Tharparkar District

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Tharparkar District

ضلعو ٿرپارڪر
View of city in the District
View of city in the District
Pakistan - Sindh - Tharparkar.svg
Coordinates: 24°44′24″N 69°48′0″E / 24.74000°N 69.80000°E / 24.74000; 69.80000
Country Pakistan
ProvinceSindh
HeadquartersMithi
Government
 • Deputy CommissionerDr Shahzad Tahir Thaheem[1][2]
 • District Health OfficerDr. Irshad Ahmed Memon[3][4]
Area
 • Land19,638 km2 (7,582 sq mi)
Population
 (2017)[5]
 • Total1,649,661
Demonym(s)Thari
Time zoneUTC+5 (PST)
HDI (2015)[6]
Rank in Pakistan
Decrease 0.227 very low
Decrease 109th (out of 114)
Websitewww.tharparkar.com www.tharparkar.org
Constituencies


Provincial

PS-54 Tharparkar-I - Abdul Razzaque

PS-55 Tharparkar-II - Muhammad Qasim Soomro

PS-56 Tharparkar-III - Faqir Sher Muhammad Bilalani

PS-57 Tharparkar-IV - Arbab Lutfullah


National

NA-221 Tharparkar-I - Pir Noor Muhammad Shah Jeelani

NA-222 Tharparkar-II - Mahesh Kumar Malani

Tharparkar District (Sindhi: ضلعو ٿرپارڪر‎, Hindi: थारपारकर जिला, Gujarati: થારપાકર જીલ્લા, Urdu: ضِلع تھرپارکر ‎) is one of the twenty nine districts of Sindh province in Pakistan. It is largest district of Sindh province by land area.[7][8][9][10] It has the largest number of Hindu population in Pakistan.[11] It is headquartered at Mithi. It has the lowest Human Development Index of all the districts in Sindh. Thar has a fertile desert and the livelihood of Thari people depends on rainfall agriculture.[12]

Geography[edit]

Tharparkar district lies in 69° 3” 35’ to 71° 7” 47’ east longitudes and 24° 9’ 35” to 25° 43’ 6” north latitudes.[13][14] On the East it adjoins with Jaisalmer, Barmer and Jalore districts of Rajasthan in India. In the South it adjoins with Kutch district of Gujarat in India. District Umerkot lies on the north while district Badin and Mirpurkhas are in the west of Tharparkar.

Climate and Biodiversity[edit]

The district has a tropical desert climate. In the summers, it is extremely hot during the day, but nights are remarkably cooler. April, May and June are the hottest months and December, January and February are the coldest months. The mean maximum and minimum temperature during winter is 28°C and 9°C respectively. There are wide fluctuations in the amount of rainfall from year to year and the yearly average for some areas is as low as 100 mm. Most of the rain falls between July and September, during the south-west monsoon.[15][16]

Taluka-wise rainfall (mm)[17][Abbreviations DU = Data Unavailable, TNC = Taluka Not Created]
Year Mithi Islamkot Diplo Kaloi Chachro Dahli Nagarparkar
2014 180 167 33 TNC 7 TNC 43
2015 422 362 512 TNC 363 26 588
2016 DU DU DU DU DU DU DU
2017 261 337 379 11 1 123 324
2018 58 24 51 10 10 120 40

Since 1997 the highest rainfall recorded was in the year 2011 with 1306 mm.[18] Tharparkar has been hit by drought since several decades and the provincial government has also declared Tharparkar as a drought-hit area.[19][20][21][22][23] List of drought declared years include: 1968, 1978, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1995, 1996, 1999, 2001, 2004, 2005, 2007, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2018.[18]

Flora[edit]

Vessel full of Mushroom
Khumbhi grow in abundance 2-3 days after rains in Tharparkar.[24][25][26][27]


A study confirms 89 plant species of 26 plant families in this region. Numerous species of herbs which can be found in rainy season while desert shrubs and drought resistant trees can be found throughout the year. Some common list of these plants include:[28][29][30][31][32][33]

Trees (Local Names)[edit]

Khejri, Rohida, Devi, Neem, Kumbhat, Kair, Beri, Jar

Shrubs (Local Names)[edit]

Phog, Ak, Pat-teer, Kirar, Gugur, Thuhar, Khip

Herbs (Local Names)[edit]

Booh, Kandero, Dakhri, Daryai buti,

Grass (Local Names)[edit]

Sawri, Lumb Gaah, Drabh

Fauna[edit]

A peahen sitting on the top of a house in Islamkot
A peahen sitting on the top of a house in Islamkot

Wealth of fauna is considered as a salient feature of this region. From folk music to designs and art work since ancient times have included fauna of Thar as integral part. Fauna of Thar is also part of art, culture, heritage and great histories. The list of fauna commonly includes: [34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50]

Mammals[edit]

Tharparkar cattle

Nilgai, Chinkara, Deer, Antelope, Tharparkar cattle, Long-eared hedgehog, Indian desert fox, Indian pangolin, Indian desert jird, Desert hare, Bats

Birds[edit]

Peacock, Red-vented bulbul, Falcon, Raven, Eurasian Griffon Vulture, Indian Roller, Indian Sand Martin, Little Green Bee-eater, Black crowned Finch Lark

Reptiles[edit]

Various species of Snakes(including Echis and Common krait), Scorpions(including Deathstalker), lizards(including Jungle lizard and Monitor lizard)

Insects[edit]

Bees (including Honey bee, Mud dauber, Carpenter bee), Butterflies, Centipedes, Mantis, Dragonflies, Beetles, Spiders, Bugs

An insect found in Tharparkar
An insect found in Tharparkar

Amphibian[edit]

Frogs

Human Development[edit]

Year HDI[51]
2005 0.303
2007 0.164
2009 0.185
2011 0.203
2013 0.257
2015 0.227

The Human Development Index(HDI) of Tharparkar is 0.227. In Pakistan Human Development Index Report 2017, 114 district level HDIs were calculated for 2015 among which Tharparkar district ranks 109th with change in rank of -6 compared to 2013. This report specifies Tharparkar to be among bottom ten performing districts by HDI growth in decade (2005-15) with change in rank of -34.The report also says:

Tharparkar is the most deprived district in Sindh, and as the only district in the very low category, it lags far behind the other districts in the province.

