The Birth of a Nation (2016 film)

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The Birth of a Nation
The Birth of a Nation (2016 film).png
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Nate Parker
Produced by
Screenplay by Nate Parker
Story by
  • Jean McGianni Celestin
  • Nate Parker
Starring
Music by Henry Jackman
Cinematography Elliot Davis
Edited by Steven Rosenblum
Production
companies
Distributed by Fox Searchlight Pictures
Release date
  • January 25, 2016 (2016-01-25) (Sundance)
  • October 7, 2016 (2016-10-07) (United States)
Running time
120 minutes[1]
Country
  • United States
  • Canada
Language English
Budget $8.5 million[2]
Box office $16.8 million[2]

The Birth of a Nation is a 2016 American-Canadian period drama film based on the story of Nat Turner, the enslaved man who led a slave rebellion in Southampton County, Virginia, in 1831. Co-written, co-produced and directed by Nate Parker (in his directorial debut), the film stars Parker as Turner, with Armie Hammer, Mark Boone Junior, Colman Domingo, Aunjanue Ellis, Aja Naomi King, Dwight Henry, Jackie Earle Haley, Esther Scott, Penelope Ann Miller, Roger Guenveur Smith, and Gabrielle Union in supporting roles. Parker also petitioned financiers to invest in the film, ultimately getting an $8.5 million production budget, and started filming in May 2015 in Georgia.

The film premiered in competition at the 2016 Sundance Film Festival on January 25, 2016. Fox Searchlight Pictures bought worldwide rights to the film in a $17.5 million deal, the largest deal at the film festival to date. At the end of the festival, the film won the Audience Award and Grand Jury Prize in the U.S. Dramatic Competition and was highly praised for its directing, acting, soundtrack and cinematography. The film was theatrically released in the United States on October 7, 2016 by Fox Searchlight Pictures and grossed $16 million.

Because The Birth of a Nation attracted increased attention due to possible Oscar nominations, there was significant press coverage of a 1999 alleged rape that Parker and co-writer Jean McGianni Celestin were accused of having committed, and the fact that the accuser committed suicide in 2012.[3][4][5] While Parker was acquitted and Celestin was not retried after his conviction was overturned on appeal, the controversy surrounding the alleged rape and Parker's initial responses to the controversy cast a shadow over the film.[6]

Plot[edit]

Set against the antebellum South, The Birth of a Nation follows Nat Turner (Nate Parker), a literate slave preacher, whose financially strained owner, Samuel Turner (Armie Hammer), accepts an offer to use Nat's preaching to suppress the supposed unruly slaves of multiple southern plantations for profit. As he witnesses countless atrocities by white slave-owning southerners—against himself and his fellow slaves—Nat gathers trusted followers believing that God has selected him as his chosen instrument of freedom and orchestrates an uprising in the hopes of leading his people to freedom.

Cast[edit]

Title[edit]

Parker, who also wrote, produced and directed the film, portrays Turner

The 2016 film uses the same title as "D. W. Griffith's 1915 KKK propaganda film in a very purposeful way", said The Hollywood Reporter.[8] Parker has said his film had the same title "ironically, but very much by design".[9] He told the magazine Filmmaker:

Griffith's film relied heavily on racist propaganda to evoke fear and desperation as a tool to solidify white supremacy as the lifeblood of American sustenance. Not only did this film motivate the massive resurgence of the terror group the Ku Klux Klan and the carnage exacted against people of African descent, it served as the foundation of the film industry we know today. I've reclaimed this title and re-purposed it as a tool to challenge racism and white supremacy in America, to inspire a riotous disposition toward any and all injustice in this country (and abroad) and to promote the kind of honest confrontation that will galvanize our society toward healing and sustained systemic change.[10]

Production[edit]

I kind of sold this project to investors and cast on legacy. I honestly think this is a film that could start a conversation that can promote healing and systemic change in our country. There's so many things that are happening right now in 2015—100 years after the original Birth of a Nation film, here we are. I'd say that is what I hope sets my film apart, is that it's relevant now—that people will talk about this film with the specific intention of change.

