The Barbarian Invasions
|Les Invasions barbares
The Barbarian Invasions
Original film poster
|Directed by||Denys Arcand|
|Produced by||Daniel Louis
|Written by||Denys Arcand|
|Music by||Pierre Aviat|
|Edited by||Isabelle Dedieu|
|Distributed by||Pyramide Distribution (France)
Alliance Atlantis (Canada)
Miramax Films (US)
The Barbarian Invasions (French: Les Invasions barbares) is a 2003 Canadian-French comedy-drama film written and directed by Denys Arcand and starring Rémy Girard, Stéphane Rousseau and Marie-Josée Croze. The film is a sequel to Arcand's film The Decline of the American Empire (1986), continuing the story of the character Rémy, a womanizing history professor now terminally ill with cancer. The film was a result of Arcand's longtime desire to make a film about a character close to death, also incorporating a response to the September 11 attacks of 2001.
The film was produced by companies from both Canada and France, and received a positive response from critics. It was the first Canadian film to win the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, at the 76th Academy Awards in 2004. It won awards at the 2003 Cannes Film Festival, six Genie Awards, including Best Motion Picture, and three César Awards, including Best Film. The Barbarian Invasions was followed by Days of Darkness in 2007.
Seventeen years after the events of The Decline of the American Empire, Sébastien is enjoying a successful career in quantitative finance in London when he receives a call from his mother, Louise, that his father and Louise's ex-husband Rémy is terminally ill with cancer. Sébastien is not enthused about seeing Rémy, whom he blames for breaking up the family with his many adulteries. Rémy and his friends of the older generation are still largely social-democrats and proponents of Quebec nationalism, positions seeming somewhat anachronistic long after the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s. Rémy does not like Sébastien's career, lack of reading or fondness for video games.
The father and son travel to Vermont in the United States to briefly receive medical care before returning to the overcrowded and disorganized Quebec hospital. Sébastien attempts to bribe hospital administration for better care, and upon hearing heroin is "800%" more effective than morphine, tracks some down for Rémy from a drug addict, Nathalie. Meanwhile, Rémy is reunited with his friends, including Pierre, Dominique and Claude. They speak of their devotion to constantly evolving -isms, their old sex drive and the gradual decline of their vitality. At the same time, Rémy, a history professor, lectures the hospital chaplain Constance on the relative peace of the 20th century compared to past centuries, with another scholar describing the September 11 attacks as historically small except as a possible beginning of modern barbarian invasions. After retreating to the countryside, Rémy dies in the company of his friends and Sébastien.
- Rémy Girard as Rémy
- Stéphane Rousseau as Sébastien
- Dorothée Berryman as Louise
- Louise Portal as Diane
- Marie-Josée Croze as Nathalie
- Marina Hands as Gaëlle
- Dominique Michel as Dominique
- Pierre Curzi as Pierre
- Yves Jacques as Claude
- Isabelle Blais as Sylvaine
- Toni Cecchinato as Alessandro
- Sophie Lorain as First Lover
- Mitsou Gélinas as Ghislaine
- Micheline Lanctôt as Nurse Carole
- Johanne-Marie Tremblay as Sister Constance
- Roy Dupuis as Narcotics Officer Gilles Levac
Denys Arcand, who wrote and directed the successful French Canadian film The Decline of the American Empire (1986), developed the idea of returning to the characters years later due to a fascination with death and an idea of having a character who is expecting to die. Part of his interest in the subject matter related to both of his parents dying of cancer. He had tried to write screenplays about original characters going to die for 20 years prior to The Barbarian Invasions, originally pitching the idea to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation but having difficulty with the subject matter being overly sentimental. He finally decided to try the story with characters from The Decline of the American Empire because of his fondness for its cast members. There are also characters from Arcand's 1989 film Jesus of Montreal in the film.
The September 11 attacks of 2001 occurred when Arcand was nearly finished his screenplay, and gave new impetus to Arcand's ideas of "the decline of the American Empire." Arcand believed the attack represented the first of what would be many foreign attacks on the U.S. Arcand also referred to himself as "post-isms," and incorporated this discussion into the film. Another statement he tried to make with his film was that heroin could be legalized for terminally ill patients in Canada, claiming it already is in England.