Poverty[edit]

Pakistan's Multidimensional Poverty Index report by UNDP says that 87% of population in Tharparkar live under poverty.[52][53][54] Due to the lowest Human Development Index and Pakistan's highest infant mortality rate in Tharparkar, The Supreme Court of Pakistan decided to form a monitoring commission to regularly observe the steps taken by provincial government of Sindh.[55][56]

Benazir Income Support Programme (BISP) inked a MoU with World Food Programme, to reduce food insecurity in Tharparkar.[57] As per World Food Programme - May 2019 report, Pakistan was provided US$ 362,000 along with 4,727 mt of food assistance. In the report, the operational updates specifies that around 170 government staff members were engaged in Tharparkar and Killa Abdullah District for proper implementation.[58]

A report on efforts by provincial government specifies 287,000 families were 12 times provided 50 kg of wheat free of cost. Apart from this 500 houses were provided to Thari people free of cost. Also, 750 small water plants at a cost of Rs. 7.5 billion were setup in the district.[59][60] Thar Foundation, an organization of the Sindh Government and Engro at a cost of Rs. 2 billion constructed a hospital of 250 beds with first block of 82 beds functional since February 2019.[61]

In spite of such big initiatives by provincial, federal and international authorities, the region is unable to come out of its miseries. As per Health Department infant mortality rate in Tharparkar is seen to be at alarming level with death of 1,500 children every year.[62][63][64] A report on children death figures in Tharparkar says in May, 2019 the death toll was 50.[62] As per recent report 518 children have lost their lives in the year 2019.[65]

As specified by Saeed Ghani a Mobile App has been introduced for providing wheat (drought relief package) in Tharparkar and there is high standard of transparency in distribution of wheat in Tharparkar district.[66][67] However, neither the name of Mobile App was officially published anywhere nor any district-wide campaign of using such app was made. The people to obtain token number against their NIC to redeem wheat either depended on XLS/ PDF files which were unofficially circulated to a very limited people as offline source or depended on a website (original dead link) as online source with no official disclosure or district-wide campaign.


As specified by Mahesh Kumar Malani (legislator) Rs. 15 billion is already spent for development projects in 9 years and further development schemes worth Rs. 18 billion is under way to improve living standard of the people of Tharparkar.[59] As specified by Chief Minister of Sindh Rs. 70 billion has been spent on the development infrastructure, airport and other projects.[61] However, Pakistan Human Development Index Report says living standard index of Tharparkar has fallen by 50% in 2015 as compared to 2005.


Transportation[edit]

Road[edit]

Tharparkar district with area of 19,638 sq. kms has only 743 kms of quality roads which are considered inadequate as per district profile report by USAID and iMMAP. Major cities of the province are connected by a highway and talukas of the district are connected to district headquarters Mithi with metaled roads.

Some important road connectivity from the district headquarters Mithi[16]
Destination Road (km)
Karachi (via Thatta / Badin) 300
Karachi (via Hyderabad / Mirpurkhas) 400
Karachi (via Mirpurkhas / Umerkot) 425
Nagarparkar 150
Badin 100
Naukot 50
Umerkot 85

Airport[edit]

At a cost of Rs. 972.07 million an international airport has been constructed in Islamkot by the Civil Aviation Authority of Pakistan in about four years which was earlier aimed to be completed within two years.[68][69] The airport is available for both civil and military air traffic. This Islamkot International Airport is spread over an area of 1,000 acres and has 3 km long runway.[69] It is constructed at the request of the Sindh Coal Authority for the development of the Thar coalfields and nearby. Since the airport lies within 80 km (50 mi) of Pakistan's international border with India, a clearance for the construction of the airport was taken by Pakistan's Ministry of Defence on 25 September 2009.[68] The airport was first inaugurated on 17 July 2017 by Chief Minister Murad Ali Shah.[70] The same airport was inaugurated again on 11 April 2018 by Bilawal Bhutto Zardari with exclusive change in name of airport from Thar Airport to Mai Bakhtawar Airport.[69] For the same, the insignia which was earlier installed on top of the building was modified. The airport has already been inaugurated twice however even after a year of second inauguration ceremony the official website of Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority doesn't include this airport in map of Airport Locations in Pakistan. Also, there is no official IATA and ICAO code disclosure or published for this airport.[71] In addition, there is neither any official website or gateway exclusively for this airport to know the travel routes and charges nor this airport is listed among destinations in official website of Pakistan's largest airline i.e. PIA.