Nate Parker, 2015[11]

The Birth of a Nation is written, produced, and directed by Nate Parker, who also stars as Nat Turner. Parker wrote the screenplay, which was based on a story he co-wrote with Jean McGianni Celestin.[7] Parker learned about Turner from an African-American studies course at the University of Oklahoma. He began writing the screenplay for a Nat Turner film in 2009 and had a fellowship at a lab under the Sundance Institute. While he got writing feedback from filmmakers like James Mangold, he was told that a Nat Turner film could not be produced. The Hollywood Reporter said:

But what he heard instead were all the reasons a movie about Nat Turner wouldn't work: Movies with black leads don't play internationally; a period film with big fight scenes would be too expensive; it was too violent; it wouldn't work without a big box-office star leading it; Turner was too controversial—after all, he was responsible for the deaths of dozens of well-off white landowners.[8]

After Parker finished his acting role in Beyond the Lights in late 2013, he told his agents he would not continue acting until he had played Nat Turner in a film. He invested $100,000 of his money to hire a production designer and to pay for location scouting in Savannah, Georgia. He met with multiple financiers, and the first to invest in the film were retired basketball player Michael Finley (who had previously invested in the film The Butler) and active basketball player Tony Parker (no relation). Parker eventually brought together 11 groups of investors to finance 60% of the production budget, and producer Aaron L. Gilbert of Bron Studios joined to cover the remaining financing.[8]

In November 2014, development was underway, and Armie Hammer joined the cast.[12] By April 2015, Aja Naomi King and Gabrielle Union joined the cast.[13] In subsequent months, Penelope Ann Miller, Jackie Earle Haley, and Mark Boone Junior also joined.[14] Filming took place in Georgia in May 2015 and lasted 27 days.[8] Parker used the a cappella choir from Wiley College on the soundtrack. Parker had previously been part of a cast that portrayed historical figures from Wiley, in The Great Debaters.[15]

Release[edit]

The Birth of a Nation premiered in competition at the 2016 Sundance Film Festival on January 25, 2016.[8] Before it screened, the audience gave a standing ovation to the introduction of Nate Parker.[16] After it premiered, Variety said it "received the most enthusiastic standing ovation at this year's Sundance Film Festival so far".[17] Following The Birth of a Nation's Sundance premiere, Fox Searchlight Pictures bought worldwide rights to the film in a $17.5 million deal. Competing deals also came from The Weinstein Company, Sony Pictures Entertainment, and Netflix. Variety said Fox Searchlight's deal was "the richest in Sundance history".[18]

A teaser trailer for the film was released in April 2016,[19] followed by an official trailer on June 21, 2016.[20] On July 6, the UK release date of January 20, 2017, was announced.[21] It was actually released in the UK on December 9, 2016. A film poster with Parker in a noose made from an American flag was released on July 15.[22]

20th Century Fox canceled the planned 2017 release of the film in Japan, Switzerland, Norway, Finland, Denmark, Austria and Latin America following the disappointing results at the U.S. box office, which damaged the overall distribution budget for the film.[23]

Controversy[edit]

In August 2016, media attention surrounding the film resurfaced 1999 alleged rape charges against Nate Parker and co-writer Jean McGianni Celestin. While students at Pennsylvania State University, Parker and Celestin were accused of raping a female student.[24] The woman went to a doctor, who concluded that she had been sexually assaulted, and local authorities taped a phone conversation between her and Parker in which Parker confirmed that it was he and Celestin who had sex with her.[25] Parker and Celestin denied the accusations and said that the sexual encounter was consensual. Parker was acquitted of all charges in 2001; Celestin was convicted of sexual assault, but the conviction was overturned on appeal in 2005.[26] A subsequent retrial did not take place.[27]

In a formal complaint filed against Penn State in 2002, the woman also stated that she was harassed by Parker and Celestin following her allegation; the harassment allegedly "included Parker and Celestin hiring a private investigator to publicly expose her as the accuser, and continued bullying by Parker and his friends outside buildings where she had class".[25][28] The university settled the complaint with the woman for $17,500.[29] The woman committed suicide in 2012, with her death certificate noting that she suffered from "major depressive disorder with psychotic features, PTSD due to physical and sexual abuse, polysubstance abuse".[24] The studio was reportedly taking a wait and see approach before marketing to church groups, college campuses, and Hollywood figures.[30]

