The Ann Sothern Show
|The Ann Sothern Show|
Cast members Ann Sothern and Jacques Scott in a publicity shot
|Created by||Bob Schiller|
|Theme music composer||Bonnie Lake|
|Country of origin||United States|
|No. of seasons||3|
|No. of episodes||93|
|Executive producer(s)||Desi Arnaz|
|Running time||24 mins.|
|Production company(s)||Anso Productions|
|Distributor||United Artists Television|
|Picture format||Black and white|
|Original release||October 6, 1958 –|
March 30, 1961
The Ann Sothern Show is an American sitcom starring Ann Sothern that aired on CBS for 93 episodes. Created by Bob Schiller and Bob Weiskopf, The series began on October 6, 1958, and ended on March 30, 1961. Her second sitcom for the network after Private Secretary, Sothern starred as the assistant manager of upscale New York City hotel The Bartley House. Co-stars for the series included Ann Tyrrell and Don Porter, who had also co-starred with her in Private Secretary.
- 1 Synopsis
- 2 Cast
- 3 Episodes
- 4 Production
- 5 Awards and nominations
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Sothern starred as Katy O'Connor, the assistant manager on New York City hotel The Bartley House. Katy frequently deals with the hotel's eccentric guests, alongside either her secretary and best friend/roommate Olive Smith (Ann Tyrrell), or her boss, Jason McCauley (Ernest Truex), who is frequently bullied by his wife Flora (Reta Shaw). Katy was also an advanced character for her time, in that she was a woman who had a position of authority. In this position, she oversaw many male employees, including lovestruck bellboy Johnny Wallace (Jack Mullaney) and suave French room clerk Paul Monteney (Jacques Scott). Storylines typically revolve around the personal lives of the staff and guests of the Bartley House. The setting of a hotel gave the series a chance to introduce a plentiful amount of guest stars, often playing guests of the hotel.
Midway through its first season, the series underwent a retooling to improve ratings. The McCauleys are transferred to a Bartley House branch in Calcutta, and Katy is given a new boss, James Devery (Don Porter). Whereas Katy and McCauley had a strictly professional relationship seen on an equal level, Katy and Devery's relationship is much more complex. Devery often asserts his authority over Katy, and the two frequently go toe-to-toe with one another over various things. A romantic undertone to the relationship becomes apparent by the final season, and was addressed shortly before the series was cancelled. Due to the retooling, the characters of Johnny Wallace and Paul Monteney also begin to be limited. Jacques Scott was written out after the end of the first season; Jack Mullaney was initially retained for season two, but also written out after the first few episodes.
The Ann Sothern Show had strong ties to Sothern's previous CBS sitcom Private Secretary, which had ended a year before the debut of The Ann Sothern Show. Sothern's characters of Susie McNamara and Katy O'Connor were similar, though O'Connor held a position of authority McNamara did not have. Tyrrell had portrayed the character of Violet "Vi" Perkins, who was nearly identical to her character of Olive Smith. Porter's character of James Devery was also similar to his role of talent agent Peter Sands. Jesse White had a recurring role on both series, playing the antagonist to the central characters.
|Ann Sothern||Katy O'Connor||Main|
|Ernest Truex||Jason McCauley||Main[a]|
|Ann Tyrrell||Olive Smith||Main|
|Reta Shaw||Flora McCauley||Also starring[b]|
|Jacques Scott||Paul Monteney||Also starring|
|Jack Mullaney||Johnny Wallace||Also starring||Recurring|
|Don Porter||James Devery||Main[c]||Main|
- Ann Sothern as Katy O'Connor: the witty, perceptive assistant manager at The Bartley House, an upscale hotel in New York City. She frequently deals with the various situations that arise from the eccentric, or her boss, initially Mr. McCauley, later Mr. Devery. A spinster, Katy was an unusual character in her time, in that she was a woman who not only in the workplace, but allowed the series to explore the issues women faced in the work force. Katy not only held a position of authority in the hotel, but also was the supervisor of many male staff members. Throughout the series, a potential romance between Katy and Mr. Devery lingered; it is finally touched upon in what became the series finale, ending on a cliffhanger ultimately never answered.
