The Birth of a Nation (2016 film)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Birth of a Nation
The red stripes on the American flag consist entirely of painted figures of slaves and slave owners parallel to each other, running and wielding weapons, and the film's title replaces the white stars on top of the blue corner.
Theatrical release poster
Directed byNate Parker
Screenplay byNate Parker
Story by
  • Nate Parker
  • Jean McGianni Celestin
Produced by
CinematographyElliot Davis
Edited bySteven Rosenblum
Music byHenry Jackman
  • BRON Studios
  • Phantom Four
  • Mandalay Pictures
  • Tiny Giant Entertainment
  • Novofam Productions
  • Follow Through Productions
  • Infinity Entertainment
  • Oster Media
  • Point Made Films
  • Juniper Productions
  • Hit 55 Ventures
  • Creative Wealth Media Finance Corp.
Distributed byFox Searchlight Pictures
Release dates
  • January 25, 2016 (2016-01-25) (Sundance)
  • October 7, 2016 (2016-10-07) (United States)
Running time
120 minutes[1]
CountryUnited States
Budget$8.5 million[2]
Box office$16.8 million[2]

The Birth of a Nation is a 2016 American period drama film written and directed by Nate Parker in his directorial debut. It is based on the story of Nat Turner, the enslaved man who led a slave rebellion in Southampton County, Virginia, in 1831. The film stars Parker as Turner, with Armie Hammer, Mark Boone Jr., Colman Domingo, Aunjanue Ellis, Dwight Henry, Aja Naomi King, Esther Scott, Roger Guenveur Smith, Gabrielle Union, Penelope Ann Miller, and Jackie Earle Haley in supporting roles. Parker also petitioned financiers to invest in the film, ultimately getting an $8.5 million production budget, and started filming in May 2015 in Georgia. The film's title is an ironic callback to the 1915 KKK-focused silent film.

The Birth of a Nation premiered in competition at the 2016 Sundance Film Festival, where Fox Searchlight Pictures bought worldwide rights to the film in a $17.5 million deal (at the time the largest deal at the festival), and won the Audience Award and Grand Jury Prize in the U.S. Dramatic Competition. The film was theatrically released in the United States on October 7, 2016, and grossed $16 million, receiving positive reviews from critics, with praise for its directing, acting, soundtrack, and cinematography.

Because The Birth of a Nation attracted increased attention during its festival run, there was significant press coverage of a 1999 alleged rape that Parker and co-story writer Jean McGianni Celestin were accused of having committed, and the fact that the accuser committed suicide in 2012.[3][4][5] While Parker was acquitted and Celestin was not retried after his conviction was overturned on appeal, the controversy surrounding the alleged rape and Parker's initial responses to the controversy cast a shadow over the film.[6]


In 1809, on a plantation in Southampton County, Virginia, Nat Turner is a pre-teen slave boy. The adult slaves have little food for their children, and Nat's father Isaac slips out one night to steal something for his son to eat. On the road, Isaac is caught by a posse led by slave-catcher Raymond Cobb. When Cobb tries to execute him, Isaac turns the tables, kills one member of the posse, and flees. He then returns home, tells his family what happened and says that he has to leave immediately, but not without speaking to Nat once more, insisting that Nat is "a child of God" and has a purpose. When Cobb arrives and questions Isaac's family about his whereabouts, nobody says anything and Benjamin Turner, the owner of the farm, intervenes and drives Cobb off before he turns violent.

When Elizabeth Turner, Benjamin's wife, notices that Nat has basic reading skills, she starts to teach him reading, hoping that he can be helpful in the household with his knowledge. Most of her lessons center around the Bible. Elizabeth even goes so far as to have Nat read Scripture during church gatherings. But shortly before Benjamin dies, presumably of tuberculosis, he orders his wife to stop teaching Nat and send him to work as a farmhand.

