All-American Comics #19
Showcase #34 (Oct. 1961)
Suicide Squad #44 (August 1990)
Atom One Million:
DC One Million 80-Page Giant #1,000,000 (August 1999)
DCU: Brave New World (2006)
Bill O'Connor (writer)
Ben Flinton (artist)
Julius Schwartz (editor and co-plotter)
Gardner Fox (writer)
Gil Kane (artist)
Atom One Million:
Justice Society of America
Black Lantern Corps
Black Lantern Corps
Atom One Million:
Justice Legion Alpha
All-except Pratt and Atom One Million:|
Ability to shrink and grow his body and other objects to varying degrees (including the subatomic level) while manipulating his weight and mass to his advantage
Maintains strength of normal size in shrunken state, Superhuman strength and speed, Expert hand to hand combatant
The original Golden Age Atom, Al Pratt, was created by writer Bill O'Connor and artist Ben Flinton and first appeared in All-American Publications' All-American Comics #19 (Oct. 1940). The second Atom was the Silver Age Atom, Ray Palmer, who first appeared in 1961. The third Atom, Adam Cray, was a minor character present in Suicide Squad stories. The fourth Atom, Ryan Choi, debuted in a new Atom series in August 2006. Another Atom from the 853rd Century first appeared as part of Justice Legion Alpha in August 1999.
The Atom has been the star of multiple solo series, and four of the five have appeared as members of various superhero teams, such as the Justice Society of America, the Justice League, the Suicide Squad, and the Justice Legion Alpha.
- 1 Fictional character biographies
- 2 Other versions
- 3 Collected Editions
- 4 In other media
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Fictional character biographies
The original Atom, Al Pratt, first appeared in All-American Comics #19 (Oct. 1940). He initially had no superpowers; instead, he was a diminutive college student and later a physicist who was depicted as a tough guy, a symbol of all the short kids who could still make a difference. Pratt was a founding member of the Justice Society of America, later gaining limited super-strength, and an energy charged 'atomic punch'. He died in the charge against Extant during the Zero Hour.
The Atom introduced during the Silver Age of comic books in Showcase #34 (1961) is physicist and university professor Raymond Palmer, Ph.D. (He was named for real-life science fiction writer Raymond A. Palmer, who was himself quite short.) After stumbling onto a mass of white dwarf star matter that had fallen to Earth, he fashioned a lens which allowed him to shrink down to subatomic size. Originally, his size and molecular density abilities derived from the white dwarf star material of his costume, controlled by mechanisms in his belt, and later by controls in the palms of his gloves. Much later, he gained the innate equivalent powers within his own body. After the events of Identity Crisis, Ray shrank himself to microscopic size and disappeared. Finding him became a major theme of the Countdown year-long series and crossover event.
Prior to Ray Palmer's trip to the Amazon Jungle,[further explanation needed] he learns his wife Jean Loring has had an affair with her colleague, Paul Hoben; Palmer and Loring divorce. Later, Palmer offers his blessing to the couple when they marry, and he offers Hoben his size-changing belt so that Hoben can protect Ivy Town after Ray returns to the Morlaidhans. Adam Cray would later steal this belt; Hoben never uses the costume or name of the Atom.
Adam Cray, son of the murdered Senator Cray,[further explanation needed] first appeared as the Atom in the pages of Suicide Squad #44 by John Ostrander (August 1990). Cray was initially believed to be Ray Palmer in disguise by members of the team. Cray had been recruited by Palmer (who faked his own death) to apprehend the Micro Squad, a group of villains that had been reduced in size. Palmer intended to use Cray to uncover a shadowy government cabal who were using Palmer to discover the secret identities of other costumed heroes (Palmer's own identity no longer being secret). While Palmer infiltrated the Micro Squad, Cray would attract the attention of the Cabal as the new Atom, so that no one would notice Palmer assuming the identity of a fallen Micro Squad member.
Adam Cray remained with the Suicide Squad briefly, serving as a secret weapon whose existence was unknown to others of the Squad. Cray saves Amanda Waller from a group of assassins. At one point, Cray approaches Deadshot about his role in Senator Cray's murder. Later, Cray is impaled through the chest by Blacksnake, a Micro Squad member who believes him to be Palmer.
After the unanticipated murder of Cray, Palmer reveals himself and defeats Cray's murderer. The ruse ended, Palmer explains himself to the Justice League, who had been searching for him, after hearing rumors of a new Atom.
