The Accursed Kings
Le Roi de fer (Book 1)
1955 French hardcover
The Accursed Kings (French: Les Rois maudits) is a sequence of seven historical novels by French author Maurice Druon about the French monarchy in the 14th century. Published between 1955 and 1977, the series has been adapted as a miniseries twice for television in France.
- 1 Plot
- 2 Characters
- 3 Novels
- 4 Television adaptations
- 5 Reception
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Set during the reigns of the last five kings of the Capetian dynasty and the first two kings of the House of Valois, the series begins as the French King Philip the Fair, already surrounded by scandal and intrigue, brings a curse upon his family when he persecutes the Knights Templar. The succession of monarchs that follows leads France and England to the Hundred Years' War. Martin wrote:
The Accursed Kings has it all. Iron kings and strangled queens, battles and betrayals, lies and lust, deception, family rivalries, the curse of the Templars, babies switched at birth, she-wolves, sin, and swords, the doom of a great dynasty … and all of it (well, most of it) straight from the pages of history. And believe me, the Starks and the Lannisters have nothing on the Capets and Plantagenets.
- Philip the Fair, the King of France
- Louis, King of Navarre, his eldest son
- Marguerite, Queen of Navarre, Louis' wife
- Philippe, Count de Poitiers, Philip's second son
- Jeanne, Countess de Poitiers, Philippe's wife and Blanche's sister
- Charles, Count of La Marche, Louis and Philippe's younger brother
- Blanche of Burgundy, Charles' wife and Jeanne's sister
- Isabella, Queen of England, Philip's daughter, called the "She-Wolf of France"
- Robert of Artois, Lord of Conches and Count of Beaumont-le-Roger
- Mahaut of Artois, Robert's great aunt, and mother to Jeanne and Blanche
- Charles, Count of Valois, Philip's younger brother
- Louis, Count of Évreux, Philip's youngest brother
- Gautier d'Aunay, equerry to Philippe, Count of Poitiers, and lover of Blanche
- Philippe d'Aunay, equerry to Charles, Count of Valois, and lover of Marguerite
- Guillaume de Nogaret, Philip's prime councillor and keeper of the seal
- Enguerrand de Marigny, Philip's coadjutor
- Hugues de Bouville, Philip's chamberlain
- Jacques de Molay, Grand Master of the Knights Templar
- Geoffroy de Charney, Templar Preceptor of Normandy
- Spinello Tolomei, a Siennese Lombard banker
- Guccio Baglioni, Tolomei's nephew
- Eliabel Cressay, widow of the Squire of Cressay
- Pierre and Jean Cressay, her sons
- Marie Cressay (fr), her daughter
- Jean de Marigny, Archbishop of Sens, younger brother of Enguerrand de Marigny
- Béatrice d'Hirson, first lady-in-waiting to the Countess Mahaut
- Lormet, Robert of Artois' aide-de-camp
- Everard, Knight of the Order of Templars
- Jean de Longwy, nephew of Jacques de Molay
- Alain de Pareilles, Captain of the King's Archers
- Robert Bersumée, Captain of the fortress Château Gaillard
- Eudeline, servant with whom Louis has an affair and a daughter
- Clémence of Hungary, Louis' second wife
- Marie of Hungary, Queen of Naples, Clemence's grandmother
- Thierry d'Hirson, canon and chancellor to Mahaut, Béatrice's uncle
- Gaucher de Châtillon, the Constable of France
- Jacques Duèze, Cardinal who becomes Pope John XXII
- Edward II, King of England and Isabella's husband
- Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March, English baron and rebel
- Jeanne, Lady Mortimer, Roger's wife
- Hugh Despenser the Younger, favourite of Edward II
- Eleanor, Lady Despenser, Despenser's wife
- Philip of Valois (later Philip VI), son of Charles, Count of Valois
- Jeanne of Burgundy, Philip of Valois' wife, and sister of Marguerite, Queen of Navarre and Eudes of Burgundy
- Jean II, son of Philip of Valois and Jeanne of Burgundy
- Edward III, son of Edward II and Isabella
The first six novels of Les Rois maudits were published in France by Del Duca between 1955 and 1960, and the final volume was released by Plon in 1977. The initial six books were first issued in English (translated by Humphrey Hare) between 1956 and 1961, by Rupert Hart-Davis in the United Kingdom and by Scribner's in the United States, with periodic reprints through the 1980s. Between 2013 and 2015, HarperCollins reissued the entire out of print series, including the last installment The King Without a Kingdom, which had never previously been published in English.