Now an adult, Nat is still picking cotton, but he also preaches and reads Scripture for his fellow slaves on the plantation. Samuel Turner, Benjamin's son, inherits ownership of the plantation. During a slave auction, Nat is immediately smitten by one of the female slaves for sale, Cherry. He convinces Samuel to buy her as a wedding gift for Catherine Turner, Samuel's sister. Nat and Cherry fall in love, marry, and conceive a daughter.

Since the economic situation in the South has turned and prices for crops are poor, many slave owners have problems feeding their slaves and fear revolts. Reverend Walthall makes Samuel an offer: several plantation owners will pay good money if Samuel will travel to their farms with Nat and have Nat preach to the slaves to pacify them and convince them that the Bible requests them to endure their situations. Samuel, needing the money, reluctantly agrees. During their visits, Nat and Samuel witness emaciated and desperate slaves and, in some locations, horrifying treatment of the slaves by their owners.

When his grandmother dies, Nat decides that he will rise up against the slaveholders. He holds a secret night meeting with some trusted fellow slaves, among them one boy from another plantation, and prepares them for the uprising. He also talks with Cherry, who still has not recovered from the beating, about the uprising and she gives him her blessing.

During the night, Nat and a fellow slave enter the house of their owners and kill Samuel and the manager. They then ask the other slaves of the plantation to follow them, which most of them do. During the night, they take over several other plantations and kill the slave owners. During one of the takeovers, they notice that the boy has disappeared. A short time later, they are attacked by a group of white men who had been alerted by the boy, and they have to retreat.

In the morning, they enter the town of Jerusalem to loot it for weapons. They are confronted by a group of white men, again led by Cobb, but they manage to defeat the group, with Nat personally stabbing Cobb to death. But when they enter the arsenal, they notice that it is empty. They are immediately ambushed by soldiers who kill every slave except for Nat, who flees.

When Nat manages to secretly meet Cherry once more, she tells him that innocent slaves have been murdered in retaliation and more will be as long as Nat is on the run. Nat turns himself in and is condemned to death. During the hanging, Nat notices the slave boy who betrayed the group in the crowd but Nat does not seem to harbor ill will towards him. The film ends with a fade of the boy's crying face into the face of an adult soldier who presumably is the same boy, grown up and fighting for the Union Army in the American Civil War.


Nate Parker wrote, produced, and directed the film, and portrays Nat Turner.


The 2016 film uses the same title as "D. W. Griffith's 1915 KKK propaganda film in a very purposeful way", said The Hollywood Reporter.[8] Parker has said his film had the same title "ironically, but very much by design".[9] He told the magazine Filmmaker:

Griffith's film relied heavily on racist propaganda to evoke fear and desperation as a tool to solidify white supremacy as the lifeblood of American sustenance. Not only did this film motivate the massive resurgence of the terror group the Ku Klux Klan and the carnage exacted against people of African descent, it served as the foundation of the film industry we know today. I've reclaimed this title and re-purposed it as a tool to challenge racism and white supremacy in America, to inspire a riotous disposition toward any and all injustice in this country (and abroad) and to promote the kind of honest confrontation that will galvanize our society toward healing and sustained systemic change.[10]


I kind of sold this project to investors and cast on legacy. I honestly think this is a film that could start a conversation that can promote healing and systemic change in our country. There's so many things that are happening right now in 2015—100 years after the original Birth of a Nation film, here we are. I'd say that is what I hope sets my film apart, is that it's relevant now—that people will talk about this film with the specific intention of change.

Nate Parker, 2015[11]

The Birth of a Nation was written, produced, and directed by Nate Parker, who also stars as Nat Turner. Parker wrote the screenplay, which was based on a story he co-wrote with Jean McGianni Celestin.[7] Parker learned about Turner from an African-American studies course at the University of Oklahoma. He began writing the screenplay for a Nat Turner film in 2009 and had a fellowship at a lab under the Sundance Institute. While he got writing feedback from filmmakers like James Mangold, he was told that a Nat Turner film could not be produced. The Hollywood Reporter said:

But what he heard instead were all the reasons a movie about Nat Turner wouldn't work: Movies with black leads don't play internationally; a period film with big fight scenes would be too expensive; it was too violent; it wouldn't work without a big box-office star leading it; Turner was too controversial—after all, he was responsible for the deaths of dozens of well-off white landowners.[8]

