The 414s were a group of computer hackers who broke into dozens of high-profile computer systems, including ones at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, and Security Pacific Bank, in 1982 and 1983.
They were eventually identified as six teenagers, taking their name after the IBM-sponsored Explorer Post in their hometown of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, which used the telephone area code 414. Ranging in age from 16 to 22, they met as members of a local Explorer Scout post. The 414s were investigated and identified by the FBI in 1983. There was widespread media coverage of them at the time, and 17-year-old Neal Patrick, a student at Rufus King High School, emerged as spokesman and "instant celebrity" during the brief frenzy of interest, which included Patrick appearing on the Phil Donahue Show in August 1983 and on the September 5, 1983 cover of Newsweek.
The 414s were described as meeting the profile of computer hackers at the time: "Young, male, intelligent, highly motivated and energetic". Patrick claimed his only motivation was the challenge of getting into places he was not supposed to, and remaining there undetected.
Many saw them as harmless pranksters, sort of a real life WarGames—a film that was released earlier that year. The 414s themselves were not entirely harmless, doing $1,500 worth of damage at Sloan-Kettering during their June 3, 1983 break-in by deleting billing records (ostensibly to cover their tracks). Patrick and the 414s did cause real concern, as experts realized that others could duplicate their techniques and do real damage.
The systems they broke into exclusively were running Digital Equipment Corporation's (DEC's) VMS and RSTS operating systems. They used inexpensive personal computers, analog modems, and simple hacking techniques, such as using common or default passwords published in DEC's manufacturer guides to log in to various timeshare systems. The 414s were exploiting the lack of administrative oversight and password care for systems and not the technology at the time.
Among those reporting unusual hacking activities was Chen Chui, an administrator who discovered an electronic break-in, left a message for the intruders, and contacted the FBI, who placed wiretaps and eventually traced the calls back to Milwaukee. Gerald Wondra, 22 at the time, was the first visited by the FBI. Wondra lived with his mother in West Allis, a Milwaukee suburb. Wondra said he was "curious, he was just having fun".
Most of the members of the 414s were not prosecuted, in various agreements to stop their activities and pay restitutions. Wondra and another defendant each pleaded guilty on two counts of "making harassing telephone calls".
As a result of news coverage, congressman Dan Glickman called for an investigation and new laws about computer hacking. Neal Patrick testified before the U.S. House of Representatives on September 26, 1983 about the dangers of computer hacking, and six bills concerning computer crime were introduced in the House that year.
A documentary called The 414s: The Original Teenage Hackers premiered in competition at the 2015 Sundance Film Festival and was picked up for distribution by CNN. The film features present-day interviews with some of the original 414s as they reflect on the early days of hacking and the media attention that followed.
The AMC television show Halt and Catch Fire features the Newsweek cover story of the incident, which correctly displays "414 Hacker Neal Patrick" and in a subsequent episode called "The 214s" (a Dallas area code, where the show is set), a plot point includes a character attempting to recreate the break in.
- Detroit Free Press. September 27, 1983. Missing or empty
- Covert, Colin (August 28, 1983). "High-Tech Hijinks Seven Curious Teenagers Wreak Havoc Via Computer". Detroit Free Press. p. 1F.
- Elmer-DeWitt, Philip (August 29, 1983). "The 414 Gang Strikes Again". Time. p. 75.
- "Beware: Hackers at play". Newsweek. September 5, 1983. pp. 42–46, 48.
- Enter Magazine, March 1984
- Franklin, Patricia (1990). Profits of Deceit: Dispatches from the Front Lines of Fraud. p. 35.
- "Computer User Sentenced". The New York Times. Associated Press. May 1, 1984. Retrieved 2006-12-30.
- "TWO WHO RAIDED COMPUTERS PLEADING GUILTY". The New York Times. Associated Press. 1984-03-17.
- "Timeline: The U.S. Government and Cybersecurity". The Washington Post. 16 May 2003. Retrieved 2006-04-14.
- David Bailey, "Attacks on Computers: Congressional Hearings and Pending Legislation", sp, p. 180, 1984 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 1984.
- Casey Cipriani (9 December 2014). "Sundance 2015: Short Films". Indiewire. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- "Sundance Institute". sundance.org. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- "Halt and Catch Fire: Some Techsplanations and Background for Episode 8, "The 214s"". tv.com. Retrieved 14 April 2015.