Because The Birth of a Nation attracted increased scrutiny due to possible Oscar nominations, and the film itself depicts a fictional, brutal rape that does not appear in historical records,[31] there was significant press coverage[3][4] about damage control by Fox Searchlight Pictures, the studio releasing the film.[32] Interviews in Variety[33] and Deadline[34] were a focus, as was Parker's response to the event in an impassioned Facebook post.[35]

Actress and co-star of the film Gabrielle Union expressed criticisms over Parker's past, but also expressed the importance of the film

Writing in Variety, the sister of Parker's alleged victim stated:

As her sister, the thing that pains me most of all is that in retelling the story of the Nat Turner slave revolt, they invented a rape scene. The rape of Turner's wife is used as a reason to justify Turner's rebellion. This is fiction. I find it creepy and perverse that Parker and Celestin would put a fictional rape at the center of their film, and that Parker would portray himself as a hero avenging that rape. Given what happened to my sister, and how no one was held accountable for it, I find this invention self-serving and sinister, and I take it as a cruel insult to my sister's memory.[36]

Gabrielle Union, a rape survivor and one of the main stars of The Birth of a Nation, wrote in the Los Angeles Times:

As important and ground-breaking as this film is, I cannot take these allegations lightly. On that night, 17-odd years ago, did Nate have his date's consent? It's very possible he thought he did. Yet by his own admission he did not have verbal affirmation; and even if she never said "no", silence certainly does not equal "yes". Although it's often difficult to read and understand body language, the fact that some individuals interpret the absence of a "no" as a "yes" is problematic at least, criminal at worst.[37]

After having suffered significant negative publicity for his response to the past rape allegation, Parker chose to deflect the questions about his past legal problems while doing press for The Birth of a Nation at the Toronto International Film Festival.[38] Shortly thereafter, Parker and his handlers chose to cut press interviews short when similar questions came up about his involvement with the alleged rape and its impact on the marketing of the film.[39]

In an open letter, former members of the Penn State student body and staff who were present during Celestin and Parker's trial defended both men's innocence of the 1999 accusations. The group made allegations of police intimidation and a hostile racial climate on campus at the time; both Parker and Celestin are black while their accuser was a white female. The group wrote in The Root:

Misinformation suggests that a spiral into depression was triggered by the alleged incident in 1999. However, court records and testimony by medical professionals revealed a history of chronic depression that dated back to childhood and the use of antidepressant medication that preceded this event.[40]

Actor Hal Holbrook wrote a letter to The New York Times praising the film and defending Parker

Several celebrities have come out in support of Parker, including Harry Belafonte,[41] Hal Holbrook,[42] Harvey Weinstein (who was later embroiled in a sexual assault scandal),[43] Al Sharpton,[44] Anthony Anderson,[45] and Sheryl Underwood.[46]

Holbrook wrote a letter to The New York Times defending Parker and the film.[42] In his letter, Holbrook stated:

I am finding it hard to accept the apparent rebuff at the box office of "The Birth of a Nation," particularly after seeing the film last weekend. It is an exceptional piece of artistry and a vital portrait of our American experience in trying to live up to ideals we say we have. No one should miss it — no one who respects our country and its long struggle to define itself. I am sorry about the conflict with Nate Parker's past, but let's try for some honesty here. If you want to make a list of the directors and actors who have rather public indiscretions, and who have in some cases been acquitted of them, start counting. What troubles me is this: Are we being particular here with this extraordinary film because it’s about the racist curse we are struggling to erase from our country and its director is black? The curse is there. Go look at it. Do we have the courage to do that? It's a fine work.[42]

There has been speculation that the film suffered from vote brigading on IMDb, possibly as a result of the controversy surrounding the alleged rape.[47] As of 13 July 2018 it holds an IMDb rating of 6.4/10.[48]

Reception[edit]

Box office[edit]

In the United States and Canada, The Birth of a Nation was projected to gross around $10 million in its opening weekend. It went on to open to $7.1 million, finishing 6th at the box office. African-Americans made up 60% of the first weekend audience.[49] In its second weekend the film dropped 61.2%, grossing just $2.7 million and finishing 10th at the box office.[50]