After Parker finished his acting role in Beyond the Lights in late 2013, he told his agents he would not continue acting until he had played Nat Turner in a film. He invested $100,000 of his money to hire a production designer and to pay for location scouting in Savannah, Georgia. He met with multiple financiers, and the first to invest in the film were retired basketball player Michael Finley (who had previously invested in the film The Butler) and active basketball player Tony Parker (no relation). Parker eventually brought together eleven groups of investors to finance 60% of the production budget, and producer Aaron L. Gilbert of Bron Studios joined to cover the remaining financing.[8]

In November 2014, development was underway, and Armie Hammer joined the cast.[12] By April 2015, Aja Naomi King and Gabrielle Union joined the cast.[13] In subsequent months, Penelope Ann Miller, Jackie Earle Haley, and Mark Boone Junior also joined.[14] Filming took place in Georgia (including at Myrtle Grove Plantation)[15] in May 2015 and lasted 27 days.[8] Parker used the a cappella choir from Wiley College on the soundtrack. Parker had previously been part of a cast that portrayed historical figures from Wiley, in The Great Debaters.[16]



The Birth of a Nation premiered in competition at the 2016 Sundance Film Festival on January 25, 2016.[8] Before it screened, the audience gave a standing ovation to the introduction of Nate Parker.[17] Afterwards, Variety said it "received the most enthusiastic standing ovation at this year's Sundance Film Festival so far".[18] Following The Birth of a Nation's Sundance premiere, Fox Searchlight Pictures bought worldwide rights to the film in a $17.5 million deal. Competing deals also came from The Weinstein Company, Sony Pictures Entertainment, and Netflix. Variety said Fox Searchlight's deal was "the richest in Sundance history".[19]

A teaser trailer for the film was released in April 2016,[20] followed by an official trailer on June 21, 2016.[21] On July 6, the UK release date of January 20, 2017, was announced.[22] It was actually released in the UK on December 9, 2016. A film poster with Parker in a noose made from an American flag was released on July 15.[23]

20th Century Fox canceled the planned 2017 release of the film in Japan, Switzerland, Norway, Finland, Denmark, Austria, and Latin America following the disappointing results at the U.S. box office, which damaged the overall distribution budget for the film.[24]

Rape allegations against Parker[edit]

In August 2016, media attention surrounding the film resurfaced 1999 alleged rape charges against Nate Parker and co-writer Jean McGianni Celestin. While students at Pennsylvania State University, Parker and Celestin were accused of raping a female student.[25] The woman went to a doctor, who concluded that she had been sexually assaulted, and local authorities taped a phone conversation between her and Parker in which Parker confirmed that it was he and Celestin who had sex with her.[26] Parker and Celestin denied the accusations and said that the sexual encounter was consensual. Parker was acquitted of all charges in 2001; Celestin was convicted of sexual assault, but the conviction was overturned on appeal in 2005.[27] A subsequent retrial did not take place.[28]

In a formal complaint filed against Penn State in 2002, the woman also stated that she was harassed by Parker and Celestin following her allegation; the harassment allegedly "included Parker and Celestin hiring a private investigator to publicly expose her as the accuser, and continued bullying by Parker and his friends outside buildings where she had class".[26][29] The university settled the complaint with the woman for $17,500.[30] The woman committed suicide in 2012, with her death certificate noting that she suffered from "major depressive disorder with psychotic features, PTSD due to physical and sexual abuse, polysubstance abuse".[25]

Because The Birth of a Nation attracted increased scrutiny due to possible Oscar nominations, and the film itself depicts a fictional, brutal rape that does not appear in historical records,[31] there was significant press coverage[3][4] about damage control by Fox Searchlight Pictures, the studio releasing the film.[32] Interviews in Variety[33] and Deadline[34] were a focus, as was Parker's response to the event in an impassioned Facebook post.[35] The studio reportedly took a wait-and-see approach before marketing to church groups, college campuses, and Hollywood figures.[36]

Gabrielle Union co-starred.