Economy and Livelihood[edit]

Tharparkar district is a pre-dominantly rural district with 96% of the population residing in rural areas. Primary source of livelihood for rural population of the district is agriculture and livestock while the urban population is also employed in economic activities related to agriculture.[16]

Agriculture[edit]

Tharparkar with desert-type land has gloomy performance in agricultural sector still agriculture dominates in employing Thari people. Mostly agriculture is based on rainfall water however in some areas of Nagarparkar taluka are fed with tube well water. Out of total area i.e. 2,011,000 hectares, the area cultivated is 1,014,000 hectares.[16]

Livestock[edit]

Reports published on reliefweb say that 94% of household has livestock and 77.64% of the population is engaged in livestock management.[72][73] The report also says that average of livestock per household is 8 animals. Livelihood and food base of people in Tharparkar mainly depends on livestock and partially on agriculture. The current livestock population in Tharparkar is estimated around 7.5 millions.[74][75] In a report Tharparkar district is specified to be richest in sheep population possessing 40% of the province’s sheep population.[76] More than 3 million kg of wool is annually produced as per a report published in 2007.[77] Tharparkar is considered as most suitable for sheep and wool development in Sindh.[76] A report specifying the farm characteristics of livestock farming households says 70.30% of farms use animals as source of power for plowing.[78] Number per herd of donkey is the highest in Tharparkar compared with other two deserts( i.e. Cholistan and Thal) of Pakistan.[78] A Daily Times report suggests areas such as Tharparkar for developing breeding and rearing zones for conserving Pakistan's donkey population.[79] Since livestock is primary income source and contributes to the financial system of every household in Tharparkar, it is considered to be one of the biggest potential livestock market in Sindh.[80][81]

Livestock in District Tharparkar
Source: Livestock Census (2006)
[82]
Livestock Population
Cattle 752,265
Buffalo 46,328
Sheep 1,185,122
Goat 2,217,876
Camel 135,356
Horse 8,519
Mule 1,475
Ass 246,657
Domestic Poultry 263,431
Total 4,857,029

Breeds[edit]

Among several breeds of livestock some of prominent include:[83][84][85][86][87][88][89][90][91]

Livestock breeds in Tharparkar district
Type Breed
Cattle Tharparkar, Kankrej
Buffalo Kundhi
Sheep Kooka, Magra, Sonadi, Kachhi, Marwari
Goat Tharki, Kamori, Chappar
Camel Dhatti
Horse Baluchi
Mule
Ass
Domestic Poultry

Demographics[edit]

Population Characteristics[edit]

Tharparkar district has 121 male per 100 females which is considered as way ahead from the national level i.e. 106 as per district profile report. The report also says the factors likely to be instrumental for such difference are a very high maternal mortality rate, poor health care and non-availability of basic health facilities. As per same 2014 report, 50% population is said to be below 15 years of age and 3.73% population is 65 years or above. The dependent population in the district is 54.02% while the working population is 45.98% making the dependency ratio 117.5%.[16]

Population in Tehsils/Talukas of Tharparkar district [16][TNC = Tehsils/Taluka Not Created]
Year Mithi Islamkot Diplo Kaloi Chachro Dahli Nagarparkar
2013 201,850 190,664 230890 TNC 232,210 225,710 218,411


Languages[edit]

Tharparkar district has native speakers of Dhatki, Koli, Gujarati, Parkari Koli, Jogi, Sindhi, Hindi and Urdu.[92][93][94][95][96]

Religion[edit]

At the time of the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the Hindus were 80% while the Muslims were 20% of the population. In the years between 1965 and 1971, population exchanges took place in the Thar between India and Pakistan. Thousands of Hindus (particularly the upper castes and their retainers) migrated from Pakistani Thar to the Indian section of the Thar. 3,500 Muslim families also shifted from the Indian section of the Thar to Pakistani Thar.[97][98][99] The Muslim families were given 12 acres of land each (a total of 42,000 acres).[97]

According to the 1998 census, Muslims constituted 59% of the population and the Hindus 41% of the district's population.[100]It has the largest Hindu population in Pakistan in terms of absolute numbers.[11]

Hindu temples[edit]

  1. Shri Ramapir Mandir
  2. Churrio Jabal Durga Temple at Nangarparkar-The historic Durga Mata Temple on the Churrio Jabal is visited annually by 200,000 pilgrims annually on Shivratri[101].
  3. Guri Mandir at Guri
  4. Krishna Mandar Kantio Tharparkar[102][103]
  5. Nagarparkar temples
  6. Verijhap Dham (Sadah Shiv Dham) at Diplo
  7. Sant Nenuram Ashram at Islamkot

Tourism[edit]

Major tourist destinations includes:

Nagarparkar Jain Temples[edit]

These approximately 14 Jain temples are scattered throughout Nagarparkar taluka are inscribed on the tentative list for UNESCO World Heritage as the Nagarparkar Cultural Landscape.[104] Buildings of these temples date from the 12th to the 15th centuries.

Parbrahma Dham / Verijhap Dham[edit]

Parbrahma Dham ( پاربرهم ڌام , पारब्रह्म धाम) also known as Verijhap Dham(ويڊيجپ ڌام , वेडीजप धाम) or Chhari Saheb Dham (ڇڙي صاحب ڌام , छड़ी साहेब धाम) at Diplo taluka is an ancient Shiva Temple considered as Jyotirlinga where thousands of yatris arrive for Divya Jyot Darshan(Divine Light View) from a Jar.[105][106][107][108][109][110] After the independence of Pakistan in 1947 the migrated Hindus worship Chhari Saheb at Sadashiv Chhari Mandir, Kubernagar in Ahmedabad.[111] However many devotees accross the world arrive in Diplo during the annual "Parbrahma Mela" held in Jyeshtha month of Hindu Calender.

