The Black Book of Communism

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The Black Book of Communism
Le Livre noir du communisme.jpg
Cover of the first edition
EditorStéphane Courtois
AuthorsNicolas Werth
Jean-Louis Panné [fr]
Andrzej Paczkowski
Karel Bartošek [fr]
Jean-Louis Margolin [fr]
Ehrhart Neubert*
Joachim Gauck*
(*German edition)
Original titleLe Livre noir du communisme
PublisherHarvard University Press
Publication date
6 November 1997
Published in English
8 October 1999
Media typePrint

The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a 1997 book by Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Andrzej Paczkowski and several other European academics[note 1] documenting a history of political repressions by Communist states, including genocides, extrajudicial executions, deportations, killing populations in labor camps and artificially created famines. The book was originally published in France as Le Livre noir du communisme: Crimes, terreur, répression by Éditions Robert Laffont. In the United States, it was published by Harvard University Press,[1]:217 with a foreword by Martin Malia. The German edition, published by Piper Verlag, includes a chapter written by Joachim Gauck. The introduction was written by Courtois. Historian François Furet was originally slated to write the introduction, but was prevented from doing so by his death.[2]:51

The book has been translated into numerous languages, sold millions of copies and is considered one of the most influential, although one of the most controversial, books written about communism.[3][4] While it received strong praise from several publications,[5] it was also criticised and accused of manipulations and inflating numbers, including challenges from the main contributors to the book.[6]

The book's title was chosen to echo the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee's Black Book, a documentary record of Nazi atrocities written by Ilya Ehrenburg and Vasily Grossman.[7]:xiii The book has evoked a wide variety of responses, ranging from enthusiastic support[5] to severe criticism.[8]:139[9]:236[10]:13[11]:68–72

"Introduction: The Crimes of Communism"[edit]

In the first chapter of the book entitled "Introduction: The Crimes of Communism", Stéphane Courtois states that "Communist regimes turned mass crime into a full-blown system of government" and they are responsible for a greater number of deaths than Nazism or any other political system.[12]:2

Estimated number of victims[edit]

According to the chapter, the number of people killed by the Communist governments amounts to more than 94 million.[12]:4 The statistics of victims include deaths through executions, man-made hunger, famine, war, deportations and forced labor. The breakdown of the number of deaths is given as follows:

According to Courtois, the crimes by the Soviet Union included the following:

Comparison of Communism and Nazism[edit]

Courtois considers Communism and Nazism to be distinct, but comparable totalitarian systems. He says that Communist regimes have killed "approximately 100 million people in contrast to the approximately 25 million victims of the Nazis".[12]:15 Courtois claims that Nazi Germany's methods of mass extermination were adopted from Soviet methods. As an example, he cites the Nazi SS official Rudolf Höss who organized the infamous extermination camp, Auschwitz concentration camp. According to Höss:[12]:15

The Reich Security Head Office issued to the commandants a full collection of reports concerning the Russian concentration camps. These described in great detail the conditions in, and organization of, the Russian camps, as supplied by former prisoners who had managed to escape. Great emphasis was placed on the fact that the Russians, by their massive employment of forced labor, had destroyed whole peoples.

Courtois argues that the Soviet crimes against peoples living in the Caucasus and of large social groups in the Soviet Union could be called "genocide" and that they were not very much different from similar policies by Nazis. Both Communist and Nazi systems deemed "a part of humanity unworthy of existence. The difference is that the Communist model is based on the class system, the Nazi model on race and territory".[12]:15 Courtois further stated:

The "genocide of a "class" may well be tantamount to the genocide of a "race"—the deliberate starvation of a child of a Ukrainian kulak as a result of the famine caused by Stalin's regime "is equal to" the starvation of a Jewish child in the Warsaw ghetto as a result of the famine caused by the Nazi regime. [...][12]:[page needed]