Writing in Variety, the sister of Parker's alleged victim expressed particular distress at the film's imagined rape scene, saying, "I find it creepy and perverse that Parker and Celestin would put a fictional rape at the center of their film, and that Parker would portray himself as a hero avenging that rape. Given what happened to my sister, and how no one was held accountable for it, I find this invention self-serving and sinister, and I take it as a cruel insult to my sister's memory."[37]

Gabrielle Union, a rape survivor and one of the main stars in The Birth of a Nation, wrote in the Los Angeles Times to express her concern over the allegations, particularly the lack of affirmative consent: "Even if she never said 'no', silence certainly does not equal 'yes'. Although it's often difficult to read and understand body language, the fact that some individuals interpret the absence of a 'no' as a 'yes' is problematic at least, criminal at worst."[38]

After having suffered significant negative publicity for his response to the past rape allegation, Parker chose to deflect the questions about his past legal problems while doing press for The Birth of a Nation at the Toronto International Film Festival.[39] Shortly thereafter, Parker and his handlers chose to cut press interviews short when similar questions came up about his involvement with the alleged rape and its impact on the marketing of the film.[40]

In an open letter, former members of the Penn State student body and staff who were present during Celestin and Parker's trial defended both men's innocence of the 1999 accusations. The group made allegations of police intimidation and a hostile racial climate on campus at the time; both Parker and Celestin are black while their accuser was a white female. The group wrote in The Root:

Misinformation suggests that a spiral into depression was triggered by the alleged incident in 1999. However, court records and testimony by medical professionals revealed a history of chronic depression that dated back to childhood and the use of antidepressant medication that preceded this event.[41]

Actor Hal Holbrook wrote a letter to The New York Times praising the film and defending Parker.

Nine celebrities came out in support of Parker, including Harry Belafonte,[42] Chadwick Boseman,[43] Hal Holbrook,[44] Mel Gibson,[45] Kevin Hart,[46] Harvey Weinstein (who was later embroiled in a sexual assault scandal),[47] Al Sharpton,[48] Anthony Anderson,[49] and Sheryl Underwood.[50]

Holbrook wrote a letter to The New York Times defending Parker and the film.[44] Holbrook praised The Birth of a Nation as "an exceptional piece of artistry and a vital portrait of our American experience in trying to live up to ideals we say we have" and suggested that owing to the film's critique of racism, Parker and his film were being held to a different standard than what Holbrook characterized as other "directors and actors who have rather public indiscretions, and who have in some cases been acquitted of them".[44]

Prior to the film's release, it received several hundred one-star ratings on IMDb, possibly as a result of the controversy surrounding the allegations.[51] As of 13 July 2018 it holds an IMDb rating of 6.4/10.[52]


Box office[edit]

In the United States and Canada, The Birth of a Nation was projected to gross around $10 million in its opening weekend. It opened to $7.1 million, finishing sixth at the box office. African-Americans made up 60% of the first weekend audience.[53] In its second weekend the film dropped 61.2%, grossing just $2.7 million and finishing tenth at the box office.[54]

Though making nearly twice its budget, the film was considered a financial disappointment.[55][56] In assessing the mediocre[57][58] opening weekend of The Birth of a Nation, The Washington Post reported, "While some moviegoers may have been put off by the controversy, middling reviews for the movie itself probably didn’t help. Meanwhile, historic dramas can be a hard sell: It's possible a lot of multiplex visitors just plain weren't interested."[58] Adding to the film's problems, "Several prominent feminists decried Parker's defiant response to the [rape] scandal and pledged to boycott the film, which drew a protest vigil at Hollywood's ArcLight Cinemas."[58][59]

Gabrielle Union, who appeared in the film, told Essence that she understood why some film-goers were avoiding the film and stated that she, as a rape survivor, could not sell it to anyone who chose to avoid the film due to the controversy.[60] She said, "As a rape survivor and as an advocate, I cannot shy away from this responsibility because the conversation got difficult. I don’t want to put myself above anyone's pain or triggers. Every victim or survivor, I believe you. I support you. I support you if you don't want to see the film. I absolutely understand and respect that. I can't sell the film."[61]

