi uʃi uʃi ci
feces kuɽi kuɽi kiɽi kuɽi kili ku
village rɑɽe dese dese dese dese hannuŋ (IA loan)
house nem nem nem nem nem nam
roof cʰɑnɑ cʰɑnɑ pɑli pɑli cʰɑnɑ chano
door kʰɑɽoŋ kʰɑɽuŋ kʰɑɽo kʰʌɽu kʰɑɽu ɖhoka (IA loan)
firewood seŋ seŋ seŋ seŋ seŋ siŋ
broom tʰope tʰope tʰope tʰope tʰope astuŋ
mortar yɑmbɑʔ lokmɑŋ lokmɑŋ ʈim luŋ siləuʈo (IA loan)
pestle ulum lok ulum ulum loɦoro lohoro
hammer ʈʰokʈʰokyɑ ʈʰokʈʰokyɑ ʈʰokʈʰoke ʈʰukʈʰukiɑ ʈʰokʈʰokyɑ hətəuɖo (IA loan)
knife ɑikucɑ ɑikucɑ ɑikucɑ kɑrdɑ cʌkku ukhmen
axe rɑpɑ rɑpɑ rɑpɑ rɑʔpɑ rɑpɑ kəm
rope ʃɑkpɑ ʃɑkpɑ ʃɑkpɑ ʃyɑpɑ ɖɑmlɑ ɖori (IA loan)
thread dʰɑɡo sɑle benɑ ʃyɑpɑ dʰɑgo ləkthun
needle ɦili ɦili yuli yuli ɦuli pənuŋ
cloth myuŋ miŋmyɑŋ myuŋ myũ myuŋ mu
ring sɑimundro sɑimundro sɑimundro ʌŋɡuliŋ ʌũʈʰi əŋʈhi (IA loan)
sun uni uni uni uni uni uni
moon cʌlʌuni cʌlʌuni cʌlʌuni cʌlɑʔuni cʌlɑuni cəlauni
sky sʌrɡyɑ sʌrɡyɑ sʌrɡe sʌrɡe ʌkɑs akas (IA loan)
star ucʰi ucʰi ucʰi ucʰi ucʰi tara (IA loan)
rain pɑŋku pɑŋkuyusɑ jʰʌriuɑn ʃyɑrde jʰɑri aŋmət
water pɑŋku pɑŋku pɑŋku pʌŋku pɑŋku awa
river ʃoŋ ʃoŋ ʃoŋ ʃoŋ ʃoŋ gudul
cloud dʰummɑ kʰɑʃu kʰɑsu dʰummɑ dʰumpɑ a mu
lightning mirlisidu sʌrɡyɑtowɑn mirliksɑ miklik gʌɽɑŋguɽuŋtʰɑ -
rainbow indreni indreni indreni lʌrkuni indreni indreni (IA loan)
wind pʰɑʃɑ pʰɑʃɑ pʰɑʃɑ pʰɑʃyɑ pʰɑʃyɑ asi
stone ɽiŋ ɽiŋ liŋ ɽiŋ lyuŋ kumba
path ulɑm ulɑm ulɑm ulɑm ulɑm uŋma
sand pʰɑʃeɽiŋ kʰreʔduɽiŋ jɑŋkʰɑ syɑŋɖo bʌluwɑ balwa (IA loan)
fire me me me me me mui
smoke ɑsku ɑsku ɑsku ɑcʰɑ dʰuwɑ̃tʰɑn isku
ash tɑrbɑ trɑbɑ trɑbɑ trɑbɑ tɑbrɑ maju
mud nɑsɑ nɑsɑ nɑsɑ nɑsɑ nɑsɑ nəsa
dust pʰɑʃe pʰɑsse dʰule buʃi dʰulo dhulo
gold sun loŋ luŋ ɡoɦo sun sun (IA loan)
tree doŋbo duŋbo dombo pole ruk sjaŋma
leaf ɑjɑ ɑjɑ ɑjɑ ɑjɑ ɑjɑ su
root pole pole nɑrɑ dɑrɑ jɑrɑ dzəra
thorn puʈu puʈu puʈu puʈu puʈu achu
flower reŋ reŋ reŋ reŋ reŋ phul (IA loan)
fruit pʰɑlpʰul pʰɑlpʰul pʰɑlpʰul kʌntʰʌmʌl pʰɑlpʰul phalphul (IA loan)
mango ɑ̃p ɑ̃p ɑmcur ɑ̃p ɑ̃p əmba (IA loan)
banana muĩ mui muĩ muĩ mui umse
wheat (husked) jɑʔcʰo jɑʔcʰo jɑkso jɑcʰo jɑʔcʰo gəu
barley ɑkɑn ɑkɑn ɑkɑn ɑkɑn ɑkɑn dzəu
rice (husked) jɑke jɑki jɑke meke jɑke hadza
potato kwɑi kwɑi kwɑi kwɑi koi alu (IA loan)
eggplant bɑnʈɑ bɑnʈɑ bʰenʈɑ bʌnʈɑ bʰẽɽi bhənʈa (IA loan)