Administration[edit]

Tharparkar district has 7 Talukas, 64 Union Councils (UCs), 172 Dehs and 2,365 villages.[17][112][113][72][114]

Map of Tharparkar District with its administrative divisions.
Map of Tharparkar District with its administrative divisions.

Talukas[edit]

Union Councils[edit]

  • Mithi
  • Mohrano
  • Joruo
  • Malanhore Veena
  • Mithrio Bhatti
  • Bhakuo
  • Manjithi
  • Islamkot
  • Seengaro
  • Diplo
  • Bhitaro
  • Bolhari
  • Dabhro
  • Kaloi
  • Kantio
  • Vejhiar
  • Chachro
  • Rajoro
  • Hirar
  • Heerar
  • Saranghiar
  • Tardos
  • Tar Ahmed
  • Mithrio Charan
  • Khensar
  • Parno
  • Laplo
  • Pirane Jo Par
  • Dahili
  • Gadro
  • Jesse Jo Par
  • Pithapur
  • Virawah
  • Satidera
  • Peelu
  • Bolhari
  • Jhirmirio
  • Sobhiar
  • Kehri
  • Khario Ghulam Shah
  • Sonal Beh
  • Khetlari
  • Sarhod
  • Chelhar
  • Godhiyar
  • Harho
  • Nagarparkar
  • Tugusar

Welfare[edit]

In Pakistan, Tharparkar desert has largest number of NGOs compared to other two deserts i.e. Cholistan and Thal. [78]

NGO working for Tharparkar[16]
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Health and Nutrition Development Society (website)
United Nations World Food Programme
Sami Foundation (website)
Sindh Agricultural and Forestry Workers Coordinating Organization (website)
International Organization for Migration
Sukaar Foundation (website)
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
The United Nations Children's Fund  (UNICEF)
Lead Against Marginality & Poverty (website)
United Nation Development Programme (UNDP)
Association For Water Applied Education & Renewable Energy (website)
Participatory Village Development Programme (website)
United Nation World Health Organization
Water aid
National Commission for Human Development
Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund
Society for Conservation and Protection of Environment (website)
Thardeep Rural Development Programme (website)
Society for the Protection of the Rights of the Children (SPARC)


Famous in Tharparkar[edit]

Peafowl[edit]

Peafowl flying house to house in morning
Peafowl flying house to house in morning
A view of Peafowl from a house window in Tharparkar District
A view from a house window of a peafowl sitting on water tank(top of a house) in Tharparkar district

In Tharparkar district, the peafowls hold great significance and are considered a part of identity, pride and heritage. They are found very commonly across this region. In early mornings they are seen roaming from one house roof to other and locals often offer them grains for feeding. During rainy days such frequency is higher. Peafowls also have great history in Thar. The peafowl of Thar once caught attention of Alexander the Great while he was passing through Sindh. Further, he sent this gift of nature to his mother. Since ancient times, peafowl has remained most integral part of designs and are seen in pottery, rallis and other handlooms and art works in Thar. Many artists, poets and singers from the land of Thar have emphasised peafowl in their work. A very famous Sindhi folk song "Mor Tho Tilley Rana" is one of such example. Peafowl is part of cultural heritage in Tharparkar.[115][116][117][118][119][120][121][122][123][124][125]


Tharparkar cattle[edit]

Tharparkar cattle originating in Tharparkar district is a dual purpose breed known for both its milking and drought potential. It is also known as White or Gray Sindhi, Cutchi and Thari. As specified in several reports or articles:

"The Tharparkar came into prominence during the first World War when some animals were taken to supply milk for the Near East army camps. Here their capacity for production under rigorous feeding and unfavorable environmental conditions at once became apparent. Since then many breeding herds have been assembled in India and Pakistan. When left on arid pasture the milk production is approximately 1135 kg per lactation, while those animals maintained in the villages average 1980 kg."[89][126]


Ralli[edit]

Ralli are beautiful traditional quilts made by women in the Indus Region of the Indian subcontinent. The word Ralli is derived from the local word "ralanna" which means to mix or connect. Ralli are tradition since 4th millennium BC. On trade records from the early 1500s Ralli is listed as an export item to Europe. The tradition of Ralli has passed from mother to daughter for thousands of years. Irrespective of caste, religion, occupation and tribe thousands of women make Ralli. These women belong to under privileged and poor segment who consider it as their source of income. Women spent more than 170 hours for each of this art. Like a textile currency having a value, Ralli was used for exchange of valuable things in ancient Indus Valley Civilization. For Thari rural women, Ralli is vital source of entrepreneurship and skill development. In Tharparkar, Ralli with Peacock designs are very popular. [127][128][129][130][131][132][133][134][135][136][137][138]

A Kekra truck unloading construction material in Islamkot
A Kekra truck unloading construction material in Tharparkar

Kekra Truck[edit]

Kekra Truck(Crab Truck) is very common for the local transportation in Tharparkar. This truck is very suitable for sandy routes so it is also called 'Camel of Thar'. The truck is decorated with various designs and flowers. Since, powerful Bedford engines of World War II are used in Kekras, the popularity of this truck is on the peak. Before the roads were constructed in Tharparkar, people along with their livestock and household items used to transport via Kekra. Now, with rise in road connectivity these trucks mostly transport the goods or general items. Modifications in Chassis is done for enhancing the loading capacity. A typical Kekra truck is said to have capacity of 12,000 kg. Kekra trucks with traditional Thari decorations has become the tradition of transportation in Tharparkar district.[139] [140][141][142][143][144][145][146][147][148]


Notable people[edit]