During the events of Blackest Night, Adam's corpse is reanimated as a member of the Black Lantern Corps alongside several other fallen Suicide Squad members. Following his reanimation, Adam and the other Black Lanterns travel to Belle Reve and attack Bane and Black Alice. Adam is apparently destroyed by the Manhunter's self-destruct mechanism, unleashing an explosion of Green Lantern energy that eradicates the Black Lanterns.
In DC Rebirth, Adam Cray is the son of Senator Cray and Ryan Choi's roommate at Ivy University. Senator Cray also attended Ivy and expected Adam to attend Ivy as well. He first meets Ryan when he walks into their dorm with heavy luggage and kindly introduces himself. Adam teaches Ryan how to play rugby and video games.
Ryan Choi, as described by DC solicitations, is "a young hotshot professor who's filling the extra spot on Ivy University's teaching staff. .. and who inadvertently ends up filling the old Atom's super-heroic shoes". This new Atom is based on a redesign by Grant Morrison. He debuted in the Brave New World one-shot, a preview of projects, and then appeared in the series, The All-New Atom, written by Gail Simone. He is later murdered by Deathstroke and his Titans.
In September 2011, The New 52 rebooted DC's continuity. In this new timeline, a new, female Atom is introduced, Rhonda Pineda, a Hispanic American college student from Ivy Town. She is revealed to be working as a reluctant spy for Amanda Waller and Steve Trevor, gathering intel on the new Justice League recruits. She is noted to be "the most important member of the Justice League of America" by Steve Trevor. At the conclusion of the "Trinity War" storyline, she is revealed to in fact be betraying both teams; she hails from the alternate universe of Earth-3, where she is a member of the Crime Syndicate, operating under the name Atomica. She also reveals that by placing a sliver of Green Kryptonite in Superman's optic nerve, she caused him to accidentally kill Doctor Light, with the added effect of severely weakening and almost killing Superman over time.
Atomica originally worked on Earth-3 with Johnny Quick as a thief and killer. One night after killing two cops, they are cornered on the roof of S.T.A.R. Labs during a storm. Lightning hits a satellite, electrocuting Johnny and granting him speed powers. Rhonda falls inside the building and lands near Ray Palmer's Atomico work, gaining size and density changing powers. During the final battle with the Crime Syndicate, Atomica reduces her size and is killed when Lex Luthor steps on her.
Atom One Million
An unnamed scientist in the 853rd Century performed experiments in superstring theory that creates a singularity and whose radiation alters his physical make-up. When the singularity threatened to expand and destroy his universe, he enters it in an attempt to save the universe but instead finds himself on an interdimensional bridge to another universe as his own is wiped out, unable to stop it. At the end of the bridge, he finds Superman Prime who came to help but was too late. Stranded, he searches this universe for remnants of the one he lost, in time taking the name the Atom and joining the Justice Legion Alpha when he helped them defeat the Bizarro-Legion. This Atom's powers differ from his predecessors in that he doesn't shrink but breaks up into several smaller duplicates of himself divided amongst his mass. At atomic size, these duplicates can mimic elements such as gold and oxygen.
Frank Miller portrayed Ray Palmer as a major player in Batman: The Dark Knight Strikes Again. He was taken prisoner by Lex Luthor and made to live in one of his own petri dishes for a period of months until his rescue by Catgirl. He was then instrumental in the liberation of Kandor.
In the Tangent Comics imprint, The Atom is "Arthur Harrison Thompson", a subject of radiation testing on human beings. The first hero in the Tangent timeline, he inadvertently caused the Cuban missile crisis to escalate into a limited nuclear exchange that obliterated Florida and Cuba in 1962, unknown to his fellow Americans. Thompson was succeeded by his son, who was killed by the Tangent Comics version of the Fatal Five, and a grandson named Adam, who, in Tangent: Superman's Reign, is being held captive by Superman.
It is suggested in the Tangent series that The Atom's name was at least in part chosen because of the abbreviation of his full name "Arthur Harrison Thompson" on his barracks door to simply "A. Thom."
Also in the Tangent series The Atom's presence as America's first superhero during the 1960s has led to a huge cultural impact, and in this world many significant points in pop culture have been effected by his presence; for instance The Beatles choose to be called "The Atomiks", further more TV shows such as The Beverly Hillbillies became "The Superman Hillbillies", The Dick Van Dyke Show became "The Dick Van Hero Show" and Get Smart became "Get Powers".
