The Adventures of Robin Hood
|The Adventures of Robin Hood|
|Edited by||Ralph Dawson|
|Distributed by||Warner Bros. Pictures|
|Box office||$3.981 million|
The Adventures of Robin Hood is a 1938 American swashbuckler film directed by Michael Curtiz and William Keighley, and starring Errol Flynn, Olivia de Havilland, Basil Rathbone, and Claude Rains. Written by Norman Reilly Raine and Seton I. Miller, the film is about a Saxon knight who, in King Richard's absence in the Holy Land during the Crusades, fights back as the outlaw leader of a rebel guerrilla army against Prince John and the Norman lords oppressing the Saxon commoners. The Adventures of Robin Hood was filmed in Technicolor.
In 1995, The Adventures of Robin Hood was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservation by the National Film Registry. It is considered by many to be one of the greatest films ever made.
The honor of being Warner Bros. first three-strip Technicolor release actually goes to Gold Is Where You Find It (1938), which went into production and was released several months earlier than The Adventures of Robin Hood. Alan Hale, Sr., who plays Little John, had played the same character in the 1922 version of the film and went on to play him again in Rogues of Sherwood Forest, released by Columbia in 1950.
In 1191, Richard the Lionheart (Ian Hunter), the King of England, is taken captive by Leopold V, Duke of Austria while returning from the Third Crusade. Richard’s treacherous brother Prince John (Claude Rains) usurps the throne and proceeds to oppress the Saxons, raising taxes supposedly to pay Richard's ransom, but in reality to secure his own position.
The only nobleman who opposes him is the Saxon knight Sir Robin of Locksley (Errol Flynn). Robin acquires a loyal follower when he saves Much the Miller's Son (Herbert Mundin) from being arrested by Sir Guy of Gisbourne (Basil Rathbone) for poaching in Sherwood Forest. At Gisbourne's castle, Robin boldly tells Prince John, John's supporters and a contemptuous Lady Marian Fitzwalter (Olivia DeHavilland) that he will do all in his power to oppose John and restore Richard to the throne. Robin then escapes, despite the attempts of John's men.
Robin and his friend Will Scarlet (Patric Knowles) take refuge in Sherwood Forest and recruit Little John (Alan Hale, Sr.), after John trounces Robin in a bruising quarterstaff bout. Men join their growing band, the Merry Men. Robin meets and provokes the rotund Friar Tuck (Eugene Pallette) into a sword-fight. Then Robin persuades him to join his band of outlaws to provide them with spiritual guidance.
Now known as the outlaw Robin Hood, he binds his men by an oath, to fight for a free England until King Richard returns. They are to rob the rich only to give to the poor, and to treat all women with courtesy, "rich or poor, Norman or Saxon." In a short time, Prince John's cronies find themselves harassed and robbed.
One day, Robin and his men capture a large party of Normans transporting tax proceeds through Sherwood. Among Robin's "guests" are Gisbourne, the cowardly Sheriff of Nottingham (Melville Cooper), and Lady Marian. Marian is at first disdainful of Robin, but becomes convinced of his good intentions and begins to see the reality of the Norman brutality. Eventually Robin allows the humiliated Gisbourne and sheriff to depart Sherwood on foot, dressed in rags, telling them that they have Marian's presence to thank for his sparing their lives.
Incensed, Prince John furiously accuses the Sheriff and Sir Guy of incompetence. The Sheriff comes up with a cunning scheme to capture Robin by announcing an archery tournament. The Sheriff is sure that Robin will be unable to resist the challenge. All goes as planned: Robin wins, is taken prisoner, and is sentenced to be hanged.
Marian helps the Merry Men to rescue Robin. Later, the outlaw sneaks into the castle to thank her. She and Robin pledge their love for each other, but Marian declines to come away with him because she believes she can help the rebellion better where she is.