  • Nihalchand Pabani (1913–1997) – Neem Revolutionist, leader, social worker, Former Chairman Islamkot
    Nihalchand Pabani giving a speech on 14 August (Independence Day)
    Nihalchand Pabani giving a speech on 14 August (Independence Day)
  • Fozia Soomro (1966–2002) – Thari, Marwari and Sindhi folk singer.
  • Mai Bhagi (Bhagbhari, 1920–1986) – The cuckoo of Thar desert, Pakistani folk musician

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Tharis warned against violating cultivation ban". DAWN.
  2. ^ "SC formed monitoring committee visits Thar". Business Recorder.
  3. ^ "Health department denies cases of HIV/AIDS in Tharparkar". New Pakistan.
  4. ^ "District Health Officer Tharparkar Mithi Jobs 28 June 2019, Medical Officer, Specialist, Staff Nurse". Hire.pk.
  5. ^ "DISTRICT WISE CENSUS RESULTS CENSUS 2017" (PDF). www.pbscensus.gov.pk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-08-29.
  6. ^ "PakistanHuman Development Index Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2 May 2018. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  7. ^ "Districts of Sindh, Pakistan". Wikipedia. 2017-09-13.
  8. ^ "Population - Pakistan Bureau of Statistics" (PDF). http://www.pbscensus.gov.pk/. External link in |website= (help)
  9. ^ "Districts of Pakistan". Wikipedia. 2017-10-22.
  10. ^ "Use of space-based technology to search for alternate sources of water in Tharparkar | Space4Water Portal". space4water.org. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  11. ^ a b "Population of Hindus in the Pakistan". Pakistan Hindu Council.
  12. ^ Genani, Manoj (2016-10-21). "Unbelievable pictures of Thar desert after the rain". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2017-11-26.
  13. ^ "Pakistan Emergency Situational Analysis - District Tharparkar, May 2014 - Pakistan". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 2019-07-16.
  14. ^ "Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation->destinations>Sindh->Tharparkar->Introduction". http://www.tourism.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 16 July 2019. Retrieved 2019-07-16. External link in |website= (help)
  15. ^ http://www.tourism.gov.pk/climate_tharparkar_sindh.html
  16. ^ a b c d e f g https://reliefweb.int/report/pakistan/pakistan-emergency-situational-analysis-district-tharparkar-may-2014 A profile of District Tharparkar- ReliefWeb report
  17. ^ a b "Drought Situation Report of Sindh Particularly in District Tharparkar-2018" (PDF). NATIONAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY - GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN.
  18. ^ a b Kumar, Teerath (2018-11-03). "Last 20 Years Rainfall Record of Tharparkar and Drought History | Jhangi Zone". Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  19. ^ "Pakistan: Prolonged drought threatens communities in Thar Desert". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  20. ^ "Evaluation of Thar Rural Development Project". Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  21. ^ "Comprehensive Assessment of Drought and Famine in Sind Arid Zones". Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  22. ^ Reporter, The Newspaper's Staff (2018-10-20). "Over 500 children died in drought-hit Thar this year, Murad told". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  23. ^ "Thar, Drought and Change". Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  24. ^ Chawhan, T. J. (2018-07-11). "Khumbhi (Mushroom), A Delicious Wild Vegetable Dish of Tharparkar Desert-Sindh Pakistan | Jhangi Zone". Retrieved 2019-08-06.
  25. ^ "Selling Mushroom Photo by Manoj Genani — National Geographic Your Shot". yourshot.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 2019-08-06.
  26. ^ "Rain showers Tharis with food security". www.thenews.com.pk. 2017-07-21. Retrieved 2019-08-06.
  27. ^ "THAR COAL PROJECT AND COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION CAPACITY". Sindh University Journals Online (SUJO). Retrieved 6 July 2019.
  28. ^ Sirohi, Muzafar Hussain; Jamro, Muhammad Mahmood-ur-Rehman; Khaskheli, Shakeel Ahmed; Naeema Khatoon Khaskheli, Khalil Ahmed Ansari; Mumtaz Ali Saand, Ameer Ahmed Mirbahar (2019-03-07). "98. Post monsoon floristic inventory of Nagarparkar, District Tharparkar, Sindh, Pakistan". Pure and Applied Biology (PAB). 8 (1): 968–976. ISSN 2304-2478.
  29. ^ Newspaper, From the (2011-02-19). "Destruction of gugral trees in Tharparkar". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  30. ^ Kumar, Teerath (2017-11-01). "Aerva Javanica Desert Plant | Kapok Bush ٻوهه | Desert Bush of Tharparkar | Jhangi Zone". Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  31. ^ Chawhan, T. J. (2018-06-18). "Drought Resistant Trees of Thar Desert | Local & Scientific Names of Desert Plants | Jhangi Zone". Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  32. ^ "Post monsoon floristic inventory of Nagarparkar, District Tharparkar, Sindh, Pakistan". Pure and Applied Biology (PAB) ISSN 2304-2478. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  33. ^ Chawhan, T. J. (2018-07-12). "Major Tourist Attractions of The Thar Desert, Sindh Pakistan | Jhangi Zone". Retrieved 2019-08-22.
  34. ^ "Mammalian Diversity in Thar Desert Habitat of Tharparkar District by Zoological Society Of Pakistan" (PDF). www.zsp.com.pk. Retrieved 2019-07-14.
  35. ^ "Thar Desert", Wikipedia, 2019-07-09, retrieved 2019-07-14
  36. ^ "Conservation of endangered wild species in Thar demanded". Daily Times. 2017-01-26. Retrieved 2019-07-14.