- Ann Tyrrell as Olive Smith: Katy's secretary and roommate. Also a spinster, Olive is a bit scatter-brained and naive. Nonetheless, she means the best, and is a loyal friend to Katy. In the third season, Olive begins dating – and later marries – dentist Dr. Delbert Gray. Tyrrell was a regular on Private Secretary, playing the similar role of Vi Perkins.
- Don Porter as James Arlington Devery: Katy's second boss, who is the manager of The Bartley House. Devery is a younger manager than McCauley, and is a much more stern, stubborn manager than he is. Devery tends to get carried away with new ideas, and frequently finds himself at odds against Katy. In what turned out to be the series finale, Devery realizes he is in love with Katy, and impulsively proposes to her; Katy kisses him back, but leaves her answer on an unanswered cliffhanger. Porter was also a regular on Private Secretary, where his character Peter Sands was the boss of Sothern's Susie McNamara. Unlike Tyrrell, Porter was not initially carried over to The Ann Sothern Show; he was added on in episode twenty-four ("Katy's New Boss") in an effort to increase ratings.
- Ernest Truex as Jason McCauley: Katy's first boss, the manager of The Bartley House. McCauley is a timid, elderly man, who likes to keep the guests of The Bartley House satisfied. In episode twenty-four ("Katy's New Boss"), McCauley is transferred to The Bartley House in Calcutta, India. The McCauleys were written out in a midseason retooling of the show, to include Sothern's Private Secretary co-star Don Porter.
- Reta Shaw as Flora McCauley: the wife of Mr. McCauley. Flora is a woman of high standards, who is portrayed as an overbearing, domineering wife who frequently bullies her husband. In In episode twenty-four ("Katy's New Boss"), she accompanies her husband when he is transferred. The McCauleys were written out in a midseason retooling of the show, to include Sothern's Private Secretary co-star Don Porter.
- Jack Mullaney as Johnny Wallace: a bellboy at The Bartley House. Johnny is a college student, who is working at the hotel to pay for his classes. He has an unrequited crush on Katy, who usually ignores it. Mullaney was the only one of the first season semi-regulars to appear in season two, though he is written out after the first couple of season two episodes to be replaced by Woody Hamilton.
- Jacques Scott as Paul Monteney: a room clerk at The Bartley House. He is a suave Frenchman. Though he survived the series' retooling midway through the first season, Scott was written out after the end of the first season.
- Jack Wagner as Alfred, a desk clerk at The Bartley House. (seasons 1-2)
- Jesse White as Oscar Pudney, a scheming and dishonest newsstand owner who is the nemisis of Katy and Mr. Devery. White was previously a semi-regular on Private Secretary. (seasons 2-3)
- Jimmy Fields as Richy Gordon, a child prodigy playing the piano, who helps support his widowed mother and three sisters by delivering newspapers. (seasons 2-3)
- Ken Berry as Woody Hamilton, a young bellhop. Berry's role replaced that of Jack Mullaney's character Johnny. (seasons 2-3)
- Louis Nye as Dr. Delbert Gray, a dentist who becomes Olive's boyfriend and eventual husband. (season 3)
- Gladys Hurlbut as Mrs. Gray, Delbert's overbearing mother who dislikes Olive. (season 3)
Some of the notable guests stars of The Ann Sothern Show included:
- Jack Albertson
- Lucille Ball
- Frances Bavier
- Joe Besser
- Joe E. Brown
- Harry Cheshire
- Jackie Coogan
- Jeff Donnell
- Kathleen Freeman
- Eva Gabor
- Barry Gordon
- Don Grady
- Joel Grey
- Charles Herbert
- Marty Ingels
- Van Johnson
- Guy Madison
- Jayne Meadows
- Sid Melton
- Sal Mineo
- Howard McNear
- Janis Paige
- Alice Pearce
- Stefanie Powers
- Cesar Romero
- Olan Soule
- Connie Stevens
- Lyle Talbot
- Mary Treen
- Lurene Tuttle
- Estelle Winwood
Crossover with The Lucy–Desi Comedy Hour
The second season premiere featured a crossover between The Ann Sothern Show and The Lucy–Desi Comedy Hour (then titled The Lucille Ball-Desi Arnaz Show). In the episode "The Lucy Story", Katy is greeted by her old friend Lucy Ricardo (Lucille Ball), who has checked into The Bartley House after an argument with Ricky (Desi Arnaz). Lucy attempts to play matchmaker for Katy and Mr. Devery, but ultimately spreads chaos through her scheme, which ultimately backfires on her.