Le Roi de fer (1955)
- (English title: The Iron King)
French King Philip the Fair rules with an iron fist, but is surrounded by scandal and intrigue. Philip's daughter Isabella, Queen of England, plots with the ambitious Robert of Artois to catch the wives of her three brothers—Marguerite, Jeanne and Blanche—in their suspected adulterous affairs. Robert's own motive is to avenge himself on Jeanne and Blanche's mother, his great aunt Mahaut, Countess of Artois, who he believes has stolen his rightful inheritance. Philip's younger brother Charles, Count of Valois, resents the power and influence of the common-born Guillaume de Nogaret, Philip's prime councillor and keeper of the seal, and Enguerrand de Marigny, Philip's coadjutor. When Philip's self-serving persecution of the Knights Templar ends with the Templar Grand Master Jacques de Molay being burned at the stake, Molay curses his accusers—Pope Clement V, Nogaret and Philip himself—to the 13th generation. Marguerite and Blanche are sentenced to life imprisonment for their crimes, and their lovers Gautier and Philippe d'Aunay are tortured and executed. Jeanne, innocent of adultery herself but complicit in the scandal, is imprisoned indefinitely. Forty days after Molay's execution, Clement dies of fever; shortly thereafter, Mahaut's lady-in-waiting Béatrice d'Hirson arranges for Nogaret's painful death by means of a poisoned candle. Philip fears that Molay's curse is to blame; soon enough, he suffers a cerebral hemorrhage and collapses during a hunt, and dies days later.
La Reine étranglée (1955)
- (English title: The Strangled Queen)
Philip's eldest son has been crowned Louis X, but his adulterous wife Marguerite remains imprisoned at the Château Gaillard. Seeking to remarry and father a male heir, Louis sends Robert of Artois to compel Marguerite to sign a statement, in exchange for her freedom, that her marriage to Louis was never consummated and that her daughter Jeanne is illegitimate. She refuses, and Louis' plan to secure an annulment and marry the beautiful Clemence of Hungary is further stalled by the papal conclave's failure to elect a new pope. Marigny finds that his enemies—led by Charles, Count of Valois—are systematically extricating him from the new king's inner circle. Louis' brother, Philippe, Count de Poitiers, and Valois both try to assert some influence over the indecisive king, Philippe for the good of the kingdom and Valois for personal gain. Desperate for freedom, Marguerite reconsiders, but her "confession" never reaches Robert. When he returns to her prison, Marguerite is ill from her confinement—and on Valois' orders, Robert's man Lormet strangles her to death. Though his initial efforts to destroy Marigny fail, Valois manages—with the help of the Lombard banker Tolomei—to assemble an onslaught of criminal charges that sees Marigny executed.
Les Poisons de la couronne (1956)
- (English title: The Poisoned Crown)
Louis, now a widower, marries the beautiful Clemence of Hungary. Her discovery of his illegitimate daughter prompts Louis to confess all of his sins to her, and he swears to do whatever penance she requires. Mahaut and Béatrice use magic to assure that Philippe takes back his wife, Mahaut's daughter Jeanne, from her imprisonment. Louis' uncle Charles, Count of Valois, continues grasping for influence over royal affairs by trying to secure the allegiance of the new queen, his niece by his previous marriage. Tolomei's nephew, the young banker Guccio Baglione, marries noblewoman Marie de Cressay in secret. With encouragement from Robert of Artois, Mahaut's vassal barons revolt against her. Louis is compelled to intervene, and strips her of power when she refuses to submit to his arbitration. Mahaut poisons Louis with Béatrice's help, and he dies, leaving behind a pregnant Clemence and the court in turmoil.