- Some other re-imaginings of the Atom include an appearance in League of Justice, a story portraying the Justice League in a The Lord of the Rings-type story where the Atom was recast as a wizard/fortune teller called "Atomus The Palmer".
- Al Pratt as the Atom was one of the three heroes who chose to work at the side of Senator Thompson in The Golden Age. When Al discovers that Thompson is really the Ultra-Humanite, he joins the other heroes against the villain and Dyna-Man.
- The Al Pratt Atom appeared in JSA: The Unholy Three as a post-WW2 intelligence agent with transparent atomic flesh and a visible skeleton.
- JLA: Age of Wonder where Ray Palmer worked with a science consortium whose numbers at one point included Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla.
- JLA: Created Equal, after Ray Palmer is killed in the cosmic storm that nearly wipes out the rest of the male population on Earth, a graduate student named Jill Athron is given a research grant to study Palmer's white-dwarf-star-belt. She becomes the Atom and joins the Justice League.
- Atom evolved from a hawkman that had evolved from Robin in the Just Imagine... comic book.
In the final issue of 52, a new Multiverse is revealed, originally consisting of 52 identical realities. Among the parallel realities shown is one designated "Earth-2". As a result of Mister Mind "eating" aspects of this reality, it takes on visual aspects similar to the pre-Crisis Earth-2, including the Atom among other Justice Society of America characters. The names of the characters and the team are not mentioned in the panel in which they appear, but the Atom is visually similar to the Al Pratt Atom. Based on comments by Grant Morrison, this alternate universe is not the pre-Crisis Earth-2.
In Countdown #30, the Challengers from Beyond encountered Earth-15, a world where the sidekicks had taken their mentor's places. On this Earth, the Atom is Jessica Palmer, a genius who graduated from MIT at age eight. The Search for Ray Palmer - Red Son features the Ray Palmer of Earth-30, an American captured by the Superman of a communist Russia. Countdown: Arena also depicts the Ray Palmer of Earth-6, who through unknown circumstances now has the powers and title of the Ray. The Search For Ray Palmer: Superwoman/Batwoman briefly features a female version of The Atom. On the newly introduced Earth-52, Atomarsupial is one of the metasimian Primate Legion 
|The Atom Archives, Vol. 1||Showcase #34-36, The Atom #1-5||208||1-56389-717-2|
|The Atom Archives, Vol. 2||The Atom #6-13||208||1-4012-0014-1|
|Sword of the Atom||Sword of the Atom #1-4 and Sword of the Atom Special #1-3||232||1-4012-1553-X|
|DC Comics Presents: The Atom||Legends of the DC Universe #28-29 and 40-41||96|
|My Life in Miniature||The All-New Atom #1-6, Brave New World #1||160||1-4012-1325-1|
|Future/Past||The All-New Atom #7-11||128||1-4012-1568-8|
|The Hunt for Ray Palmer||The All-New Atom #12-16||128||978-1-4012-1782-2|
|Small Wonder||The All-New Atom #17-18 and 20-25||192||978-1-4012-1996-3|
In other media
- The Atom appeared in "The Roast", the second of two 1979 live-action TV specials aired under the umbrella title Legends of the Superheroes. In "The Roast", the Atom (played by Alfie Wise) is engaged to marry villainess Giganta (played by actress A'leshia Brevard).
- The Atom appeared in the 1997 live action TV series pilot, Justice League of America played by John Kassir.
- Atom (Al Pratt) appears in the Smallville episode "Absolute Justice" played by Glenn Hoffman. He is a super hero in the 1970s and a physics professor at Calvin College, who was arrested during a student protest and framed for the crime of fraud by the government in a mission to take down the JSA. However, he was never convicted of any crime. As the law was now aware of his superhero identity, Pratt retired from heroics. As Doctor Fate later stated, "The Atom split".
- Ray Palmer first appears as a recurring character in Arrow.