Ball was the only cast member to appear in the episode, with Ricky being mentioned as having gone on vacation with Charlie Snyder. Ball and Sothern had been close friends since the beginning of their careers in the 1930s. In 1957, Sothern had guest starred on the premiere of The Lucy-Desi Comedy Hour ("Lucy Takes a Cruise to Havana") as her Private Secretary character, Susie McNamara, who was also a friend of Lucy Ricardo. Arnaz was the executive producer of The Ann Sothern Show, through his role as head of Desilu.
|Season||Episodes||Originally aired||Nielsen ratings|
|First aired||Last aired||Rank||Rating|
|1||35||October 6, 1958||June 15, 1959||N/A||N/A|
|2||32||October 5, 1959||May 23, 1960||N/A||N/A|
|3||26||October 6, 1960||March 30, 1961||N/A||N/A|
Season 1 (1958–59)
|Title||Directed by||Written by||Original air date|
|1||1||"The Bridal Suite"||Oscar Rudolph||Bob Schiller & Bob Weiskopf||October 6, 1958|
|2||2||"Six Wives Plus Two"||Sidney Miller||Bob Ross||October 13, 1958|
|3||3||"Love Comes to Olive"||Paul Harrison||Phil Davis||October 20, 1958|
|4||4||"Governess for a Day"||TBA||TBA||October 29, 1958|
|5||5||"The Masquerade Ball"||Sidney Miller||Bob Ross||November 3, 1958|
|6||6||"A New Lease on Life"||Sidney Miller||Barbara Avedon & Henry Sharp||November 10, 1958|
|7||7||"The Countess of Bartley"||Paul Harrison||Barbara Avedon & Henry Sharp||November 17, 1958|
|8||8||"The Thanksgiving Show"||TBA||TBA||November 24, 1958|
|9||9||"Say It with Music"||Sidney Miller||Phil Davis||December 1, 1958|
|10||10||"The Big Gamble"||Paul Harrison||Dick Chevillat & Ray Singer||December 8, 1958|
|11||11||"It's a Dog Life"||TBA||TBA||December 15, 1958|
|12||12||"The Boss's Son"||Sidney Miller||Mel Diamond & John Kohn||December 22, 1958|
|13||13||"East Side Story"||Abby Berlin||Phil Davis||December 29, 1958|
|14||14||"Johnny Moves Up"||TBA||TBA||January 5, 1959|
|15||15||"Give It Back to the Indians"||TBA||TBA||January 12, 1959|
|16||16||"Three Loves Has Katy"||TBA||Tom Seller||January 19, 1959|
|17||17||"Five Year Itch"||Abby Berlin||Mel Diamond & John Kohn||January 26, 1959|
|18||18||"Hurrah for the Irish"||James V. Kern||Phil Davis||February 2, 1959|
|19||19||"The O'Connors Stick Together"||James V. Kern||Phil Davis||February 9, 1959|
|20||20||"The High Cost of Living"||TBA||TBA||February 16, 1959|
|21||21||"Two on the Aisle"||TBA||TBA||February 23, 1959|
|22||22||"The Stand-In Heiress"||Abby Berlin||TBA||March 2, 1959|
|23||23||"Katy's Big Surprise"||TBA||TBA||March 9, 1959|
|24||24||"Katy's New Boss"||Abby Berlin||TBA||March 16, 1959|
|25||25||"The Road to Health"||TBA||TBA||March 23, 1959|
|26||26||"The Engagement Ring"||Abby Berlin||Phil Davis||March 30, 1959|
|27||27||"Katy's Investment Club"||Abby Berlin||Mel Diamond & John Kohn||April 13, 1959|
|28||28||"The Square Peg"||James V. Kern||Phil Davis||April 20, 1959|
|29||29||"Geisha Girl"||Abby Berlin||Louella MacFarlane & Arthur Phillips||April 27, 1959|
|30||30||"The Ugly Bonnet"||TBA||TBA||May 4, 1959|
|31||31||"The Raise"||TBA||TBA||May 11, 1959|
|32||32||"Springtime for Katy"||Abby Berlin||Arthur Phillips & Leo Solomon||May 18, 1959|
|33||33||"Katy Goes Through Channels"||TBA||TBA||June 1, 1959|
|34||34||"A Promotion for Johnny"||TBA||TBA||June 8, 1959|
|35||35||"Baby at the Bartley House"||TBA||TBA||June 15, 1959|
Season 2 (1959–60)
|Title||Directed by||Written by||Original air date|
|36||1||"The Lucy Story"||James V. Kern||Leonard Gershe||October 5, 1959|