groundnut bʌdɑm bʌdɑm bʌdɑm bʌdɑm bʌdɑm bədam (IA loan)
chili mɑrci mʌrci mɑrci ɑso kʰorsɑni asok
turmeric ɦʌrdi ɦʌrdi ɦʌrdi besɑr besɑr besar (IA loan)
garlic lʌsun lʌsun lʌsun lʌmbo lʌsun ləsun (IA loan)
onion pyɑj pyɑj pyɑj pyɑj pyɑj pjadz (IA loan)
cauliflower reŋkopi reŋkopi kopi kɑuli kɑuli kauli (IA loan)
tomato bɑnʈɑ ɡyɑmbɑlɑ ɡɑmbʌl bʌnʈɑ golbʰẽɽɑ golbhẽɖa (IA loan)
cabbage ɑjɑkopi ɑjɑkopi bʌndɑ bʌndɑ bʌndɑ bənda (IA loan)
oil ɑsɑ ɑsɑ ɑsɑ ɑsɑ ɑsɑ asa
salt cʰyɑ cʰyɑ cʰɑ cʰyɑ cʰɑ cha
meat cici cici cici ɑcʰin cici ku sja
fat (of meat) cʰeu cʰou cʰeu cʰo cʰyʌu kucho
fish nɑŋɑ nɑŋɑ nɑŋɑ nɑŋɑ nɑŋɑ nəŋa
chicken wɑcɑ wɑcɑ wɑcɑ wɑcɑ wɑcɑ hocca
egg om ɑɦum ɑɦum ɑum ɑum ohom
cow mɑmɑʃyɑ mɑmɑʃyɑ mɑmɑʃyɑ ʃyɑ ʃyɑ sja
buffalo meʃɑ meʃɑ meʃɑ meʃyɑ miʃyɑ bhəisi (IA loan)
milk olon olon olʌn nunu nunu nənu
horns nɑru nɑru nɑru nɑru nɑru ujuŋ
tail lime lime limek leme lime pitik
goat ʈuɽi ʈuɽi ʈuɽi culi culi mi chja
dog kucu kucu kucu kucu kucu a kja
snake rul rul rul rul rul pəi hu
monkey mɑkɑr mɑkɑr mɑkɑr yu yu pəi huk
mosquito ʈinini ʈinini ʈinini lʌkʰʌʈoʈo lɑmkʰuʈʈe lamkhuʈʈe (IA loan)
ant ʈiko ʈiku ʈiku cukku cuku anap
spider mɑkɑrpɑpɑ mɑkɑrpɑpɑ mɑkɑrpɑpɑ jrɑmpʰɑl jʌrɑmpɑl dzənna
name nɑme nɑme nɑme nɑme nɑme u men
man mi mi mi mi mi bal
woman cɑmɑicɑ cɑmɑicɑ cɑmɑicɑ cɑmɑicɑ cɑmɑicɑ mama
child ɦocɑ ucɑ ɦucɑ ɦuccɑ ɦucɑ uca
father ɑpɑ ɑpɑ ɑpɑ ɑpɑ ɑpɑ papa
mother ɑmɑ ɑmɑ ɑmɑ ɑmɑ ɑmɑ ama (IA loan)
older brother bubu bubu bubu bubu bubu dadze (IA loan)
younger brother ɦu ɦu ɦu ɦu ɦu ale
older sister tete tete tete tete tete didi (IA loan)
younger sister ɦumi ɦomi ɦumi ɦumi ɦu abi
son ucuwa
daughter cɑmɑi cɑmɑi cɑmɑi cɑmɑi cɑmɑi ucuməi
husband lɑwɑ ʈʰoɽe lɑwɑ lɑwɑ lɑwɑ ukəi
wife umɑ umɑ umɑ umɑ umɑ uməi
boy ʃɑrɑ ʃɑrɑ cɑɦucɑ ʃɑrɑ papaca
girl ʃɑrmɑ ʃɑrmɑ cɑmɑicɑ ʃyɑrmi cɑmɑi mamaca
day unise unise unise ʃyɑŋ unise unis
night ʈɑɦe ʈɑɦe ʈɑe cyɑe cyɑ rat (IA loan)
morning bʌcinʈe bʌcinʈe bʌsinʈe bʌsinʈe bɑʃe hamdzaŋ
noon unise unise unise unise unise diuso (IA loan)
evening ŋyoɽiŋ ŋyoɽi ŋyʌɽiŋ nyõɽi cyɑtʰɑn hole
yesterday miryɑŋ miryɑŋ miryɑŋ merɡʰyɑŋ merɡʰyɑŋ minja
today yɑŋ yɑŋ yɑŋ yɑŋ yɑŋ təja
tomorrow bɑʈʈʰe bɑʈʈʰe bɑʈʰe bɑʃe bʰʌĩse hogei
week ɦʌptɑ ɦʌptɑ ɦʌptɑ loʔʃyɑŋ sɑtɑdin həpta (IA loan)