- In season 3 Ray is a brilliant scientist (with a 140 I.Q. and 4 PhDs) and the CEO of Palmer Technologies (formerly Queen Consolidated, rebranded after Ray purchases it from receivership). His fiancee, Anna Loring, was murdered by Slade Wilson/Deathstroke's Mirakuru men (which takes place during the second season), and he vows to never let anything like Slade's attack happen again. To achieve this, he devotes much of his efforts to building a high tech suit of armour with built-in weapons and flight capability, acquiring the necessary resources from various businessmen. He also has an ambition to rebuild Starling City and rechristen it "Star City". He hires Felicity Smoak to work for him and becomes romantically attracted to her. He eventually starts dating her, much to the jealousy of Oliver Queen. After succeeding in building his suit, the "Arrow" (in reality, Maseo Yamashiro framing Oliver on behalf of Ra's al Ghul) begins killing people. Ray uses his suit's x-ray vision feature to discover the real Arrow's identity as Oliver Queen. On learning of Felicity's affection towards Oliver, Ray becomes jealous and tries to apprehend him. However, Oliver defeats Ray and tells him to trust Felicity, and Ray accepts that Oliver is being framed. When Maseo tries to kill Felicity, Ray saves her, but at the cost of his being shot in the chest. He is able to survive by secretly using a new micro-technology to heal himself. Ray later realizes that Felicity is indeed in love with Oliver, and the pair have a civil break-up and decide to resume being friends. In the season finale, Ray assists Team Arrow in their attempt to stop Ra's destroying Starling City with a bio-weapon and partakes in their initial attack on the League's men in Nanda Parbat. After this fails he accompanies them back to Starling City and succeeds in dispersing the antidote, saving hundreds of lives. At the end of the episode, Ray works on a new technology to give his suit the ability to shrink, but is seemingly killed in an explosion that destroys the entire top floor of Palmer Technologies.
- In season 4, it's revealed that the explosion, in conjunction with the micro-tech injected into him several weeks before, actually shrunk Ray and his suit to miniature sizes. For months, Ray sent distress calls to Felicity with no response, as she had left the city to be with Oliver. One of these messages is eventually intercepted by Damien Darhk, leader of H.I.V.E., who captures Ray and keeps him in a miniaturized state to use his suit's powers for Darhk's own agenda. Meanwhile, the city is re-branded "Star City" in Ray's honor, and Felicity inherits Palmer Technologies as part of Ray's will. Felicity begins getting encrypted messages on her phone with him calling her name. After tearfully listening to Ray's last message, Felicity discovers Ray is alive. Team Arrow locates and rescues him and, with the help of Curtis Holt, are able to restore Ray to normal size. However, seeing that Star City has not gotten any better, believing that nobody really cared that he "died", and that Palmer Technologies is teetering on bankruptcy, Ray concludes that his past life has amounted to nothing. He elects to remain officially dead until he can figure out where he wants his new life to go, but still assists Team Arrow whenever they need help.
- Routh portrays Ray during Season 1 of The Flash, in the episode "All-Star Team-Up". Here, he helps Barry Allen/The Flash deal with a villain using a swarm of cybernetic bees to attack those who ruined her career. He works with Cisco to fix some bugs in the suit and states in the end that the solution was "to go smaller", a veiled reference to the powers of his comic book counterpart, and forms a friendship with Cisco out of their shared interest in mechanics. Ray also shares Cisco's love for naming super-villains; he and Cisco both come up with "Bug-Eyed Bandit", and Cisco approves of Ray's naming another metahuman "Deathbolt" (Arrow, "Broken Arrow"). Ray is briefly mentioned in the season's penultimate episode, "Rogue Air"; when Oliver helps Barry fight Eobard Thawne/Reverse-Flash, he shoots him with an arrow that delivers "nanites... courtesy of Ray Palmer" which temporarily disables Eobard's speed.
- Routh reprises his role as Ray in the spin-off series Legends of Tomorrow as part of the main cast.
- In the first season he is recruited by time-traveler Rip Hunter to help him defeat Vandal Savage across the timeline. Ray accepts the offer as he is attracted by the thought of giving his current life meaning after seeing the waste he believes his former life to have been, although his enthusiasm and optimism still occasionally overrides his lack of practical experience. Ray/Atom's suit now has the ability to shrink, and he later uses the suit's technology to grow to giantic size to defeat a similarly gigantic robot ("Leviathan"). He also begins a flirtatious friendship with Kendra Saunders, which develops into a romantic relationship and ultimately an engagement. However, when another reincarnation of Carter Hall is located, Ray ends the relationship amicably, knowing that Kendra is meant to be with Carter. Ray also forms something of a bond with Mick Rory/Heat Wave, who nicknames Ray "haircut", despite being polar opposites in personality. Mick denies any connection between them, but he has protected Ray on occasion and the two work well together, as when they take out the 1958 version of Savage and destroy his meteor before its effects can destroy time.