Critical response[edit]

On the review website Rotten Tomatoes, the film has an approval rating of 73% based on 268 reviews, with an average rating of 6.70/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "The Birth of a Nation overpowers its narrative flaws and uneven execution through sheer conviction, rising on Nate Parker's assured direction and the strength of its vital message."[62] Metacritic gave the film a normalized score of 69 out of 100, based on 49 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[63] Audiences polled by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade of "A" on an A+ to F scale.[64]

Justin Chang at Variety compared The Birth of a Nation to 12 Years a Slave, saying: "Parker's more conventionally told but still searingly impressive debut feature pushes the conversation further still: A biographical drama steeped equally in grace and horror, it builds to a brutal finale that will stir deep emotion and inevitable unease." He concluded, "The Birth of a Nation exists to provoke a serious debate about the necessity and limitations of empathy, the morality of retaliatory violence, and the ongoing black struggle for justice and equality in this country. It earns that debate and then some."[7]

The Hollywood Reporter's Todd McCarthy said, "The film vividly captures an assortment of slavery’s brutalities while also underlining the religious underpinnings of Turner's justifications for his assaults on slaveholders." He added, "The film offers up more than enough in terms of intelligence, insight, historical research and religious nuance as to not at all be considered a missed opportunity; far more of the essentials made it into the film than not, its makers' dedication and minute attention are constantly felt and the subject matter is still rare enough onscreen as to be welcome and needed, as it will be the next time and the time after that."[65]

Michael Phillips of the Chicago Tribune was critical of Parker's direction, saying, "one of the drawbacks, ironically, is Parker's own performance. Even the rape victims of the screenplay have a hard time getting their fair share of the screen time; everything in the story, by design, keeps the focus and the anguished close-ups strictly on Parker. He's a good actor, but not much of a director; the visual style and approach of The Birth of a Nation tries a little of everything, and often too much of everything."[66]

In its October 10 issue, The New Yorker ran two reviews, "The Cinematic Merits and Flaws of Nate Parker's The Birth of a Nation", by Richard Brody,[67] and "The Birth of a Nation Isn't Worth Defending", by Vinson Cunningham.[68]


List of awards and nominations
Award Date of ceremony Category Recipient(s) Result Ref.
African-American Film Critics Association February 8, 2017 Top 10 Films The Birth of a Nation 6th place [69]
Austin Film Critics Association December 28, 2016 Best First Film The Birth of a Nation Nominated [70][71]
BET Awards June 25, 2017 Best Movie The Birth of a Nation Nominated [72]
Best Actress Gabrielle Union Nominated
Black Reel Awards February 16, 2017 Outstanding Actor Nate Parker Nominated [73]
Outstanding Director Nate Parker Nominated
Outstanding Screenplay, Adapted or Original Nate Parker Nominated
Outstanding Ensemble The cast of The Birth of a Nation Nominated
Outstanding Breakthrough Performance, Female Aja Naomi King Nominated
Outstanding Original Score Henry Jackman Nominated
Directors Guild of America Awards February 4, 2017 Outstanding Directing – First-Time Feature Film Nate Parker Nominated [74]
NAACP Image Awards February 11, 2017 Outstanding Motion Picture The Birth of a Nation Nominated [75]
Outstanding Actor in a Motion Picture Nate Parker Nominated
Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Motion Picture Aja Naomi King Nominated
Outstanding Independent Picture The Birth of a Nation Nominated
Outstanding Directing in a Motion Picture Nate Parker Nominated
Outstanding Writing in a Motion Picture Nate Parker Nominated
Satellite Awards February 19, 2017 Best Film Editing Steven Rosenblum Nominated [76]
Sundance Film Festival January 29, 2016 Audience Award: U.S. Dramatic Nate Parker Won [77][78]
U.S. Grand Jury Prize: Dramatic Won