  37. ^ "Fauna of Pakistan", Wikipedia, 2018-06-28, retrieved 2019-07-14
  38. ^ "Wildlife of Pakistan", Wikipedia, 2019-07-08, retrieved 2019-07-14
  39. ^ "Gorano declared new habitat for migratory birds in Thar". The Nation. 2019-02-05. Retrieved 2019-07-14.
  40. ^ "Illegal business of snakes, scorpions thriving in interior Sindh | Pakistan Today". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 2019-07-14.
  41. ^ "Deathstalker", Wikipedia, 2019-04-26, retrieved 2019-07-14
  42. ^ "The Hindu : One scorpion, two venoms". www.thehindu.com. Retrieved 2019-07-14.
  43. ^ "At Pakistan border, BSF fights snakes, Scorpions and porcupines too". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 2019-07-14.
  44. ^ "Six of the Most Dangerous and Unique Scorpions in the World". Owlcation. Retrieved 2019-07-14.
  45. ^ Newspaper, From the (2011-10-28). "Snake invasion spreads terror in Thar". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2019-07-14.
  46. ^ "The unexpected little underdogs of the big bad desert". Mongabay-India. 2019-02-18. Retrieved 2019-07-14.
  47. ^ "Orthopteran Biodiversity of Thar Desert, Sindh, Pakistan | Riffat Sultana | Request PDF". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2019-07-14.
  48. ^ "Sindh Minister's Solution to Locust Attack Is Eating Insects". Lens. 2019-07-01. Retrieved 2019-07-14.
  49. ^ Tyagi, B. K.; Baqri, Q. H. (2005-05-01). Changing Faunal Ecology in the Thar Desert. Scientific Publishers. ISBN 9789387307506.
  50. ^ "Sindh wildlife at risk due to drought". Daily Times. 2018-10-08. Retrieved 2019-07-16.
  51. ^ "Pakistan Human Development Index Report 2017" (PDF). UNDP. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  52. ^ "Multidimensional Poverty in Pakistan by UNDP" (PDF). UNDP Pakistan.
  53. ^ Gokulan, Dhanusha. "Dubai-based Indian businessman builds 62 water hand pumps in Pakistan". Khaleej Times. Retrieved 2019-06-20.
  54. ^ "Dubai-Based Indian Man Installs Hand Pumps In Poor Pak District: Report". NDTV.com. Retrieved 2019-06-20.
  55. ^ "SC plans body to examine govt measures in Tharparkar - Pakistan". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 2019-06-20.
  56. ^ "Youth Empowerment Program". www.hhrd.org. Retrieved 2019-08-06.
  57. ^ "BISP, WFP ink MoU to mitigate food insecurity in drought-ht Tharparkar". www.thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 2019-08-23.
  58. ^ "WFP Pakistan Country Brief, May 2019 - Pakistan". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 2019-06-30.
  59. ^ a b "'Rs 15bn spent on development projects in Tharparkar'". Daily Times. 2017-11-23. Retrieved 2019-08-06.
  60. ^ "Much-awaited free wheat distribution in Thar begins today - Pakistan". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 2019-08-22.
  61. ^ a b "Rs1.8 billion royalty of coal project to be spent on Thar | Pakistan Today". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 2019-08-21.
  62. ^ a b "Four newborns die of malnutrition in Tharparkar, toll mounts to 326 in 2019 | Pakistan Today". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 2019-06-20.
  63. ^ "Malnutrition claims life of five more children in Tharparkar | Pakistan Today". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 2019-06-20.
  64. ^ "Newborn baby brought in a bag for treatment at Tharparkar hospital". www.geo.tv. Retrieved 2019-08-22.
  65. ^ "Malnutrition kills five more children in Thar - Pakistan". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 2019-08-04.
  66. ^ "Tharparkar's mortality rate was lower than the rest of the country in 2017: Saeed Ghani". Daily Times. 2018-09-25. Retrieved 2019-08-22.
  67. ^ "Saeed Ghani provides facts about Tharparkar District | Pakistan Today". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 2019-08-22.
  68. ^ a b "Ministry nods for Thar Airstrip project". Archived from the original on January 7, 2010. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  69. ^ a b c "Bilawal to inaugurate Mai Bakhtawar Airport near Islamkot today". DAWN News. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
  70. ^ "CM Murad Ali Shah inaugurates Thar Airport at Islamkot". Times of Islamabad. 2017-07-17. Retrieved 2019-08-22.
  71. ^ "List of airports in Pakistan", Wikipedia, 2019-07-13, retrieved 2019-08-22
  72. ^ a b "Sindh Drought Needs Assessment (SDNA) Report January 2019 - Pakistan". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 2019-07-22.
  73. ^ "Drought In District Tharparkar Rapid Need Assessment Report October 2018 - Pakistan". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 2019-07-02.
  74. ^ Tribune.com.pk (2018-11-26). "Free fodder for 20,000 households breeding livestock in Tharparkar". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 2019-07-02.
  75. ^ Times, The Sindh (2019-05-09). "Livestock management in Thar". The Sindh Times. Retrieved 2019-07-02.
  76. ^ a b "Quality wool production". DAWN.COM. 2002-04-29. Retrieved 2019-07-31.
  77. ^ "Boosting wool output and carpet industry in Sindh". DAWN.COM. 2007-11-26. Retrieved 2019-07-31.
  78. ^ a b c "Livestock Productivity in the Desert Ecologies of Pakistan: Setting the Development Priorities" (PDF). Pakistan Institute of Development Economics. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  79. ^ "The threat to Pakistan's donkey population". Daily Times. 2018-05-02. Retrieved 2019-07-31.
  80. ^ Newspaper, From the (2012-02-13). "Tharparkar: developing livestock". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2019-07-02.