King Richard and a few of his knights return to England disguised as pilgrims. At an inn, the Bishop of the Black Canons (Montague Love) overhears one of Richard's men call him "sire" and hurries to alert Prince John. John and Gisbourne plot to dispose of Richard before he can raise an army. Dickon Malbete (Harry Cording), a degraded former knight, is given the task in return for the restoration of his rank and Robin's manor and estate.
Marian overhears them and writes a note warning Robin, but Gisbourne finds it and has her arrested. Marian's nurse, Bess (Una O'Connor), has been romantically involved with Much. She sends him to warn Robin. On his way, Much encounters and kills Dickon after a desperate struggle.
Seeking Robin’s help, King Richard and his escort disguise themselves as wealthy monks and journey to Sherwood Forest. They are quickly accosted by Robin. When Richard assures him that he is traveling on the King's business, Robin happily invites him to dine. Will finds the injured Much. Much tells Robin of Marian's peril and that Richard is in England. Robin orders a search. Certain now of Robin's loyalty, Richard reveals his identity.
Robin devises a plan to sneak his men into the castle. He forces the Bishop of the Black Canons to include his men (disguised as monks) in his entourage. The plan succeeds. During the coronation, a melee breaks out. Robin and Gisbourne engage in a prolonged sword fight, ending with Gisbourne's death. Robin then rescues Marian from her cell.
John begs for forgiveness, but Richard exiles him and his followers for the remainder of his lifetime. He then pardons the outlaws, ennobles Robin as Baron of Locksley and Earl of Sherwood and Nottingham, and 'orders' Robin to marry the Lady Marian.
- Errol Flynn as Sir Robin of Locksley AKA Robin Hood
- Olivia de Havilland as Lady Marian Fitzwalter (Maid Marian)
- Basil Rathbone as Sir Guy of Gisbourne
- Claude Rains as Prince John
- Patric Knowles as Will à Gamwell AKA Will Scarlett
- Eugene Pallette as Friar Tuck
- Alan Hale, Sr. as John Little AKA Little John
- Herbert Mundin as Much, the Miller's Son
- Melville Cooper as the High Sheriff of Nottingham
- Una O'Connor as Bess
- Ian Hunter as King Richard the Lionheart
- Montagu Love as the Bishop of the Black Canons
- Harry Cording as Dickon Malbete
- Ivan F. Simpson as the proprietor of the Kent Road Tavern
- Leonard Willey as Sir Essex, a supporter of Prince John
- Robert Noble as Sir Ralf, a supporter of Prince John
- Kenneth Hunter as Sir Mortimer, a supporter of Prince John
- Robert Warwick as Sir Geoffrey, a supporter of Prince John
- Colin Kenny as Sir Baldwin, a supporter of Prince John
- Lester Matthews as Sir Ivor, a supporter of Prince John
- Lionel Belmore as Humility Prin, proprietor of the Saracens Head Tavern
- Frank Hagney as a man-at-arms
- Holmes Herbert as the archery referee at the tournament
- Howard Hill as Elwen the Welshman, Robin's rival in the archery tournament
- Crauford Kent as Sir Norbett, a supporter of Prince John
- Carole Landis as a guest at the banquet
- Leonard Mudie as the town crier and as an eye-patched man stealthily telling men to meet Robin at the Gallows Oak
- Reginald Sheffield as the herald at tournament
- Trigger as Lady Marian's horse[Note 1]
- Sam Jaffe
The Adventures of Robin Hood was produced at an estimated cost of $2 million, the most expensive film Warner Bros. had ever made up to that time. It was also the studio's first color film utilizing three-strip Technicolor process.[Note 2] It was an unusually extravagant production for the Warner Bros. studio, which had made a name for itself in producing socially conscious low-budget gangster films, but their adventure movies starring Flynn had generated hefty revenue and Robin Hood was created to capitalize on this.
The film was shot on location in various areas of California. Bidwell Park in Chico stood in for Sherwood Forest, although one major scene was filmed at the California locations "Lake Sherwood" and "Sherwood Forest", so named because they were the location sites for the 1922 Douglas Fairbanks production of Robin Hood. Several scenes were shot at the Warner Bros. Burbank Studios and the Warner Ranch in Calabasas. The archery tournament was filmed at Lower Arroyo Park  in Pasadena.