- Ray returns in the second season, still acting as a member of the Legends. During time in 1942, Ray modifies a Super-Serum provided to the Nazis by Eobard Thawne to save the team's new ally Nate Heywood from his hemophilia, giving Nate the ability to turn into a metallic skinned state. His suit is destroyed during a trip to feudal Japan when it is stolen by a ruthless local warrior, but Mick Rory gives Ray the cold gun that used to belong to the now-deceased Leonard Snart so that he can still act as a hero. When the team travel to Colorado in 1874, Ray revealed to the team that his suit was powered with dwarf stars, Ray got some of it to rebuild his suit. In the crossover episode "Invasion!", Ray notes that Supergirl looks a lot like his cousin, which is a reference to Routh's portrayal of Superman. In the episode Moonshot he walks on the moon.
- In The Superman/Aquaman Hour of Adventure, Ray Palmer appeared in his own episodes and in the Justice League of America segments along with Superman, The Flash, Green Lantern, and Hawkman. He was voiced by Pat Harrington, Jr., who would be better known a decade later for his role as Dwayne F. Schneider on the sitcom One Day at a Time.
- Ray also made occasional appearances on The All-New Super Friends Hour and Super Friends voiced by Wally Burr.
- A futuristic version of atom named Micron appears in Batman Beyond two part episode "The Call", he is a member of Justice League Unlimited. After a rather intense but successful training session, Micron got a distress call from an unknown source about a monorail gone haywire. After saving the only person on board ― its driver ― he tried to prevent the monorail from colliding with another coming in the opposite direction. Micron disengaged the train from its track, and then derailed it. Right when he tried to get out of the plummeting train, the door suddenly closed and a force-field barricaded Micron inside. The train crashed into a building, leaving Micron badly injured. Little did he know that the person responsible for the wreck was Superman, who was under the control of Starro. Micron was placed in a stasis field, where he slowly recovered. Sometime later, Starro/Superman tried to sabotage the field and finish Micron off. However, this attempt was promptly interrupted by the other Leaguers. A battle ensued, and Micron mustered enough strength to get out of the tank, and snatched Superman with his magnified hand. However, he was still feeble, so Superman easily knocked him unconscious. Micron was then returned to the stasis field, where he most likely recovered in short time.
- In the Justice League episode "Hereafter Pt. 2" Vandal Savage mentions his attempted theft of one of Ray Palmer's inventions resulted in the death of everyone except Savage.
- Ray Palmer eventually appeared in Justice League Unlimited voiced by John C. McGinley. He first appears in "The Return" to help Lex Luthor defend himself against Amazo by building a nanotechnology-disabling laser that would deactivate Amazo. When it fails, Atom shrinks himself and Lex Luthor only for Amazo to follow them. In "Dark Heart" (written by Warren Ellis), Atom helps the Justice League disable a grey goo-like alien weapon known as the Dark Heart which uses nanotechnology to replicate its forces. He manages to disable it, which also deactivated its forces. The Atom's final vocalized appearance was in "Clash," when he examined a device built by Lex Luthor which Superman had mistaken for a bomb. In "Panic in the Sky," Atom was shown in his small form unconscious before Supergirl's fight with Galatea.
- The Ryan Choi version of the Atom appears in the series Batman: The Brave and the Bold voiced by James Sie. The Atom helps Batman stop evil sorcerer Felix Faust from opening Pandora's Box in "Evil Under the Sea!". He re-appeared along with Aquaman to save Batman from a virus created by Chemo in "Journey to the Center of the Bat!". A mind-controlled Ryan Choi appears in "The Siege of Starro! Part One", demonstrating the ability to grow to giant sizes, which he uses to prevent Batman from destroying a signal leading Starro to Earth. He also appears in the teaser for "The Criss Cross Conspiracy!", where he, Batman, and Aquaman battle the Bug-Eyed Bandit. In "Sword of the Atom!", a retired Ryan is coerced by Aquaman into helping Batman find Ray Palmer. At the episode's end, Ryan redons the Atom mantle.