  81. ^ Times, The Sindh (2019-05-09). "Livestock management in Thar". The Sindh Times. Retrieved 2019-07-02.
  82. ^ "Pakistan Livestock Census 2006 | Pakistan Bureau of Statistics". www.pbs.gov.pk. Retrieved 2019-07-14.
  83. ^ "Breeds of Livestock - Kooka Sheep — Breeds of Livestock, Department of Animal Science". afs.okstate.edu. Retrieved 2019-07-31.
  84. ^ "LIVESTOCK RESOURCES OF PAKISTAN: PRESENT STATUS AND FUTURE TRENDS" (PDF). Science Vision - A Journal of Science for Development. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  85. ^ "Breeds of Livestock - Kachhi Sheep — Breeds of Livestock, Department of Animal Science". afs.okstate.edu. Retrieved 2019-07-31.
  86. ^ "Goat Breeds In Sindh". AgriHunt - A hunt for agriculture knowledge. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  87. ^ "Livestock". thar. 2012-12-11. Retrieved 2019-07-31.
  88. ^ "Pak Dairy Info - Kudhi Buffalo". www.pakdairyinfo.com. Retrieved 2019-07-31.
  89. ^ a b "Zebu cattle of India and Pakistan" (PDF). The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  90. ^ "List of goat breeds", Wikipedia, 2019-07-29, retrieved 2019-07-31
  91. ^ "Pre-Feasibility Study CAMEL FARM" (PDF). Agriculture Marketing Information Service. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
  92. ^ "Pakistan & Afghanistan - Carte linguistique / Linguistic map". www.muturzikin.com. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  93. ^ "Gujarati". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  94. ^ "Jogi". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  95. ^ "Koli, Kachi". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  96. ^ "Koli, Parkari". Ethnologue. Retrieved 2019-08-14.
  97. ^ a b Hasan, Arif; Raza, Mansoor (2009). Migration and Small Towns in Pakistan. IIED. pp. 15–16. ISBN 9781843697343. In the 1965 war, Pakistan captured a large area of the Indian part of the Thar desert, and in 1971 India captured a large part of the Thar desert in Pakistan. Many UCs in Pakistani Thar were Hindu majority areas, and Pakistani Thar as a whole was dominated by the Hindu upper caste who controlled most of the productive land and livestock. They also dominated the politics of Thar and strictly enforced caste divisions, making upward social and economic mobility almost impossible for the Hindu lower castes. Their control over the caste system also ensured the maintenance of agriculture-related infrastructure through baigar (forced labour) and the protection of forests and pasture lands. Following the 1965 and 1971 wars, the Hindu upper castes and their retainers fled to India. As a result, the feudal institutions that managed agricultural production and the maintenance of infrastructure collapsed. This has had severe repercussions on the natural environment of Thar. In addition, the lower castes were freed from serfdom and to some extent from discrimination. Many of their members, as a result, have acquired education and are important professionals and NGO leaders. Apart from the migration of Hindus to India, 3,500 Muslim families moved from Indian Thar to Pakistani Thar. They were given 12 acres of land per family (a total of 42,000 acres), thus introducing another factor in the social and political structure of Thar and creating a new interest group.
  98. ^ Maini, Tridivesh Singh (15 August 2012). "Not just another border". Himal South Asian. It was not 1947 but the Indo-Pak war of 1971 which proved to be the game changer on this part of the border, since it was then that Hindus from Sindh, worried about persecution in Pakistan, fled to India. The cross-border train service had already been stopped following the 1965 war between India and Pakistan, and resumed only in 2006. Hindu Singh Sodha, a 15-year-old at that time he fled Pakistan in 1971, has set up the Seemant Lok Sangathan, which has been fighting for citizenship rights for all Hindu refugees from Sindh. During the war, Muslims from this region also fled to Pakistan.
  99. ^ Arisar, Allah Bux (6 October 2015). "Families separated by Pak-India border yearn to see their loved ones". News Lens Pakistan. Retrieved 25 December 2016. Another woman, Amnat, a resident of Umerkot had a similar story to tell. She was married at the age of 17 and her husband took her to Pakistan. She is presently 60 years old. Her husband passed away 23 years ago. “My father Abdul Karim had also migrated from Rajasthan, India to Umerkot”. One of reasons is that his daughter lives in Sindh. Her father narrated to her that at the time of Pak-India wars, Muslims in the border’s districts were robbed, killed and harassed by the Indian army, hence he preferred to migrate to a Muslim country like Pakistan to avoid confrontation. She recalled that in the 1965 War between Pakistan and India; Kaprao, Konro, Boath, Vauri, Gahrr jo Tarr, Dedohar, Mate ka Talha, Bijhrar, and a number of other border villages were evacuated. Four persons were killed in the village of Kaprao by the Indian Army based on the allegations that they had been helping the Pakistan Army.
  100. ^ Tharparkar District Official Website - District Profile - Demography
  101. ^ https://www.globalvillagespace.com/nagarparkar-the-land-of-history-and-architectural-marvels/
  102. ^ "Love in Tharparkar". The Friday Times. 2018-03-16. Retrieved 2019-07-31.
  103. ^ "Tharparkar Search Results in Press Archive". www.pide.org.pk. Retrieved 2019-07-31.