|Katy's old friend Lucy Ricardo (Lucille Ball) checks into The Bartley House after a fight with Ricky, and is appalled to find Katy happy with her life unmarried. Lucy attempts to make Katy jealous by creating an affair with Mr. Devery. After overhearing Katy insult him behind his back, Mr. Devery begins taking the affair seriously, and brings Katy and Lucy to try and out scheme each other.|
|37||2||"Katy and the Cowboy"||TBA||TBA||October 12, 1959|
|38||3||"Katy and Olive's Nervous Break-up"||TBA||TBA||October 19, 1959|
|39||4||"Domestic Katy"||TBA||TBA||October 26, 1959|
|40||5||"The Sal Mineo Story"||TBA||TBA||November 2, 1959|
|41||6||"The Big Pay-Off"||Abby Berlin||Barbara Avedon & Henry Sharp||November 16, 1959|
|42||7||"Old Buddy Boy"||James V. Kern||Story by: George O'Hanlon|
Teleplay by: Bill Manhoff & George O'Hanlon
|November 23, 1959|
|43||8||"Queen for a Day"||TBA||TBA||November 30, 1959|
|44||9||"Katy and the New Girl"||TBA||TBA||December 7, 1959|
|45||10||"The Tender Trap"||TBA||TBA||December 14, 1959|
|46||11||"Top Executive"||TBA||TBA||December 21, 1959|
|47||12||"Katy Mismanages"||TBA||TBA||December 28, 1959|
|48||13||"The Woman Behind the Throne"||TBA||TBA||January 4, 1960|
|49||14||"Slightly Married"||James V. Kern||Richard De Roy & Danny Simon||January 11, 1960|
|50||15||"Devery's White Elephant"||TBA||TBA||January 18, 1960|
|51||16||"Katy's New Career"||TBA||TBA||January 25, 1960|
|52||17||"The Witness"||TBA||TBA||February 1, 1960|
|53||18||"The Dog Who Came to Dinner"||TBA||TBA||February 8, 1960|
|54||19||"Olive's Dream Man"||James V. Kern||Barbara Avedon & Henry Sharp||February 15, 1960|
|55||20||"A Touch of Larceny"||James V. Kern||Bill Manhoff||February 22, 1960|
|56||21||"Common Cents"||TBA||TBA||February 29, 1960|
|57||22||"The Freeloader"||Abby Berlin||Bob Fisher & Alan Lipscott||March 14, 1960|
|58||23||"Billy"||TBA||TBA||March 21, 1960|
|59||24||"I Can Get It for You Wholesale"||TBA||TBA||March 28, 1960|
|60||25||"Katy Meets Danger"||TBA||TBA||April 4, 1960|
|61||26||"The Roman Hatter"||Abby Berlin||Leonard Gershe & Ashe King||April 11, 1960|
|62||27||"Surprise, Surprise"||James V. Kern||George O'Hanlon||April 18, 1960|
|63||28||"One for the Books"||James V. Kern||Arthur Hoffe & Ashe King||April 25, 1960|
|64||29||"Doubting Devery"||TBA||TBA||May 2, 1960|
|65||30||"Boy Genius"||TBA||TBA||May 9, 1960|
|66||31||"Wedding March"||TBA||TBA||May 16, 1960|
|67||32||"Angels"||TBA||TBA||May 23, 1960|
Season 3 (1960–61)
|Title||Directed by||Written by||Original air date|
|68||1||"A Tooth for a Tooth"||James V. Kern||Leonard Gershe||October 6, 1960|
|Olive's fear of the dentist has kept her from going to the dentist for years, even when she develops a toothache. Katy forces her to go to Dr. Delbert Gray (Louis Nye), and Olive soon begins a relationship with Gray. However, Katy soon finds herself defending the blossoming romance from Gray's mother, who doesn't want her son leaving her anytime soon.|
|69||2||"Loving Arms"||James V. Kern||Robert van Scoyk||October 13, 1960|
|Mr. Devery is furious about a new television program called Loving Arms, and even more so when he discovers Katy let the show's writer (Van Johnson) do his research for a retooled show at the Bartley House. To get Devery to change his mind, Katy attempts to have Devery watch the show — but first, his television set needs to be fixed.|
|70||3||"The Girls"||Richard Whorf||Bob Fisher & Alan Lipscott||October 20, 1960|