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "The Birth of a Nation (15)". British Board of Film Classification. August 11, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2016.
  2. ^ a b "The Birth of a Nation (2016)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
  3. ^ a b Briquelet, Kate; Nestel, M.L. (August 16, 2016). "Inside the Nate Parker Rape Case". The Daily Beast. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  4. ^ a b Morales, Wilson (August 17, 2016). "Wilson Morales: Nate Parker Outrage Doesn't Pass the Smell Test (Guest Column)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  5. ^ Setoodeh, Ramin (August 12, 2016). "'The Birth of a Nation' Star Nate Parker Addresses College Rape Trial".
  6. ^ "".
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Chang, Justin (January 25, 2016). "Sundance Film Review: 'The Birth of a Nation'". Variety. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
  8. ^ a b c d e Ford, Rebecca (January 20, 2016). "'Birth of a Nation': The Slave-Revolt Movie That Will Have Sundance Talking". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
  9. ^ Brown, Emma (April 21, 2014). "Nate Parker's Future Past". Interview. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
  10. ^ Rezayazdi, Soheil (January 25, 2016). "Five Questions with The Birth of a Nation Director Nate Parker". Filmmaker. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
  11. ^ Williams, Brennan (January 20, 2016). "'Birth Of A Nation' Star Says Few Acting Roles For Black Men Have 'Integrity'". The Huffington Post. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
  12. ^ McNary, Dave (November 12, 2014). "Armie Hammer Joins Nat Turner Biopic 'Birth of Nation'". Variety. Retrieved January 24, 2016.
  13. ^ McNary, Dave (April 9, 2015). "Aja Naomi King Joins Armie Hammer in Nat Turner Biopic". Variety. Retrieved January 24, 2016.
  14. ^ Lincoln, Ross A. (May 8, 2015). "Margot Bingham Joins 'Barbershop 3'; Penelope Ann Miller In Nat Turner Biopic". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved January 24, 2016.
  15. ^ Jordan, Kyle. "Richmond Hill: Coming Soon to a screen near you". WTOC11. Retrieved July 9, 2022.
  16. ^ Obenson, Tambay A. (March 21, 2016). "Nate Parker Launches New Film School at Historically Black Wiley College (Home of The Great Debaters)". IndieWire. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
  17. ^ Schwartzel, Erich (January 25, 2016). "Slavery Drama 'The Birth of a Nation' Premieres to Thunderous Applause at Sundance". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
  18. ^ Setoodeh, Ramin (January 25, 2016). "'The Birth of a Nation' Premieres at Sundance With Big Standing Ovation and Oscar Buzz". Variety. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
  19. ^ Lang, Brent; Setoodeh, Ramin (January 25, 2016). "Sundance: Fox Searchlight Lands 'Birth of a Nation' in Massive $17.5 Million Deal". Variety. Retrieved January 26, 2016.
  20. ^ Murphy, Mekado (April 15, 2016). "First Teaser for 'The Birth of a Nation' Is Released". The New York Times. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
  21. ^ Holub, Christian (June 21, 2016). "New Birth of a Nation trailer: Nat Turner rises up". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
  22. ^ Denham, Jess (July 6, 2016). "The Birth of a Nation gets UK release date and powerful new trailer as Nate Parker leads the slaves to 'Rebel!'". The Independent. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
  23. ^ Galuppo, Mia (July 15, 2016). "New 'Birth of a Nation' Poster Shows Nate Parker in American Flag Noose". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
  24. ^ Toh, Erika (December 9, 2016). "話題の黒人奴隷史映画、日本公開中止に〜『バース・オブ・ネイション』". Asahi Shimbun (in Japanese). Retrieved December 12, 2016.