Despite making back nearly twice its budget, the film was considered a financial disappointment.[51][52] In assessing the mediocre[53][54] opening weekend of The Birth of a Nation, The Washington Post reported, "While some moviegoers may have been put off by the controversy, middling reviews for the movie itself probably didn’t help. Meanwhile, historic dramas can be a hard sell: It's possible a lot of multiplex visitors just plain weren't interested."[54] Adding to the film's problems, "Several prominent feminists decried Parker's defiant response to the [rape] scandal and pledged to boycott the film, which drew a protest vigil at Hollywood's ArcLight Cinemas."[54][55]

Gabrielle Union, one of the main stars of the film, told Essence that she understood why some film-goers were avoiding the film and stated that she, as a rape survivor, could not sell it to anyone who chose to avoid the film due to the controversy.[56] She said, "As a rape survivor and as an advocate, I cannot shy away from this responsibility because the conversation got difficult. I don’t want to put myself above anyone's pain or triggers. Every victim or survivor, I believe you. I support you. I support you if you don't want to see the film. I absolutely understand and respect that. I can't sell the film."[57]

Critical response[edit]

On review website Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 72% based on 234 reviews, with an average rating of 6.7/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "The Birth of a Nation overpowers its narrative flaws and uneven execution through sheer conviction, rising on Nate Parker's assured direction and the strength of its vital message."[58] Metacritic gave the film a normalized score of 69 out of 100, based on 49 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[59] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A" on an A+ to F scale.[60]

Justin Chang at Variety compared The Birth of a Nation to 12 Years a Slave, saying: "Parker's more conventionally told but still searingly impressive debut feature pushes the conversation further still: A biographical drama steeped equally in grace and horror, it builds to a brutal finale that will stir deep emotion and inevitable unease." He concluded, "The Birth of a Nation exists to provoke a serious debate about the necessity and limitations of empathy, the morality of retaliatory violence, and the ongoing black struggle for justice and equality in this country. It earns that debate and then some."[7]

The Hollywood Reporter's Todd McCarthy said, "The film vividly captures an assortment of slavery’s brutalities while also underlining the religious underpinnings of Turner's justifications for his assaults on slaveholders." He added, "The film offers up more than enough in terms of intelligence, insight, historical research and religious nuance as to not at all be considered a missed opportunity; far more of the essentials made it into the film than not, its makers' dedication and minute attention are constantly felt and the subject matter is still rare enough onscreen as to be welcome and needed, as it will be the next time and the time after that."[61]

Michael Phillips of the Chicago Tribune was critical of Parker's direction, saying, "one of the drawbacks, ironically, is Parker's own performance. Even the rape victims of the screenplay have a hard time getting their fair share of the screen time; everything in the story, by design, keeps the focus and the anguished close-ups strictly on Parker. He's a good actor, but not much of a director; the visual style and approach of The Birth of a Nation tries a little of everything, and often too much of everything."[62]

In its October 10 issue, The New Yorker ran two reviews, "The Cinematic Merits and Flaws of Nate Parker's The Birth of a Nation", by Richard Brody,[63] and "The Birth of a Nation Isn't Worth Defending", by Vinson Cunningham.[64]

Accolades[edit]

List of awards and nominations
Award Date of ceremony Category Recipient(s) Result Ref(s)
African-American Film Critics Association February 8, 2017 Top 10 Films The Birth of a Nation 6th Place [65]
Austin Film Critics Association December 28, 2016 Best First Film The Birth of a Nation Nominated [66][67]
BET Awards June 25, 2017 Best Movie The Birth of a Nation Nominated [68]
Best Actress Gabrielle Union Nominated
Black Reel Awards February 16, 2017 Outstanding Actor Nate Parker Nominated [69]
Outstanding Director Nate Parker Nominated
Outstanding Screenplay, Adapted or Original Nate Parker Nominated
Outstanding Ensemble The cast of The Birth of a Nation Nominated
Outstanding Breakthrough Performance, Female Aja Naomi King Nominated
Outstanding Original Score Henry Jackman Nominated
Directors Guild of America Awards February 4, 2017 Outstanding Directing – First-Time Feature Film Nate Parker Nominated [70]
NAACP Image Awards February 11, 2017 Outstanding Motion Picture The Birth of a Nation Nominated [71]
Outstanding Actor in a Motion Picture Nate Parker Nominated
Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Motion Picture Aja Naomi King Nominated
Outstanding Independent Picture The Birth of a Nation Nominated
Outstanding Directing in a Motion Picture Nate Parker Nominated
Outstanding Writing in a Motion Picture Nate Parker Nominated
Satellite Awards February 19, 2017 Best Film Editing Steven Rosenblum Nominated [72]
Sundance Film Festival January 29, 2016 Audience Award: U.S. Dramatic Nate Parker Won [73][74]
U.S. Grand Jury Prize: Dramatic Won