The cast members from the previous film, including Dorothee Berryman, Louise Portal, Dominique Michel, Pierre Curzi and Yves Jacques, were easy to secure for the sequel. The film had a $6 million budget.
The film was shot over 50 days, beginning in September 2002 and finishing in November. The bulk of the film was shot in Montreal, with some scenes filmed in London. Footage from the World Trade Center shot by a Quebec architect and acquired by Radio-Canada was also used.
For the hospital scenes, the cast and crew employed an unused former hospital in Lachine, Quebec. Cinematographer Guy Dufaux found these scenes difficult to make interesting and realistic at the same time, and decided on more lighting for later scenes when the film's mood brightens, while using fluorescent fixtures and reflecting the former hospital's green painting to shoot the early scenes. Most of the film was shot using a Steadicam.
News that Arcand was working on a sequel to his 1986 film was received with a skeptical and negative response from critics. The film was screened at the 2003 Cannes Film Festival in May, after which it was selected to open the gala at the 2003 Toronto International Film Festival in September. It also opened the Vancouver International Film Festival that month. The film began playing in Quebec theatres in May and ran for months, with its Canadian distributor being Alliance Films. It opened across Canada on November 21.
After Cannes, rights were sold to Miramax for distribution of the film in the United States. It opened in New York and Los Angelos on November 21. In France, the film was available on 450 screens at one time, the most for a Quebec film ever.
In France, it grossed the equivalent of US$8 million. According to Box Office Mojo, the film finished its run on June 3, 2004 after grossing $8,544,975 in North America and $18,379,681 in other territories, for a worldwide total of $26,924,656. It was one of Arcand's biggest box office successes.
The Barbarian Invasions has received positive reviews from numerous critics. In January 2010, the review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reported that 82% of critics gave the film positive reviews, based on 123 reviews. Metacritic reports that the film has an average score of 71 out of 100, based on 35 reviews.
Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun Times gave the movie four stars and called it "a movie with brains, indignation, irony and idealism."  A.O Scott of The New York Times wrote "what makes The Barbarian Invasions much more than a facile exercise in generational conflict is that Denys Arcand, who wrote and directed it, has a sense of history that is as acute as it is playful," adding "The rapprochement between Remy and Sebastien is beautiful to watch" and Marie-Josée Croze's "spooky, melancholy intensity darkens the mood of buoyant sentimentality." Entertainment Weekly's Owen Glieberman gave the film a B-, noting Rémy's hedonism. David Denby of The New Yorker gave credit to Stéphane Rousseau for "a fascinatingly minimal performance." Jonathan Romney of The Independent wrote "The film has its pros and cons, but you can't fault it for ambition: it not only muses on life and death, but also undertakes fairly comprehensive philosophical soundings of the way the world is today." Romney added Croze "has simply the most nuanced presence here: thoughtful, introspective, with a reassuring warmth and lack of cartoonishness." Peter Bradshaw, writing for The Guardian, disdained the movie, calling it "grotesquely overpraised," "shot through with middlebrow sophistication, boorish cynicism, unfunny satire, a dash of fatuous anti-Americanism and unthinkingly reactionary sexual politics." English Professor Peter Brunette wrote "its analysis of this state of affairs is all too often annoyingly rhetorical and, finally, altogether too facile."
In Canada, Liam Lacey wrote in The Globe and Mail that the film is "upbeat and wryly positive, or at least as much as you could expect from a film that condemns the Quebec hospital system and features a death by cancer as its central theme." The film drew general attention for its criticism of Quebec's health care system. In 2004, the Toronto International Film Festival ranked the film tenth in the Top 10 Canadian Films of All Time. David Lawrence Pike criticized the use of the World Trade Center footage as exploitative, but said despite "the crudeness and vulgarity," the film had a "particular brilliance."
The Barbarian Invasions is considered historically significant as the first Canadian film to win the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. Canadian historian George Melnyk interpreted it as a sign that "Canadian cinema has come of global age," also pointing to Atanarjuat: The Fast Runner (2001) winning the Camera d'Or at Cannes.
Marie-Josée Croze's honour for Best Actress at the 2003 Cannes Film Festival was considered unlikely. The film's victory at France's national César Awards was also considered a surprise, since it is mainly a Quebec film.
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