La Loi des mâles (1957)
- (English title: The Royal Succession)
Louis is dead at the hands of Mahaut, leaving Clemence and their unborn child as the only obstacles between Louis' brother Philippe—who is married to Mahaut's daughter Jeanne—and the French throne.
La Louve de France (1959)
- (English title: The She-Wolf of France)
Louis and Philippe's younger brother Charles IV is now the French king, and his sister Isabella—called the "She-Wolf of France"—is still married to the English King Edward II. When rebel Roger Mortimer flees to France to plot against Edward, Isabella follows and joins him as his lover and co-conspirator.
Le Lys et le lion (1960)
- (English title: The Lily and the Lion)
In the wake of Charles's death, Robert of Artois has helped place the king's cousin Philip of Valois on the French throne. But instead of being rewarded, he is exiled to England, where he encourages English King Edward III's own claim to the French crown.
Quand un Roi perd la France (1977)
- (English title: The King Without a Kingdom)
John II "The Good" succeeds his father Philip as King of France, and his reign is a disaster.
|Les Rois maudits|
The 1972 TV adaptation of Les Rois maudits was broadcast by the ORTF from 21 December 1972 to 24 January 1973, and starred Jean Piat as Robert d'Artois and Hélène Duc as Mahaut d'Artois. Adapted by Marcel Jullian and directed by Claude Barma, its six episodes were directly based on—and named after—the first six novels in Druon's series. Dubbed "the French I, Claudius", the series was "hugely successful", and brought the novels "from cult to mainstream success". Shot in the studio with limited scenery and with the feel of a theatre production, the series concentrated on the characters and acting and was widely acclaimed. It was later shown on British television with subtitles.
In 2005, Les Rois maudits was again adapted in a joint French-Italian production directed by Josée Dayan, starring Philippe Torreton as Robert and Jeanne Moreau as Mahaut. Broadcast on France 2 from 7 November to 28 November 2005, its five episodes are named after novels 1–3 and 5–6 (the exception being La Loi des mâles). The series premiered with 8.6 million viewers, and the finale garnered over 6.2 million viewers. Overall Les Rois maudits averaged 7.2 million viewers, an audience share of 27.9%.
According to John Lichfield, The Independent 's French correspondent and a friend of Druon's, "Les Rois maudits was written to make money very quickly ... [Druon] himself was not very proud of it." However the series was "popular and critically praised", and numbered among Druon's best known works. According to Lichfield:
Les Rois maudits (The Accursed Kings) was one of the few works of contemporary western literature to be published in Russian in the Soviet Union in the 1960s. Thus, the playful, arch-conservative Maurice Druon, not the dour and radical Jean-Paul Sartre or Albert Camus, became the voice of France to Russian bibliophiles, including the young Vladimir Putin. When Putin became president of Russia, he started an unlikely friendship with his literary hero.
In his youth, Druon had cowritten the lyrics to Chant des Partisans (1943), a popular French Resistance anthem of World War II. In 1948 he received the Prix Goncourt for his novel Les Grandes Familles. Though Ben Milne of the BBC noted in 2014 that Druon is "barely known in the English-speaking world", American author George R. R. Martin called the author "France's best historical novelist since Alexandre Dumas, père". Martin dubbed The Accursed Kings "the original game of thrones", citing Druon's novels as an inspiration for his own A Song of Ice and Fire series, which has been adapted for television as Game of Thrones. Martin's UK publisher HarperCollins began reissuing the long out of print Accursed Kings series in 2013, with Martin himself writing an introduction.
Writing for The Wall Street Journal, Allan Massie praised Druon's "thorough research, depth of understanding and popular touch", noting that "Druon’s re-creation of medieval Paris is so vivid that it loses nothing in comparison with the evocation of the city in the greatest of French medievalist novels, Victor Hugo’s Notre-Dame de Paris". Massie added:
There are murders galore in these books—one queen is strangled, one king poisoned and another thought to be poisoned while still a baby at his christening. There is skullduggery, conspiracy and civil war. There are men of great ability and few scruples, and scarcely a page without dramatic incident ... The characters are impressive, but few are admirable. Almost the only likeable one is the young Siennese banker Guccio—and bankers are important figures in the novels, for Druon never lets us forget that even in his world of kings, barons and knights, it is money that rules, money that oils the wheels of war and politics ... The novels are not recommended to the squeamish, but anyone with strong nerves will delight in them. Few figures in literature are as terrible as the Countess Mahaut, murderer and maker of kings.