|71||4||"The Pinch-Hitter"||James V. Kern||R.S. Allen||October 27, 1960|
|72||5||"Olive in Love"||TBA||TBA||November 3, 1960|
|73||6||"Go-Go Gordon"||Richard Whorf||Robert van Scoyk and Art Baer & Ben Joelson||November 10, 1960|
|74||7||"Hasta Luego"||Richard Whorf||Leonard Gershe||November 17, 1960|
|75||8||"The Proposal"||TBA||TBA||November 24, 1960|
|76||9||"Secret Admirer"||Richard Whorf||George O'Hanlon & Robert van Scoyk||December 1, 1960|
|77||10||"Option Time"||TBA||TBA||December 8, 1960|
|78||11||"Setting the Date"||James V. Kern||Leonard Gershe||December 15, 1960|
|79||12||"The Other Woman"||TBA||TBA||December 22, 1960|
|80||13||"The Elopment"||TBA||Barry E. Blitzer & Robert van Scoyk||December 29, 1960|
|81||14||"Operation Pudney"||TBA||TBA||January 5, 1961|
|82||15||"Mr. Big Shot"||TBA||TBA||January 19, 1961|
|83||16||"Toujour L'amour"||TBA||TBA||January 26, 1961|
|84||17||"The Royal Visit"||James V. Kern||Bob Fisher & Alan Lipscott||February 2, 1961|
|A princess (Eva Gabor) stays at the Bartley, immediately enchanting Mr. Devery. When the princess asks that Mr. Devery let her keep her dog despite the "No Dogs Allowed" policy, he is only happy to let her. But Katy is not so happy, since she is the one who has to deal with the other guests, who are upset since they don't get special privileges.|
|85||18||"Just Friends"||TBA||TBA||February 9, 1961|
|86||19||"The Widow"||James V. Kern||Bob Barbash||February 16, 1961|
|87||20||"Always April"||Richard Whorf||Robert van Scoyk||February 23, 1961|
|A young girl named April runs away from her fancy boarding school, and comes to the Bartley to pursue her dreams of becoming a Broadway actress like her mother (Constance Bennett). And unfortunately, Katy and Mr. Devery are the ones left dealing with girl's parents, former actors who retired to a Vermont farm years ago — and don't want their daughter anywhere near show business.|
|88||21||"Two's Company"||TBA||TBA||March 2, 1961|
|89||22||"Vamp 'Til Ready"||TBA||TBA||March 9, 1961|
|90||23||"Pandora"||Richard Whorf||Benedict Freeman & John Fenton Murray||March 16, 1961|
|91||24||"The Wedding"||Richard Whorf||Leonard Gershe & Robert van Scoyk||March 23, 1961|
|92||25||"The Beginning"||Richard Whorf||Robert van Scoyk||March 30, 1931|
|93||26||"The Invitation"||Richard Whorf||TBA||September 4, 1961(Syndication)|
The Ann Sothern Show came to fruition shortly after the ending of Shothern's first CBS sitcom Private Secretary. Private Secretary had been renewed by CBS for a sixth season in 1957, but Sothern had a contract dispute with producer Jack Chertok. To have control over her own series, Sothern developed The Ann Sothern Show, producing the series with her company Anso Productions and Desilu Productions, which was owned by Sothern's longtime friend Lucille Ball. Sothern enlisted Private Secretary co-star Ann Tyrrell to co-star with her in her new series, and added Ernest Truex in place of Private Secretary co-star Don Porter. The series was shot at Desilu Studios, though not in a live studio audience like most other Desilu sitcoms. Sothern reportedly did not like to play comedy in front of an audience, and thus, a laugh track was used throughout the show's run. For a time, some episodes featured a disclaimer during the end credits reading "Audience Reaction Technically Produced". Sothern and her sister, Bonnie Lake, wrote the series' theme song "Katy". With General Foods agreeing to produce the first season, CBS picked up The Ann Sothern Show in May 1958.