After 1945 the Jewish genocide became a byword for modern barbarism, the epitome of twentieth-century mass terror. [...] [M]ore recently, a single-minded focus on the Jewish genocide in an attempt to characterize the Holocaust as a unique atrocity has also prevented the assessment of other episodes of comparable magnitude in the Communist world. After all, it seems scarcely plausible that the victors who had helped bring about the destruction of a genocidal apparatus might themselves have put the very same methods into practice. When faced with this paradox, people generally preferred to bury their heads in sand. [...] Communist regimes have victimized approximately 100 million people in contrast to the approximately 25 million of the Nazis.[12]:[page needed]

German edition[edit]

The German edition contains an additional chapter on the Soviet-backed Communist regime in East Germany titled "Die Aufarbeitung des Sozialismus in der DDR" ("The Processing of Socialism in the DDR"). It consists of two subchapters, namely "Politische Verbrechen in der DDR" ("Political Crime in the DDR") by Ehrhart Neubert and "Vom schwierigen Umgang mit der Wahrnehmung" ("From the Difficult Handling of Perception") by Joachim Gauck.[13]



The Black Book of Communism received praise in many publications in the United States and the United Kingdom, including The Times Literary Supplement, The New York Times Book Review, Library Journal, Kirkus Reviews, The New Republic, National Review and The Weekly Standard.[5] The book has also been influential in Eastern Europe, where it was uncritically embraced by prominent politicians and intellectuals—many of these intellectuals popularized it using terminology and concepts popular with the radical right.[14]:47,59

Historian Tony Judt wrote in The New York Times: "The myth of the well-intentioned founders—the good czar Lenin betrayed by his evil heirs—has been laid to rest for good. No one will any longer be able to claim ignorance or uncertainty about the criminal nature of Communism".[5] Similarly, historian Jolanta Pekacz remarked that the "archival revelations of The Black Book collapse the myth of a benign, initial phase of communism before it was diverted from the right path by circumstances".[15]:311 Anne Applebaum, journalist and author of Gulag: A History, described the book as "[a] serious, scholarly history of Communist crimes in the Soviet Union, Eastern and Western Europe, China, North Korea, Cambodia, Vietnam, Africa, and Latin America. [...] The Black Book does indeed surpass many of its predecessors in conveying the grand scale of the Communist tragedy, thanks to its authors' extensive use of the newly opened archives of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe".[5]

Historian Martin Malia, who prefaced the English-language edition of the book,[12]:ix-xx described it as "the publishing sensation in France, [...] detailing Communism's crimes from Russia in 1917 to Afghanistan in 1989. [...] [The Black Book of Communism] gives a balance sheet of our present knowledge of Communism's human costs, archivally based where possible, and otherwise drawing on the best secondary works, and with due allowance for the difficulties of quantification".[5]

Political scientist Vladimir Tismăneanu, whose work focuses on Eastern Europe, wrote that "the Black Book of Communism succeeds in demonstrating is that Communism in its Leninist version (and, one must recognize, this has been the only successful application of the original dogma) was from the very outset inimical to the values of individual rights and human freedom". Tismaneanu argued that Courtois' comparison of Communism to Nazism was broadly justifiable, writing that while "[a]nalytical distinctions between them are certainly important, and sometimes Courtois does not emphasize them sufficiently", their "commonality in terms of complete contempt for the bourgeois state of law, human rights, and the universality of humankind regardless of spurious race and class distinctions is in my view beyond doubt".[16]:126 Tismaneanu further noted that in making his comparison, Courtois was drawing on Grossman's earlier explorations of the same theme in Life and Fate and Forever Flowing.[16]:[page needed]

Several reviewers have singled out Nicolas Werth's "State against its People"[12]:33-268 as being the most notable and best researched contribution in the book.[17][18] Intellectual historian Ronald Aronson wrote: "[Werth] is concerned, fortunately, neither to minimize nor to maximize numbers, but to accurately determine what happened".[9]:233