month mʌinɑ mʌinɑ mʌɦine sumcpʃyɑŋ mʌinɑ məina (IA loan)
year kɑle kɑle kɑle dɑrɑ bʌrsʌ bərsə (IA loan)
old kʰɑru kʰɑru kʰɑru kʰɑru kʰɑru cəŋpa
new nɑke nɑke nɑkɑ nɑkɑ nɑkɑ kawoi
good ɑprɑ ɑprɑ ɑprɑ kʌstɑ ɑprɑ kisen
bad mɑʔɑprɑ mɑʔɑprɑ ɦijebɑ mɑjɑdu mɑʔɑprɑ məsen
wet pʰodu pʰodu pʰodu pʰodu bʰijɑiŋɑn kjasun
dry ɡɑŋdu mɑpʰodu pʰʌŋpʰʌŋ gʌŋdu mɑbʰijɑi sukhkha (IA loan)
long ʌlʌmɡɑ ʌlʌmɡɑ ʌlʌmɡɑ ʌlʌmɡɑ ʌlʌmɡɑ alok
short ucʰiɡɑ ucʰiɡɑ ucʰikɑ ucʰiɡɑ ucʰiɡɑ ikuri
hot ɑdum ɑdum ɑdum ɑdum ɑdum kewon
cold ʈilɑ ʈilɑ ɑjik iji cilɑŋɑn kjasun
right cɑkʰur cɑkʰur cɑkʰur cɑkʰur dɑɦine daine (IA loan)
left kʰolɑ kʰolɑ kʰolɑ kʰolɑ debre debre (IA loan)
near kʰer kʰer kʰerte kʰereŋ cʰeute igin
far ʌlʌmtʰɑ ʌlʌmtʰɑ ʌlʌmtʰɑ ʌlʌmtʰɑ ɑlɑmtʰɑ kalok
big jekʰɑ jekʰɑ jekʰɑ jekʰɑ jʰokɑ alam
small ucyɑ ucyɑ ucɑcɑ ucyɑncɑ ecenɑ ikine
heavy ɡʌruŋ ɡʌruŋ ɡɑnunidu gʌrum ɡʌruŋ gegruŋ (IA loan)
light ɦʌluŋ ɦʌluŋ pʰinpʰincɑ ɦʌluŋ ɦʌluŋ həlka (IA loan)
above ɦyute ɦyute ɦyute ɦyute ɦyobbi khuŋ
below nʰɑte nʰɑte nʰɑte nʰɑnɑi nɑbi hjaŋ
white ubo ubo ubo ubo obo gjabo
black kiji kiji kiji kiji kiji ciliŋ
red ɖiŋɖiŋ ɖiŋɖiŋ ɖiŋɖiŋ ɖiŋɖiŋ keret phəija
one di di di di de de
two nis nis nis nis nis nis
three sum sum sum sum sum som
four oli oli oli oli wɑli car (IA loan)
five wɑlŋɑ wɑlŋɑ wɑlŋɑ wɑ̃lɑ hwɑlŋɑ pãc (IA loan)
six mɑt mɑt mɑt mʌt mɑt chə (IA loan)
seven ro lo ɽo sat (IA loan)
eight aʈh (IA loan)
nine kit kit kyut kit kit nəu
ten dicip dicip dicip dicip dʰicip dəs
eleven dicipdi dicipdi dicipdi dicipdi dʰicipde egharə
twelve dicipnis dicipnis dicipnis dicipnis dʰicipnis barə
twenty nisdicip nisdicip nisdicip nisdicip nisdʰicip bis
one hundred dicipdicip dicipdicip dicipdicip dicipdicip dʰicipdʰicip de səe (IA loan)
who su su su su su su
what ɦɑrɑ ɦɑrɑ ɦɑrɑ ɦɑrɑ ɦɑrɑ hai
where kutɑ kutɑ kutɑ kutɑ kutɑ kuni
when kutɑleŋ kutɑleŋ kutɑleŋ kutɑleŋ ɦɑŋgɑlyɑŋ kəile
how many ɦɑni ɦɑni ɦɑni ɦɑ̃lĩ ɦɑi kwa
which kundu kundu kundu kundu kundu kun
this jo
that to to to dʰɑ to tjo
these kɑbɑŋ kɑbɑŋ kɑbɑŋ kʌpʌliŋ kɑbɑli jibaŋ
those tobɑŋ tobɑŋ tobɑŋ topʌliŋ tobɑŋ ubaŋ
same to to to to to ui
different bʰindʌi bʰindʌi beɡɑle toŋɑkɑ pʰʌrʌk phərək (IA loan)
whole sɑkkʰɑle sɑkʰɑle sɑkɑle sɑkɑle sʌkkʰɑli səbəi (IA loan)
broken kwɑdu kwɑʔdu kwɑɡdu ʈʰemɑn cʰyomdu kipak