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Birth of a Nation (15)". British Board of Film Classification. August 11, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2016. 
  2. ^ a b "The Birth of a Nation (2016)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 10, 2017. 
  3. ^ a b Briquelet, Kate; Nestel, M.L. (August 16, 2016). "Inside the Nate Parker Rape Case". The Daily Beast. Retrieved August 19, 2016. 
  4. ^ a b Morales, Wilson (August 17, 2016). "Wilson Morales: Nate Parker Outrage Doesn't Pass the Smell Test (Guest Column)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 19, 2016. 
  5. ^ Variety
  6. ^ Boiseweekly.com
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Chang, Justin (January 25, 2016). "Sundance Film Review: 'The Birth of a Nation'". Variety. Retrieved January 26, 2016. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Ford, Rebecca (January 20, 2016). "'Birth of a Nation': The Slave-Revolt Movie That Will Have Sundance Talking". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 25, 2016. 
  9. ^ Brown, Emma (April 21, 2014). "Nate Parker's Future Past". Interview. Retrieved January 25, 2016. 
  10. ^ Rezayazdi, Soheil (January 25, 2016). "Five Questions with The Birth of a Nation Director Nate Parker". Filmmaker. Retrieved January 25, 2016. 
  11. ^ Williams, Brennan (January 20, 2016). "'Birth Of A Nation' Star Says Few Acting Roles For Black Men Have 'Integrity'". The Huffington Post. Retrieved January 25, 2016. 
  12. ^ McNary, Dave (November 12, 2014). "Armie Hammer Joins Nat Turner Biopic 'Birth of Nation'". Variety. Retrieved January 24, 2016. 
  13. ^ McNary, Dave (April 9, 2015). "Aja Naomi King Joins Armie Hammer in Nat Turner Biopic". Variety. Retrieved January 24, 2016. 
  14. ^ Lincoln, Ross A. (May 8, 2015). "Margot Bingham Joins 'Barbershop 3'; Penelope Ann Miller In Nat Turner Biopic". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved January 24, 2016. 
  15. ^ Obenson, Tambay A. (March 21, 2016). "Nate Parker Launches New Film School at Historically Black Wiley College (Home of The Great Debaters)". IndieWire. Retrieved September 20, 2016. 
  16. ^ Schwartzel, Erich (January 25, 2016). "Slavery Drama 'The Birth of a Nation' Premieres to Thunderous Applause at Sundance". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 26, 2016. 
  17. ^ Setoodeh, Ramin (January 25, 2016). "'The Birth of a Nation' Premieres at Sundance With Big Standing Ovation and Oscar Buzz". Variety. Retrieved January 26, 2016. 
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  19. ^ Murphy, Mekado (April 15, 2016). "First Teaser for 'The Birth of a Nation' Is Released". The New York Times. Retrieved July 20, 2016. 
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  23. ^ Toh, Erika (December 9, 2016). "話題の黒人奴隷史映画、日本公開中止に〜『バース・オブ・ネイション』". Asahi Shimbun (in Japanese). Retrieved December 12, 2016. 
  24. ^ a b Setoodeh, Ramin (August 16, 2016). "Nate Parker's Rape Accuser Committed Suicide in 2012". Variety. Retrieved August 16, 2016. 
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  26. ^ "Ex-wrestler gets new trial in assault case". Daily Collegian. November 1, 2005. Retrieved September 23, 2017. 
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  28. ^ Complaint-against-Penn-State-University
  29. ^ Suk Gersen, Jeannie (September 2, 2016). "The Public Trial of Nate Parker". The New Yorker. Retrieved September 16, 2016. 
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  31. ^ "'The Birth of a Nation' Producer on Controversy Surrounding Film". Baltimore Jewish Times. 
