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Scientific classification
Domain: Archaea
Kingdom: "Proteoarchaeota"
Phylum: "Thaumarchaeota" Brochier-Armanet et al. 2008

Nitrososphaeria Stieglmeier et al. 2014

The Thaumarchaeota or Thaumarchaea (from the Greek 'thaumas', meaning wonder) are a phylum of the Archaea proposed in 2008 after the genome of Cenarchaeum symbiosum was sequenced and found to differ significantly from other members of the hyperthermophilic phylum Crenarchaeota.[1][2] Three described species in addition to C. symbosium are Nitrosopumilus maritimus, Nitrososphaera viennensis, and Nitrososphaera gargensis.[2] All organisms of this lineage thus far identified are chemolithoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizers and may play important roles in biogeochemical cycles, such as the nitrogen cycle and the carbon cycle.

The phylum was proposed in 2008 based on phylogenetic data, such as the sequences of these organisms' ribosomal RNA genes, and the presence of a form of type I topoisomerase that was previously thought to be unique to the eukaryotes.[2][3] This assignment was confirmed by further analysis published in 2010 that examined the genomes of the ammonia-oxidizing archaea Nitrosopumilus maritimus and Nitrososphaera gargensis, concluding that these species form a distinct lineage that includes Cenarchaeum symbiosum.[4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Tourna, Maria; Stieglmeier, Michaela; Spang, Anja; Könneke, Martin; Schintlmeister, Arno; Urich, Tim; Engel, Marion; Schloter, Michael; Wagner, Michael; et al. (2011). "Nitrososphaera viennensis, an ammonia oxidizing archaeon from soil". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108 (20): 8420–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.1013488108. PMC 3100973. PMID 21525411. 
  2. ^ a b c Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Boussau, Bastien; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Forterre, Patrick (2008). "Mesophilic crenarchaeota: Proposal for a third archaeal phylum, the Thaumarchaeota". Nature Reviews Microbiology 6 (3): 245–52. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1852. PMID 18274537. 
  3. ^ Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Gribaldo, Simonetta; Forterre, Patrick (2008). "A DNA topoisomerase IB in Thaumarchaeota testifies for the presence of this enzyme in the last common ancestor of Archaea and Eucarya". Biology Direct 3: 54. doi:10.1186/1745-6150-3-54. PMC 2621148. PMID 19105819. 
  4. ^ Spang, Anja; Hatzenpichler, Roland; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Rattei, Thomas; Tischler, Patrick; Spieck, Eva; Streit, Wolfgang; Stahl, David A.; Wagner, Michael; et al. (2010). "Distinct gene set in two different lineages of ammonia-oxidizing archaea supports the phylum Thaumarchaeota". Trends in Microbiology 18 (8): 331–40. doi:10.1016/j.tim.2010.06.003. PMID 20598889. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Yanagawa, Katsunori; Breuker, A.; Schippers, A.; Nishizawa, M.; Ijiri, A.; Hirai, M.; Takaki, Y.; Sunamura, M.; Urabe, T.; Nunoura, T.; Takai, K. (October 2014). "Microbial Community Stratification Controlled by the Subseafloor Fluid Flow and Geothermal Gradient at the Iheya North Hydrothermal Field in the Mid-Okinawa Trough (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 331)". Applied and Environmental Microbiology 80 (19): 6126–6135. doi:10.1128/AEM.01741-14. PMID 25063666. 
  • Wu, Yucheng; Conrad, Ralf (July 2014). "Ammonia oxidation-dependent growth of group I.1b in acidic red soil microcosms". FEMS Microbiology Ecology 89 (1): 127–134. doi:10.1111/1574-6941.12340. PMID 24724989. 
  • Deschamps, Philippe; Zivanovic, Yvan; Moreira, David; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Lopez-Garcia, Purificacion (8 June 2014). "Pangenome Evidence for Extensive Interdomain Horizontal Transfer Affecting Lineage Core and Shell Genes in Uncultured Planktonic Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota". Genome Biology and Evolution 6 (7): 1549–1563. doi:10.1093/gbe/evu127. PMID 24923324.