- Atom has a Crime Syndicate counterpart called Dyna-Mite (not to be confused with the Marvel comics character of the same name or Dan the Dyna-Mite), also voiced by James Sie. He appears in Deep Cover for Batman. Blue Bowman has him spy on Owlman. Ray Palmer appears in the episode "Sword of the Atom!" voiced by Peter Scolari. In the episode, it is revealed that Ray had been the original Atom and Ryan Choi's mentor, but that he had eventually retired and moved to the Amazon. There, he encountered the Morlaidhans and Princess Laethwyn. After teaming up with Batman, Ryan and Aquaman to defeat a traitorous and xenophobic Chancellor Deraegis, Ray chooses to stay in the Amazon as Laethwyn's lover.
- Ray Palmer appears in Young Justice voiced by Jason Marsden. He is first mentioned in the episode "Agendas" where he is considered for membership in the Justice League. In episode "Usual Suspects", Ray becomes a member of the Justice League. In episode "Auld Acquaintance", Ray is shown as one of the infected Leaguers by the Starro Tech of Vandal Savage and then he is cured by Miss Martian. In episode "Happy New Year", Bumblebee mentions that she has a lab assignment with Dr. Palmer and has to postpone a date with Mal Duncan. In "True Colors," Atom and Bumblebee attempt a micro-surgery to get the Scarab off of Jaime Reyes only for them to be extracted when the Blue Beetle Scarab started producing antibodies to fight them off.
- Jason Marsden reprises his role of the Atom in the DC Nation Short titled "Sword of the Atom."
- Ray Palmer appears in Justice League Action, voiced by Jerry O'Connell.
- Ray Palmer appeared in Justice League: The New Frontier, voiced by Corey Burton, who was not credited for the role. He provided his flawed shrinking technology, which makes whatever it attempts to shrink explode, to destroy the creature known as "The Centre."
- An alternate universe version of Ray Palmer appears in Justice League: Gods and Monsters voiced by Dee Bradley Baker. He appears as a scientist who was a part of Lex Luthor's "Project Fair Play," a weapons program contingency that would be used to destroy the Justice League if necessary. Ray was first seen driving home with shrunken horses as a result of his experiments with molecular miniaturization. He was ambushed during his ride and killed by a Metal Man meant to frame Wonder Woman. An alternate universe version of Ryan Choi appears in Justice League: Gods and Monsters, voiced by Eric Bauza. He was seen encouraging Ray Palmer about his presentation on molecular miniaturization as seen when he holds one of Ray's shrunken horses.
- The Atom also appears in Justice League: The Flashpoint Paradox, where he was imprisoned by Aquaman.
- The Atom appeared in Teen Titans Go! To the Movies, voiced by Patton Oswalt.
- A hidden Easter Egg in Justice League listed Choi as a S.T.A.R. Labs scientist, possibly partial to the creation of Cyborg.
- The Ryan Choi version of the Atom appears in the film Lego DC Comics Super Heroes: The Flash, voiced again by Eric Bauza.
- The Atom appears in DC Universe Online.
- The Atom (Ray Palmer) appears as a playable character in Lego Batman 3: Beyond Gotham, voiced by Troy Baker.
- The Atom (Ray Palmer) is referenced in Batman: Arkham Knight, in Ace Chemicals, there's a locker with a name "Ray Palmer", along with an atom symbol sketched on it.
- Ray Palmer appears in Injustice: Gods Among Us as a non-playable cameo in the Insurgency stage. He is also playable in one of the Joker's S.T.A.R. Labs mission minigame, although he possesses no special moves or abilities, and merely runs and jumps.
- The Atom (Ryan Choi) is a DLC character in Injustice 2. In his character ending, after disabling Brainiac’s telepathic link to his Skull Ship, Choi uses Brainiac’s technology to upgrade his bio-belt, before continuing his search for the missing Ray Palmer in the Microverse. In addition to being mentioned as having gone missing in the Microverse in Atom's ending, Ray Palmer the former Atom is mentioned by Choi in some of his pre-battle dialogue. In the main story, while trying to hack the Red Son prison's network to free Superman from his cell, Cyborg also mentions Ray Palmer, stating he has to hand it to Palmer as his people did a good job at encrypting the prison's computer systems, before pointing that he can still break it.
- Beatty, Scott, Wallace, Dan (2008). "Atom I, II and III". In Dougall, Alastair. The DC Comics Encyclopedia. London: Dorling Kindersley. p. 30. ISBN 0-7566-4119-5.
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