Stunt men and bit players, padded with balsa wood on metal plates, were paid $150 per arrow for being shot by professional archer Howard Hill. Hill, although listed as the archer captain defeated by Robin, was cast as Elwen the Welshman, an archer seen shooting at Robin in his escape from Nottingham castle and, later, defeated by Robin at the archery tournament. To win, Robin splits the arrow of Philip of Arras, a captain of the guard under Gisbourne, who had struck the bullseye. An examination of the film images in slow motion led to speculation[who?] that the arrow split may have been made of bamboo and had been previously split, the parts being held together with small rings. Buster Wiles – a stuntman and close friend of Errol Flynn – maintains that the arrow splitting stunt was carried out using an extra large arrow (for the target) and that the second arrow had a wide, flat arrowhead and was fired along a wire. Wiles discusses the scene in his autobiography, My Days With Errol Flynn.
Contemporary reviews were highly positive. "A richly produced, bravely bedecked, romantic and colorful show, it leaps boldly to the forefront of this year's best," wrote Frank S. Nugent of The New York Times. "It is cinematic pageantry at its best," raved Variety. "A highly imaginative retelling of folklore in all the hues of Technicolor, deserving handsome boxoffice returns." Film Daily called it "high class entertainment" with "excellent direction" and an "ideal choice" in the casting of Flynn. "Excellent entertainment!" wrote Harrison's Reports. "Adventure, romance, comedy, and human appeal have been skilfully blended to give satisfaction on all counts ... The duel in the closing scenes between the hero and his arch enemy is the most exciting ever filmed." John Mosher of The New Yorker called it "a rich, showy, and, for all its tussles, somewhat stolid affair," praising Flynn's performance and the action sequences but finding the "excellent collection" of supporting actors to be "somewhat buried under the medieval panoply."
Review aggregate website Rotten Tomatoes reported that 100% of critics gave the film a positive review based on 44 reviews, with an average score of 8.9/10. The film is currently No. 12 on Rotten Tomatoes' list of best rated films. Rotten Tomatoes summarizes the critical consensus as, "Errol Flynn thrills as the legendary title character, and the film embodies the type of imaginative family adventure tailor-made for the silver screen."
The Adventures of Robin Hood became the sixth-highest grossing film of the year, with just over $4 million in revenues at a time when the average ticket price was less than 25 cents. Warner Bros. was so pleased with the results that the studio cast Flynn in two more color epics before the decade was over: Dodge City and The Private Lives of Elizabeth and Essex.
A sequel, Sir Robin of Locksley was announced but never developed.
Awards and nominations
The film won three Academy Awards at the 11th Academy Awards and was nominated for one more:
- Academy Awards (1938):
- Won: Best Art Direction - Color (Carl Jules Weyl)
- Won: Best Film Editing (Ralph Dawson)
- Won: Best Original Score (Erich Wolfgang Korngold) - The love theme of Robin and Marian went on to become a celebrated concert piece.
- Nominated: Best Picture (Hal B. Wallis, Henry Blanke)
- Other honors:
- In 2001, the film came in at #84 on "The Best Films of All Time" as voted by channel 4.
- In 2001, the film appeared at #100 on AFI's 100 Years... 100 Thrills list.
- In 2003, the main character, Robin Hood, appeared as the #18 Hero on AFI's 100 Years... 100 Heroes and Villains list.
- In 2005, the film appeared at #11 on AFI's 100 Years of Film Scores list.
Due to the movie's popularity, Errol Flynn's name and image became inextricably linked with that of Robin Hood in the public eye, even more so than Douglas Fairbanks, who had played the role previously in 1922.
