Maurice Bucaille (French pronunciation: [moris bykaj]; 19 July 1920 in Pont-l'Évêque, Calvados – 17 February 1998), son of Maurice and Marie (James) Bucaille, was a French medical doctor, member of the French Society of Egyptology, and an author. Bucaille practiced medicine from 1945–82 and was a specialist in gastroenterology. In 1973, Bucaille was appointed family physician to king Faisal of Saudi Arabia. Another of his patients at the time included members of the family of then President of Egypt, Anwar Sadat.
Bucaille writes that the Old Testament has been distorted (tahrif) because of numerous translations and corrections as it was transmitted orally. He highlights, in his words, "numerous disagreements and repetitions", in the Old Testament and the Gospels. In his analysis, he states that he makes use of many propositions of biblical criticism, such as the documentary hypothesis.
Bucaille urged in his book that since the Bible is not consistent with the modern scientific knowledge, it is not a divine scripture at all. On the contrary, there is not a single verse found in the holy Quran inconsistent to science, so it is fully scientific and purely divine scripture.
"Bucailleism" is a term used for the movement to relate modern science with religion, and especially that of Islam. Since the publishing of The Bible, the Quran and Science, Bucaillists have promoted the idea that the Quran is of divine origin, arguing that it contains scientifically correct facts.
According to The Wall Street Journal, Bucailleism is "in some ways the Muslim counterpart to Christian creationism" although "while creationism rejects much of modern science, Bucailleism embraces it". It described Bucailleism as being "disdained by most mainstream scholars" but said it has fostered pride in Muslim heritage and played an important role in attracting converts.
Quranic predictions have also been called "vague descriptions of natural phenomena" employing "stretched or arbitrary" interpretations. Alleged Quranic references in particular to the expanding universe, parallel universes, and cosmic structural hierarchies have been called "blatantly wrong." Anti-Bucailleist arguments do not necessarily argue in favor of unbelief, since as one says, "God does not stand or fall depending on whether our scriptures know their physics."
- What is the Origin of Man?. Islamic Book Service. 2005. p. 228. ISBN 81-7231-293-8.
- La Bible, le Coran et la Science : Les Écritures Saintes examinées à la lumière des connaissances modernes, Seghers 1976, (ISBN 978-2221501535), Pocket 2003, (ISBN 978-2266131032)
- Les Momies des pharaons et la médecine, Séguier, 1987 (ISBN 2906284475). Mummies of the Pharaohs: Modern Medical Investigations by Maurice Bucaille. Translated by Alastair D. Pannell and the author. Illustrated. 236 pp. New York: St. Martin's Press.
- Réflexions sur le Coran, with Mohamed Talbi, Seghers, (Reflections on the Koran), 1989 (ISBN 2232101487).
- L'homme d'où vient-il? Les réponses de la science et des Écritures Saintes (Man where is he coming from? The responses of science and Scripture), Seghers, 1980 7ème éd.(ISBN 2221007816).
- Moïse et Pharaon ; Les Hébreux en Egypte ; (Moses and Pharaoh, The Hebrews in Egypt) Quelles concordances de Livres saints avec l'Histoire, Seghers, 1995 (ISBN 2-232-10466-4).
- "DNB, Katalog der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek". Katalog der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek.
- Galegroup Biography Resource Center
- New York Times review of Mummies of the Pharaohs: Modern Medical Investigations by Maurice Bucaille. Translated by Alastair D. Pannell and the author. Illustrated. 236 pp. New York: St. Martin's Press. 
- Encyclopaedia of the history of science, technology, and medicine in non-western cultures, ed. Helaine Selin, retrieved 28 March 2011
- Explorations in Islamic science Ziauddin Sardar, (1989), retrieved 28 March 2011
- An illusion of harmony: science and religion in Islam (2007) Taner Edis, retrieved 28 March 2011
- Daniel Golden (January 23, 2002). "Strange Bedfellows: Western Scholars Play Key Role in Touting `Science' of the Quran". Wall Street Journal.
- Sameer Rahim (8 Oct 2010). "Pathfinders: The Golden Age of Arabic Science by Jim al-Khalili: review". The Telegraph.
- Turkish physicist and philosopher Taner Edis. "Quran-science": Scientific miracles from the 7th century?
- Taner Edis. Ghost in the Universe. Quotes from page 14. Prometheus Books.
- Biography from Center for Islam and Science
- The Quran and Modern Science by Dr. Maurice Bucaille Edited by Dr. A. A. B. Philips
- Snakes from Staves? Science, Scriptures and the Supernatural in Maurice Bucaille by S. Bigliardi (A philosophical criticism of Bucaille's theories)