  25. ^ a b Setoodeh, Ramin (August 16, 2016). "Nate Parker's Rape Accuser Committed Suicide in 2012". Variety. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
  26. ^ a b Fuster, Jeremy (October 6, 2016). "'Birth of a Nation' Scandal: Timeline of Nate Parker's Case". The Wrap. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
  27. ^ "Ex-wrestler gets new trial in assault case". Daily Collegian. November 1, 2005. Retrieved September 23, 2017.
  28. ^ "Fox Searchlight, Nate Parker Confront Old Sex Case That Could Tarnish 'The Birth Of A Nation'". Deadline Hollywood. August 12, 2016. Retrieved September 23, 2017.
  29. ^ "Complaint-against-Penn-State-University" (PDF).
  30. ^ Suk Gersen, Jeannie (September 2, 2016). "The Public Trial of Nate Parker". The New Yorker. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  31. ^ "'The Birth of a Nation' Producer on Controversy Surrounding Film". Baltimore Jewish Times. October 18, 2016.
  32. ^ "Commonwealth vs. Nathaniel E. Parker (No. 1999-2185): Verdict". Deadline Hollywood. October 5, 2001. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  33. ^ Setoodeh, Ramin (August 12, 2016). "'The Birth of a Nation' Star Nate Parker Addresses College Rape Trial". Variety. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
  34. ^ Cieply, Michael; Fleming Jr., Mike (August 12, 2016). "Fox Searchlight, Nate Parker Confront Old Sex Case That Could Tarnish 'The Birth Of A Nation'". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
  35. ^ Petersen, Anne Helen (August 18, 2016). "Nate Parker's Alleged Rape And The Limits of Hollywood Damage Control". BuzzFeed. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  36. ^ "Nate Parker Rape Trial Could Change 'The Birth of a Nation Release'". Variety. August 15, 2016. Retrieved August 16, 2016.
  37. ^ Loeffler, Sharon (September 29, 2016). "Nate Parker's 'Birth of a Nation' Exploits My Sister All Over Again (Guest Column)". Variety. Retrieved October 15, 2016.
  38. ^ Union, Gabrielle (September 2, 2016). "'Birth of a Nation' actress Gabrielle Union: I cannot take Nate Parker rape allegations lightly". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 15, 2016.
  39. ^ Buckley, Cara (September 11, 2016). "Nate Parker Deflects Questions About His Past to Push 'The Birth of a Nation' in Toronto". The New York Times.
  40. ^ Miller, Jenni. "Nate Parker Interview Cut Short After Rape Question". The Cut.
  41. ^ "Exclusive: Nate Parker's Former Classmates, Penn State Alumni Speak Out in Support". TheRoot. August 25, 2016. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  42. ^ "Harry Belafonte Questions Timing of Resurfaced Nate Parker Rape Trial, Praises 'Birth of a Nation'". TheHollywoodReporter. August 23, 2016. Retrieved August 23, 2016.
  43. ^ Chadwick Boseman speaks on Nate Parker. Birth of a Nation. October 10, 2016. Retrieved October 10, 2016 – via YouTube.
  44. ^ a b c Hal Holbrook (October 14, 2016). "Hal Holbrook, on 'The Birth of a Nation'". The New York Times. Retrieved January 25, 2017.
  45. ^ Mel Gibson (December 8, 2016). "Mel Gibson Doesn't 'Think It's Fair' That Nate Parker's Rape Accusation Cast a Shadow Over 'Birth of a Nation'". IndieWire. Retrieved December 8, 2016.
  46. ^ "Kevin Hart 'Salutes' Nate Parker, Plans to See 'Birth of a Nation'". October 14, 2016. Retrieved October 14, 2016.
  47. ^ "Harvey Weinstein defends 'Birth of a Nation' director as a 'good person' amid backlash". CNNMoney. August 23, 2016. Retrieved August 23, 2016.
  48. ^ "Al Sharpton on Nate Parker: Hollywood Trying to 'Smear the Messenger'". TheRoot. August 20, 2016. Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  49. ^ "ANTHONY ANDERSON I SUPPORT 'BIRTH OF A NATION' DIRECTOR". TMZ. August 19, 2016. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  50. ^ "Sheryl Underwood Has A Few Words For Nate Parker Critics". Essence. October 11, 2016. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