This was the third film to pair Flynn and Olivia de Havilland (after Captain Blood and The Charge of the Light Brigade). They would ultimately star together in eight films, Four's a Crowd (1938), The Private Lives of Elizabeth and Essex (1939), Dodge City (1939), Santa Fe Trail (1940), They Died with Their Boots On (1941) and Thank Your Lucky Stars (1943).
Scenes and costumes worn by the characters have been imitated and spoofed endlessly. For instance, in the Bugs Bunny animated short film, Rabbit Hood, Bugs is continually told by a dim-witted Little John that "Robin Hood will soon be here." When Bugs finally meets Robin at the end of the film, he is stunned to find that it is Errol Flynn, in a spliced-in clip from this film (he subsequently shakes his head and declares, "It couldn't be him!"). Other parodies were Daffy Duck and Porky Pig in Robin Hood Daffy and Goofy and Black Pete in Goof Troop's Goofin' Hood & His Melancholy Men.
In Disney’s 2010 animated film “Tangled”, the appearance and personality of Flynn Rider are partly inspired by that of Errol Flynn, with his surname also being used in homage.
- List of films with a 100% rating on Rotten Tomatoes, a film review aggregator website
- Roy Rogers admired the then-named Golden Cloud so much that he bought Trigger to use in his own films. This eventually made Trigger one of the most famous animals in show business.
- The first, preceding it by a few months, was Gold is Where You Find It, which tested the process as a run-up to The Adventures of Robin Hood.
- Glancy, H. Mark. "Warner Bros film grosses, 1921-51." Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television. March 1995
- Timesstaff (December 28, 1995). "25 old films honored". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved July 22, 2009.
- Higgins, Scott (2007). Harnessing the Technicolor Rainbow: Color Design in the 1930s. University of Texas Press. p. 138-139. ISBN 9780292779525.
- Ebert, Roger (August 17, 2003). "Roger Ebert's review of "The Adventures of Robin Hood"". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved March 30, 2007.
- "The mobster and the movies". CNN. August 24, 2004. Retrieved July 9, 2008.
- Thomas, Tony; Behlmer, Rudy; McCarty, Clifford (June 1969). The Films of Errol Flynn. Secaucus, New Jersey: Citadel Press. p. 62–67. ISBN 978-0806502373.
- The Worldwide Guide to Movie Locations by Tony Reeves. The Titan Publishing Group. Pg.14 
- "Archery club, hikers clash over Lower Arroyo Park trail in Pasadena". ABC Inc. May 25, 2011. Retrieved April 4, 2015.
- Nugent, Frank S. (May 13, 1938). "Movie Review - The Adventures of Robin Hood". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved September 13, 2015.
- "Film Reviews". Variety (New York: Variety, Inc.): p. 22. April 27, 1938.
- "Reviews". Film Daily (New York: Wid's Films and Folm Folk, Inc.): p. 8. April 29, 1938.
- "The Adventures of Robin Hood". Harrison's Reports (New York: Harrison's Reports, Inc.): p. 74. May 7, 1938.
- Mosher, John (May 21, 1938). "The Current Screen". The New Yorker (New York: F-R Publishing Corp.): p. 71-72.
- "Top 100 Movies Of All Time". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved May 31, 2014.
- "The Adventures of Robin Hood". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved May 31, 2014.
- Weitzman, Elizabeth (February 6, 2009). "The Depression-era gems at 1930s prices". NY Daily News (New York). Retrieved October 5, 2010.
- King, Susan (May 12, 2010). "Classic Hollywood: 100 years of Robin Hood movies". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 2, 2010.
- Mechner, Jordan (2011). Classic Game Postmortem: PRINCE OF PERSIA (Speech). Game Developers Conference. San Francisco, California. Event occurs at 38:35. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
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- The Adventures of Robin Hood at the Internet Movie Database
- The Adventures of Robin Hood at AllMovie
- The Adventures of Robin Hood at the TCM Movie Database
- The Adventures of Robin Hood at the American Film Institute Catalog
- The Adventures of Robin Hood at Rotten Tomatoes
- The Adventures of Robin Hood at Virtual History