few ucʰincɑ ucʰincɑ ucʰin ucʰincɑ icʰini jurse
many ɑɦe ɑɦe ɑɦe ɑɦe ɑɦe dherəi (IA loan)
all sɑkkʰɑle sɑkʰɑle sɑkɑle sɑkɑle sʌkkʰɑli səpəi (IA loan)
eat cyɑsɑ cyɑsɑ cyɑsɑ cyɑsɑ cyɑsɑ cago
bite ceʔsɑ ceʔsɑ ceksɑ ceʔsɑ ceʔsɑ aŋakko
hungry krɑisɑ krɑisɑ kʌrɑisɑ krʌisɑ isɑkɑrɑinɑn hego
drink tunsɑ tunsɑ tunsɑ tuncʰɑ tuncʰɑ sjaŋgo
thirsty lɑkɑisɑ lɑkɑisɑ lɑkɑsɑ lɑkɑŋsɑ lɑkɑinɑn əs kago
sleep ɑmisɑ ɑmisɑ ɑmisɑ ɑmisɑ ɑmisɑ nago
lie pʌlʈʌisisɑ pʌlʈʌisisɑ pʌlʈʌisɑ bliŋsɑ pʌlʈʌisisɑ ləllumgo
sit ɦoʔsɑ ɦoʔsɑ ɦoksɑ ɦoʔsɑ ɦoʔsɑ hukko
give piʔsɑ piʔsɑ pisɑ piʔsɑ piccʰɑ pigo
burn cieʔsɑ jousɑ jyoksɑ joʔsɑ jyʌusɑ cimakko
die sisɑ sisɑ sisɑ sisɑ sisɑ sigo
kill sɑtcʰɑ sɑtcʰɑ sɑtcʰɑ sʌtcʰɑ sɑccʰɑ sat ko
fly persɑ persɑ persɑ persɑ persɑ ublego
walk cɑwɑsɑ cɑwɑsɑ cɑwɑsɑ cɑwɑsɑ cɑwɑsɑ dzjogo
run droʔsɑ droʔsɑ droksɑ droʔsɑ dorʌsɑ gəbango
go ɦensɑ ɦensɑ ɦensɑ ɦensɑ ɦensɑ jago
come rɑʔsɑ rɑʔsɑ rɑsɑ rɑʔsɑ rɑʔsɑ təigo
speak cijyɑŋsɑ cijyɑŋsɑ cijyɑŋsɑ cijyɑŋsɑ cijɑŋsɑ khəlago
hear/listen nɑsɑisɑ nɑsɑisɑ nɑsɑisɑ nɑsɑisɑ nɑsɑisɑ nago
look yoʔsɑ yoʔsɑ yosɑ jyɑpsɑ jyɑpsɑ ni go
I ɡɑi ɡɑi ɡɑi ɡʌi ɡɑi ŋa
you (informal) nɑŋ nɑŋ nɑŋ nʌŋ nɑŋ nuŋ
you (formal) nɑŋtʰe nɑŋtʰe nɑŋkʰe nʌŋ nɑŋ nuŋ
he to to to to to u (IA loan)
she to to to to to u
we (inclusive) ni ni ni ni tʰe niru
we (exclusive) ni ni ni ni tʰe niru
you (plural) niŋpɑli niŋpɑli niŋ nʌŋpɑliŋ nʌŋpɑli tibaŋ
they tobɑŋ tobɑŋ tobɑŋ topɑliŋ topɑliŋ ubaŋ

References[edit]

  1. ^ Thangmi at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Thangmi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Turin, Mark (1998). "The Thangmi Verbal Agreement System and the Kiranti Connection". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 61 (3): 476–491. doi:10.1017/s0041977x00019303.
  4. ^ "Script Devanagari (Nagari)".
  5. ^ Regmi, Dan Raj, Gopal Thakur, and Shobha Kumari Mahato. 2014. A sociolinguistic survey of Thami. Linguistic Survey of Nepal (LinSuN), Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  6. ^ Kansakar, Tej Ratna. 2010. Baram wordlist. (unpublished ms. contributed to STEDT).

Further reading[edit]

  • Saxena, A. (Ed.). (2004). Himalayan languages: past and present (Vol. 149). Walter de Gruyter.