In a 2013 Booklist Starred Review, David Pitt called The Iron King "historical fiction on a grand scale, full of political intrigue, family drama, and characters who, while drawn from life, are larger than it". Russell Miller wrote for Library Journal:
Adding to the intrigue is Druon's marvelous depiction of the swirl of those lives that move around him ... Seasoned with sex, betrayal, brutal warfare, cold pragmatic calculating, and curses from the lips of martyrs dying at the stake, this tale cuts a memorable swath through the reader's imagination. The flavor of the times, the smells, sounds, values, and superstitions give this work a fine readability as well as a sensation of reality.
The Sunday Times called The Iron King "dramatic and colourful as a Dumas romance but stiffened by historical accuracy and political insight" and a "blood-curdling tale of intrigue, murder, corruption and sexual passion". The Times Literary Supplement described it as "barbaric, sensual, teeming with life, based in wide reading and sound scholarship ... among the best historical novels".
Les Rois maudits was parodied on French television in the successful 1973 series Les Maudits Rois fainéants (The Damned Lazy Kings) starring Roger Pierre and Jean-Marc Thibault.
- Martin, George R. R. (3 April 2013). "My hero: Maurice Druon by George RR Martin". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
- Druon, Maurice (26 March 2013). "Foreword by George R. R. Martin". The Iron King. HarperCollins. ISBN 0007491255.
- Milne, Ben (4 April 2014). "Game of Thrones: The cult French novel that inspired George RR Martin". BBC. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
- Kamin, Debra (20 May 2014). "The Jewish legacy behind Game of Thrones". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
- Le Roi de fer was also released in the US in paperback by Avon Books as The Ardent Infidels in 1956, 1970 and 1977.
- Lentz III, Harris M. (7 May 2015). Obituaries in the Performing Arts, 2014. McFarland & Company. p. 100. ISBN 9780786476664. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
- Jackson, Julian (15 April 2009). "Obituary: Maurice Druon". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
- "Official website: Les Rois maudits (2005 miniseries)" (in French). 2005. Archived from the original on 15 August 2009. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
- "Les Rois maudits: Casting de la saison 1" (in French). AlloCiné. 2005. Archived from the original on 19 December 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
- "Les Rois maudits, the end of a saga" (in French). AlloCiné. 29 November 2005. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Les Rois maudits épisodes" (in French). AlloCiné. 2005. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "The French press will award their Globes de Cristal" (in French). AlloCiné. 28 February 2006. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- Weber, Bruce (15 April 2009). "Maurice Druon, Prolific Writer, Dies at 90". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- Lichfield, John (20 April 2009). "Maurice Druon: Writer and pugnacious defender of the French language". The Independent. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- "Gaullist Minister Wrote Popular Anthem". The Washington Post. 16 April 2009. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- Massie, Allan (27 March 2015). "The Original Game of Thrones". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- "The Iron King by Maurice Druon". Monroe County Public Library. 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
- "Critical Praise: The Accursed Kings Series Books 1-3". HarperCollins. 8 January 2015. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
- "The actor Roger Pierre died". ArticleJax.com. 16 February 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- Les Rois maudits (1972) at the Internet Movie Database
- Les Rois maudits (2005) at the Internet Movie Database
- "The Iron King by Maurice Druon". Kirkus Reviews. 20 January 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2015.
- White, Julian (7 December 2012). "Book Review: The Iron King (The Accursed Kings, Book 1)". Starburst. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- Raets, Stefan (12 March 2013). "Grimdark Historical Fiction? The Iron King by Maurice Druon". Tor.com. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
- French Wikipedia