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  36. ^ Loeffler, Sharon (2016-09-29). "Nate Parker's 'Birth of a Nation' Exploits My Sister All Over Again (Guest Column)". Variety. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  37. ^ Union, Gabrielle. "'Birth of a Nation' actress Gabrielle Union: I cannot take Nate Parker rape allegations lightly". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2016-10-15. 
  38. ^ The New York Times
  39. ^ New York magazine
  40. ^ "Exclusive: Nate Parker's Former Classmates, Penn State Alumni Speak Out in Support". TheRoot. August 25, 2016. Retrieved August 25, 2016. 
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  47. ^ Culture, Author: Brian Raftery Brian Raftery. "IMDb Voters Are Tanking Indies Before They're Even Released". WIRED. Retrieved 2017-03-09. 
  48. ^ The Birth of a Nation on IMDb
  49. ^ "Hurricane Matthew Doesn't Slow 'Girl On The Train', But Overall Ticket Sales Lower Than Jonas; Controversy Conquers 'Nation'". Deadline Hollywood. 
  50. ^ "The Accountant Calculates $24.7M Opening; Max Steel Rusts". Deadline Hollywood. 
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  53. ^ Vulture.com
  54. ^ a b c The Washington Post
  55. ^ "Filmmaker's Controversial Past Takes Its Toll On 'Birth Of A Nation' At The B.O." Deadline Hollywood. 
  56. ^ UPI
  57. ^ Vulture.com
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  59. ^ "The Birth of a Nation Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved December 24, 2016. 
  60. ^ "CinemaScore". cinemascore.com. 
  61. ^ McCarthy, Todd (January 25, 2016). "'The Birth of a Nation': Sundance Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 25, 2016. 
  62. ^ "'The Birth of a Nation' review: Nate Parker's powerful, problematic film about Nat Turner". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2016-10-09. 
  63. ^ Brody, Richard (October 9, 2016). "The Cinematic Merits and Flaws of Nate Parker's 'The Birth of a Nation'". The New Yorker. Retrieved December 11, 2016. 
  64. ^ Cunningham, Vinson (October 10, 2016). "'The Birth of a Nation' Isn't Worth Defending". The New Yorker. Retrieved December 11, 2016. 
  65. ^ Nordyke, Kimberly (December 12, 2016). "'Moonlight' Named Best Picture by the African American Film Critics Association". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 12, 2016. 
  66. ^ Anderson, Erik (December 15, 2016). "Austin Film Critics Association (AFCA) Nominations: The Handmaiden Lands Top Mentions, Trevante Rhodes Double Nominated". AwardsWatch.com. Retrieved December 15, 2016. 
  67. ^ Miller, Neil (December 15, 2016). "2016 Austin Film Critics Awards Nominees, 'Moonlight' and 'Arrival' lead the way in AFCA's 2016 nominations". Medium.com. Retrieved December 15, 2016. 
  68. ^ "Beyoncé and Bruno Mars lead 2017 BET Awards nominations". Channel. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 
  69. ^ Davis, Clayton (December 14, 2016). "Black Reel Award Nominees – 'Moonlight' Leads with 13 Nominations". AwardsCircuit.com. Retrieved December 15, 2016. 
  70. ^ Hipes, Patrick. "DGA TV Awards Nominations: 'Stranger Things', 'Westworld' & 'Atlanta' On List; Docus Include 'OJ: Made In America'". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved January 11, 2017. 
  71. ^ Hill, Libby (December 14, 2016). "'Moonlight,' 'Birth of a Nation' and 'Loving' score big with NAACP Image Award nominations". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 14, 2016. 
  72. ^ Kilday, Gregg (November 29, 2016). "Satellite Awards Nominees Revealed". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 29, 2016. 
  73. ^ Chang, Justin (January 30, 2016). "Sundance: 'The Birth of a Nation' Sweeps Top Prizes". Variety. Retrieved February 27, 2016. 
  74. ^ Sundance Film Festival Editors (January 30, 2016). "THE BIRTH OF A NATION". Sundance Film Festival. Retrieved February 27, 2016. 

External links[edit]