  • Turin, Mark (1998). "The Thangmi Verbal Agreement System and the Kiranti Connection". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. 61 (3): 476–491. doi:10.1017/s0041977x00019303.
  • Turin, M. (2012). "Voices of vanishing worlds: Endangered languages, orality, and cognition". Análise Social. 47 (205): 846–869.
  • Bradley, D. (2012). "[Review of A Grammar of the Thangmi Language: With an Ethnographic Introduction to the Speakers and Their Culture. Brill's Tibetan Studies Library 5/6]". Anthropological Linguistics. 54 (3): 302–305. doi:10.1353/anl.2012.0014.
  • Shneiderman, S. B. (2009). "The formation of political consciousness in rural Nepal". Dialectical Anthropology. 33 (3/4): 287–308. doi:10.1007/s10624-009-9129-2.
  • Shneiderman, S.; Turin, M. (2000). "Thangmi, Thami, Thani? Remembering a Forgotten People". Himalayan Culture. 5 (1): 4–20.
  • Turin, M (1999). "By way of incest and the golden deer: how the Thangmi came to be and the pitfalls of oral history". Journal of Nepalese Studies. 3 (1): 13–19.
  • Shneiderman, S. B. (2009). Rituals of ethnicity: Migration, mixture, and the making of Thangmi identity across Himalayan borders (Doctoral dissertation, Cornell University).
  • Sara, S. (2015). Epilogue: Thami ke ho?What Is Thami?. In, Rituals of Ethnicity : Thangmi Identities Between Nepal and India (p. 252). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Sara, S. (2015). 3. Origin Myths and Myths of Originality. In, Rituals of Ethnicity : Thangmi Identities Between Nepal and India (p. 61). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Grierson, G. A. (1909). Tibeto-Burman Family: General Introduction, Specimens of the Tibetan Dialects, the Himalayan Dialects, and the North Assam group. (Linguistic Survey of India, III(I).) Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing. 669pp.
  • Shneiderman, S. (2010). ‘Producing’ Thangmi Ritual Texts: Practice, performance and collaboration. In Imogen Gunn and Mark Turin (eds.) Language Documentation and Description, Vol 8, 159-174 London: SOAS.
  • Turin, M. (2011). Languages of the Greater Himalayan Region, Volume 6: A Grammar of the Thangmi Language (2 vols): With an Ethnolinguistic Introduction to the Speakers and Their Culture. Brill.

External links[edit]