  104. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Nagarparkar Cultural Landscape". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 2019-08-23.
  105. ^ "Yatris see 'the light' at Shri Parbirham mela". www.thenews.com.pk. Retrieved 2019-08-23.
  106. ^ "Fakeer Parbirham Aashram (Verijhap Dham)". wikimapia.org. Retrieved 2019-08-23.
  107. ^ "NA resolution calls for protection of minorities' holy sites | Pakistan Today". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 2019-08-23.
  108. ^ Tribune.com.pk (2014-05-16). "National Assembly session: MPs back move to protect holy sites of minorities". The Express Tribune. Retrieved 2019-08-23.
  109. ^ CHHARHI YATRA - FAKEER PARBIRHAM - ISLAMKOT | Creative Media TV, retrieved 2019-08-23
  110. ^ "Fakeer Parbirham - Apps on Google Play". play.google.com. Retrieved 2019-08-23.
  111. ^ Par Bharam Parmeshwar, Sadashiv Chhari Mandir, Kubernagar. 02.07.2018 Video., retrieved 2019-08-23
  112. ^ "PBS Census". PBS Census. Archived from the original on 2017-06-16.
  113. ^ "Relief Goods Dispatched in District Tharparkar" (PDF). Provincial Disaster Management Authority - Government of Sindh.
  114. ^ "Reform Support Unit School Education & Literacy Department - Government of Sindh" (PDF).
  115. ^ Pakistan, S. K. (2017-03-01). "More Than 170 Peacocks Have Died In Thar Due To A Contagious Disease And Everyone Is Quiet!". Parhlo. Retrieved 2019-08-02.
  116. ^ "Awesome beauty wonderful peacock in Thar desert area Sindh Pakistan | Peacocks - طــــاووس | Desert area, Pakistan, Peacock". Pinterest. Retrieved 2019-08-02.
  117. ^ "In Thar, Green Guards ensure peacocks keep dancing | Pakistan Today". www.pakistantoday.com.pk. Retrieved 2019-08-02.
  118. ^ Arisar, A. B. (2013-06-17). "Tharis call for conservation of peafowl habitats". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2019-08-02.
  119. ^ "Indus Nature Society - INS". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 2019-08-02.
  120. ^ "Secrets of the Thar Desert | Aboard The Democracy Train". www.aboardthedemocracytrain.com. Retrieved 2019-08-02.
  121. ^ "Thar — The Future of Pakistan". www.thenews.com.pk. 2018-04-21. Retrieved 2019-08-02.
  122. ^ "The mute existence and extinction of peacocks". Retrieved 2019-08-02.
  123. ^ "Super view of Peacock in Thar desert area Sindh Pakistan | Peacocks - طــــاووس | Peacock, Pakistan, Desert area". Pinterest. Retrieved 2019-08-02.
  124. ^ Sindhi Ralli (Quilt) documentary, 1st Sindh Ralli Exhibition & Competition, retrieved 2019-08-02
  125. ^ Documentary on Thar Sindh (English version), retrieved 2019-08-02
  126. ^ "Breeds of Livestock - Tharparkar Cattle — Breeds of Livestock, Department of Animal Science". afs.okstate.edu. Retrieved 2019-08-04.
  127. ^ Sindhi Ralli (Quilt) documentary, 1st Sindh Ralli Exhibition & Competition, retrieved 2019-08-07
  128. ^ "Household Case Studies from Tharparkar District" (PDF). SUCCESS - Sindh Union Council and Community Economic Strengthening Support Programme. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  129. ^ Rauf, Anam (2019-05-02). "Things You Need To Know About Art Of Ralli Work In Pakistan|Parhlo.com". Parhlo. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  130. ^ "History of Ralli". Indus Crafts. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  131. ^ "Ralli Art Introduction". Indus Crafts. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  132. ^ "Rilli (Ralli Quilts)". Indus Crafts. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  133. ^ "The art of creating traditional ralli quilts". Daily Times. 2019-03-26. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  134. ^ says, Tom Humes. "Provinces of Pakistan – Sindh : Pakistan 360 degrees". Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  135. ^ "Ralli Quilt - Dost Pakistan". Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  136. ^ "Picture Day Friday: Thari Women". Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  137. ^ "Picture Day Friday: Ralli Quilts of Thar". Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  138. ^ "Pakistani traditions: Selling Ralli quilts to survive". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  139. ^ "Thar desert | ThingsAsian". thingsasian.com. Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  140. ^ "ThingsAsian: Kekra, a form of local transport made from American Army Trucks, used by Pakistan Army and later auctione… | It's all about the journey... | Beautiful places to travel, Travel, Deserts". Pinterest. Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  141. ^ "Tharparker: a peek into the deserted jewel". www.thenews.com.pk. 2017-09-19. Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  142. ^ Editor, T. N. S. (2018-10-14). "The harmony of Mithi". TNS - The News on Sunday. Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  143. ^ "Hunger amidst the dunes?". The Friday Times. 2016-03-18. Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  144. ^ Saqib, Ramla (2018-10-30). "Here's Why Visiting Tharparkar In November Will Be The Best Decision You'll Ever Make!". Parhlo. Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  145. ^ Dawn.com (2011-06-30). "The rickety 'Kekra' of Thar". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  146. ^ "Pakistan". www.trekearth.com. Retrieved 2019-08-01.
  147. ^ Kekra ---- The King Of Thar, retrieved 2019-08-01
  148. ^ Thar Jo Registani Jahaz ..... .....Kekra Of Thar, retrieved 2019-08-01

Coordinates: 24°44′24″N 69°48′00″E / 24.74000°N 69.80000°E / 24.74000; 69.80000