In response to the criticism against The Black Book of Communism, the political journalist Jean-François Revel devoted several chapters of Last Exit to Utopia: The Survival of Socialism in a Post-Soviet Era to this. Throughout it, he replies to various authors, among them Noam Chomsky, the imputation to capitalism as economic system, crimes that would not belong to it such as those of slavery, colonial statism or the National Socialist regime.[19][page needed] Since while capitalism is being blamed for the crimes of the anti-communist right or every political regime who adopted it, attempts are made to amnesty socialism as economic system for the crimes of the communist left. For Revel, every comparison between state socialism and private capitalism in matters of elimination of poverty and raising the level of wages and mass consumerism declare victorious to the market economies over the subsistence economies and the failure of production goals system based on rationing and scarcity of essential goods[20][page needed] In response to the criticism directed against the Black Book, Revel emphasizes that there has never been a democratic or pluralist regime into the Marxist–Leninist field of "real socialism", nor a system that would not be in need of totalitarianism, single party regime and political persecution.[21][page needed] In contrast to the reply based on the repression of union activity at the dawn of capitalism, Revel considers collectivism inextricably linked to forced labor and state slavery.[22][23][page needed]


Whereas chapters of the book, where it describes the events in separate Communist states, were highly praised, some generalizations made by Courtois in the introduction to the book became a subject of criticism both on scholarly and political[8]:139 grounds.[9]:236[10]:13[11]:68-72 Moreover, two of the book's main contributors—Nicolas Werth and Jean-Louis Margolin—as well as Karel Bartosek[6] publicly disassociated themselves from Courtois' statements in the introduction and criticized his editorial conduct. Werth and Margolin felt Courtois was "obsessed" with arriving at a total of 100 million killed which resulted in "sloppy and biased scholarship"[24] and faulted him for exaggerating death tolls in specific countries.[6][25]:194[26]:123 They also argued that based on the results of their studies, one can tentatively estimate the total number of the victims at between 65 and 93 million.[27] In particular, Margolin, who authored the Black Book's chapter on Vietnam, clarified "that he has never mentioned a million deaths in Vietnam".[6] Historians Jean-Jacques Becker and J. Arch Getty have criticized Courtois[28]:178 for failing to draw a distinction between victims of neglect and famine and victims of "intentional murder".[29] Economic historian Michael Ellman has argued that the book's estimate of "at least 500,000" deaths during the Soviet famine of 1946–1947 "is formulated in an extremely conservative way, since the actual number of victims was much larger", with 1,000,000–1,500,000 excess deaths.[30] Regarding these questions, historian Alexander Dallin has argued that moral, legal, or political judgments hardly depend on the number of victims.[31]

Many observers have rejected Courtois's numerical and moral comparison of Communism to Nazism in the introduction.[10]:148[32] According to Werth, there was still a qualitative difference between Nazism and Communism, saying: "Death camps did not exist in the Soviet Union".[29] He further told Le Monde: "The more you compare Communism and Nazism, the more the differences are obvious".[33] In a critical review, historian Amir Weiner wrote: "When Stalin's successors opened the gates of the Gulag, they allowed 3 million inmates to return home. When the Allies liberated the Nazi death camps, they found thousands of human skeletons barely alive awaiting what they knew to be inevitable execution".[34]:450-52 Historian Ronald Grigor Suny remarked that Courtois' comparison of 100 million victims of Communism to 25 million victims of Nazism "[leaves out] out most of the 40-60,000,000 lives lost in the Second World War, for which arguably Hitler and not Stalin was principally responsible".[35]:8 A report by the Wiesel Commission criticized the comparison of Gulag victims with Jewish Holocaust victims as an attempt to trivialize the Holocaust.[14]