  51. ^ Raftery, Brian. "IMDb Voters Are Tanking Indies Before They're Even Released". WIRED. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
  52. ^ The Birth of a Nation at IMDb
  53. ^ "Hurricane Matthew Doesn't Slow 'Girl On The Train', But Overall Ticket Sales Lower Than Jonas; Controversy Conquers 'Nation'". Deadline Hollywood. October 10, 2016.
  54. ^ "The Accountant Calculates $24.7M Opening; Max Steel Rusts". Deadline Hollywood. October 17, 2016.
  55. ^ Desta, Yohana (October 10, 2016). "The Birth of a Nation Flops Hard at Box Office Despite Damage-Control Attempts". Vanity Fair. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
  56. ^ Dickey, Josh (October 9, 2016). "'The Birth of a Nation' tanks at the box office, time to cancel that awards campaign". Mashable. Retrieved October 30, 2016.
  57. ^ "The Birth of a Nation Couldn't Overcome Nate Parker at the Box Office". Vulture.
  58. ^ a b c Gibson, Caitlin. "The big debate over 'The Birth of a Nation' is over: Audiences just weren't interested". Washington Post.
  59. ^ "Filmmaker's Controversial Past Takes Its Toll On 'Birth Of A Nation' At The B.O." Deadline Hollywood. October 8, 2016.
  60. ^ "Gabrielle Union on 'Birth of a Nation': 'I support you if you don't want to see the film'". UPI.
  61. ^ "Gabrielle Union on Birth of a Nation Boycotts: 'I Support You If You Don't Want to See the Film'". Vulture.
  62. ^ "The Birth of a Nation (2016)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved April 25, 2021.
  63. ^ "The Birth of a Nation Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Retrieved December 24, 2016.
  64. ^ "CinemaScore".
  65. ^ McCarthy, Todd (January 25, 2016). "'The Birth of a Nation': Sundance Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
  66. ^ "'The Birth of a Nation' review: Nate Parker's powerful, problematic film about Nat Turner". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 9, 2016.
  67. ^ Brody, Richard (October 9, 2016). "The Cinematic Merits and Flaws of Nate Parker's 'The Birth of a Nation'". The New Yorker. Retrieved December 11, 2016.
  68. ^ Cunningham, Vinson (October 10, 2016). "'The Birth of a Nation' Isn't Worth Defending". The New Yorker. Retrieved December 11, 2016.
  69. ^ Nordyke, Kimberly (December 12, 2016). "'Moonlight' Named Best Picture by the African American Film Critics Association". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 12, 2016.
  70. ^ Anderson, Erik (December 15, 2016). "Austin Film Critics Association (AFCA) Nominations: The Handmaiden Lands Top Mentions, Trevante Rhodes Double Nominated". Retrieved December 15, 2016.
  71. ^ Miller, Neil (December 15, 2016). "2016 Austin Film Critics Awards Nominees, 'Moonlight' and 'Arrival' lead the way in AFCA's 2016 nominations". Retrieved December 15, 2016.
  72. ^ "Beyoncé and Bruno Mars lead 2017 BET Awards nominations". Channel. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
  73. ^ Davis, Clayton (December 14, 2016). "Black Reel Award Nominees – 'Moonlight' Leads with 13 Nominations". Retrieved December 15, 2016.
  74. ^ Hipes, Patrick (January 11, 2017). "DGA TV Awards Nominations: 'Stranger Things', 'Westworld' & 'Atlanta' On List; Docus Include 'OJ: Made In America'". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved January 11, 2017.
  75. ^ Hill, Libby (December 14, 2016). "'Moonlight,' 'Birth of a Nation' and 'Loving' score big with NAACP Image Award nominations". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 14, 2016.
  76. ^ Kilday, Gregg (November 29, 2016). "Satellite Awards Nominees Revealed". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 29, 2016.
  77. ^ Chang, Justin (January 30, 2016). "Sundance: 'The Birth of a Nation' Sweeps Top Prizes". Variety. Retrieved February 27, 2016.
  78. ^ "THE BIRTH OF A NATION". Sundance Film Festival. January 30, 2016. Retrieved February 27, 2016.

External links[edit]