The series premiered in October 1958, to satisfactory ratings and a Golden Globe Award for Best TV Show. Though the ratings were okay, CBS attempted to increase the ratings by having Porter join the series. A retooling midway through the first season saw Ernest Truex and semi-regular Reta Shaw being written out, and Porter becoming the boss to Sothern's Katy O'Connor. Ratings for the series improved, allowing CBS to renew the series for a second season. Eventually, semi-regulars Jack Mullaney and Jacques Scott were also written out, with fellow Private Secretary alum Jesse White joining the series. The second season also did well enough for CBS to renew it for a third season.
At the beginning of the third season, CBS moved The Ann Sothern Show from its timeslot on Mondays at 9:30 pm EST (immediately following The Danny Thomas Show) to Thursdays at 9:30 pm EST, to make room for The Andy Griffith Show. This put the series in direct competition with fellow Desilu series, ABC drama The Untouchables; that season alone, The Untouchables was #8. Due to the move, The Ann Sothern Show struggled in the ratings, with CBS cancelling the show in the spring of 1961.
During The Ann Sothern Show's third season, two episodes aired which were intended to be spin-offs. None of the proposed spin-offs were picked up by CBS, presumably due to the low ratings of The Ann Sothern Show that season. The series would have been produced by Sothern's company Anso Productions.
The first episode, "Always April", aired on February 23, 1961, and featured Constance Bennett. In the episode, Bennett starred as Guinevere Fleming, a former actress who had retired along with her actor husband David Fleming (John Emery) to Vermont. Much to their chagrin, their daughter April (Susan Silo) longs to be an actress and runs away from boarding school to the Bartley House. April meets Katy O'Connor, who convinces her to tell her parents of her plans. The second proposed spin-off episode was "Pandora", which aired on March 16, 1961. The episode featured Pat Carroll as Pandora, a young, slightly eccentric country girl who traveled to Los Angeles on the advice of her mother. Katy O'Connor hires her as a secretary for handsome Hollywood actor Anthony Bardot (Guy Mitchell).
During its run, The Ann Sothern Show was also sponsored by (Tang, Maxwell House coffee), Johnson Wax (Glo-Coat and Pledge), and Post Cereals. Sothern and her cast mates would often appear in commercials for the sponsors' products at the end of the episode. Sothern would then sign off with, "Well, goodnight everybody. Stay happy!".
The series was previously distributed by Desilu Productions, United Artists Television, and Paramount Television. In a unique situation, Sothern kept the rights to The Ann Sothern Show, even after Desilu was sold to Paramount. In 1980, Sothern and Paramount sold The Ann Sothern Show to Metromedia Producers Corporation.
Metromedia's successor, 20th Century-Fox Television, currently holds the underlying rights to the series.
Cable channel Nick at Nite aired The Ann Sothern Show from 1987 to 1990. As of April 2019, The Ann Sothern Show is not available on DVD, nor have any plans to do so been announced.
Awards and nominations
|1959||Emmy Award||Best Actress in a Leading Role (Continuing Character) in a Comedy Series||Nominated||Ann Sothern|
|1959||Golden Globe Award||Best TV Show||Won||The Ann Sothern Show|
- Truex appears in the first twenty-four episodes.
- Shaw appears in the first twenty-four episodes.
- Porter joined the cast in the twenty-fourth episode of the first season ("Katy's New Boss").
- (Spangler 2003, p. 58)
- (Tucker 2007, p. 135)
- (Schultz 1990, p. 11)
- "Scoreboard On TV Fall Plans". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc.: 10 May 26, 1958. ISSN 0006-2510.
- (Tucker 2007, p. 136)
- "New TV Show Set For Ann Sothern". Star-News. July 28, 1952. p. 11. Retrieved January 7, 2013.
- (Schultz 1990, p. 12)
- (Tucker 2007, p. 147)
- US Copyright Office Document No V1770P297 1980-02-13
- Schultz, Margie (1990). Ann Sothern: A Bio-Bibliography. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-26463-5
- Spangler, Lynn C. (2003). Television Women from Lucy to Friends: Fifty Years of Sitcoms and Feminism. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-28781-3
- Tucker, David C. (2007). The Women Who Made Television Funny: Ten Stars of 1950s Sitcoms. McFarland. ISBN 0-786-42900-3