Historian Peter Kenez criticized the chapter written by Nicolas Werth: "Werth can also be an extremely careless historian. He gives the number of Bolsheviks in October 1917 as 2,000, which is a ridiculous underestimate. He quotes from a letter of Lenin to Alexander Shliapnikov and gives the date as 17 October 1917; the letter could hardly have originated at that time, since in it Lenin talks about the need to defeat the Tsarist government, and turn the war into a civil conflict. He gives credit to the Austro-Hungarian rather than the German army for the conquest of Poland in 1915. He describes the Provisional Government as 'elected'. He incorrectly writes that the peasant rebels during the civil war did more harm to the Reds than to the Whites, and so on".[18] Historian Mark Tauger challenged the authors' thesis that the famine of 1933 was largely artificial and genocidal.[36] According to journalist Gilles Perrault, the books ignores the effect of international factors, including military interventions, on the Communist experience.[37]

Historian Noam Chomsky has criticized the book and its reception as one-sided by outlining economist Amartya Sen's research on hunger. While India's democratic institutions prevented famines, its excess of mortality over China—potentially attributable to the latter's more equal distribution of medical and other resources—was nonetheless close to 4 million per year for non-famine years. Chomsky argued that "supposing we now apply the methodology of the Black Book" to India, "the democratic capitalist 'experiment' has caused more deaths than in the entire history of [...] Communism everywhere since 1917: over 100 million deaths by 1979, and tens of millions more since, in India alone".[38]

Le Siècle des Communismes, a collective work of twenty academics, was a response to both François Furet's Le passé d'une Illusion and Courtois's The Black Book of Communism.[39] It broke Communism down into series of discrete movements, with mixed positive and negative results.[citation needed]

The Black Book of Communism prompted the publication of several other "black books" which argued that similar chronicles of violence and death tolls can be constructed from an examination of colonialism and capitalism.[40][41][42]


The reception of The Black Book of Communism led to the publication of a series entitled Du passé faisons table rase! Histoire et mémoire du communisme en Europe in 2002, with the same imprint. The first edition included a subtitle: "The Black Book of Communism has not said everything". Like the first effort, this second work was edited by Stéphane Courtois. The book focused on the history of Communism in Eastern Europe.[citation needed]

Several translations of the book were marketed as the second volume of The Black Book of Communism: Das Schwarzbuch of Kommunismus 2. Das Erbe der schwere Ideology (Germany, Piper, 2004), Черната книга на комунизма 2. част (Bulgaria, Prosoretz, 2004) and Il libro del nero comunismo europeo (Italy, Mondadori, 2006).[citation needed]

See also[edit]


  1. ^
    • Stéphane Courtois is a director of research at the Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS).
    • Nicolas Werth is a researcher at the Institut d'Histoire du Temps Présent (IHTP) in Paris.
    • Jean-Louis Panné is a specialist on the international Communist movement.
    • Andrzej Paczkowski is the deputy director of the Institute for Political Studies of the Polish Academy of Sciences and a member of the archival commission for the Polish Ministry of Internal Affairs.
    • Karel Bartošek (1930–2004) was a historian from the Czech Republic and a researcher at IHTP.
    • Jean-Louis Margolin is a lecturer at the Université de Provence and a researcher as the Research Institute on Southeast Asia.
    • Sylvain Boulougue is a research associate at GEODE, Université Paris X.
    • Pascal Fontaine is a journalist with a special knowledge of Latin America.
    • Rémi Kauffer is a specialist in the history of intelligence, terrorism and clandestine operations.
    • Pierre Rigoulet is a researcher at the Institut d'Histoire Sociale.
    • Yves Santamaria is a historian.
    • Martin Malia wrote the foreword to the English edition.


  1. ^ Ronit Lenṭin; Mike Dennis; Eva Kolinsky (2003). Representing the Shoah for the Twenty-first Century. Berghahn Books. p. 217. ISBN 978-1-57181-802-7.
  2. ^ Rousso, Henry (7 January 2002). The Haunting Past: History, Memory, and Justice in Contemporary France. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0812236453.
  3. ^ Ronald Grigir Suny. Russian "Terror/ism and Revisionist Historiography". Australian Journal of Politics and History: Volume 53, Number 1, 2007, pp. 5-19. "The Black Book may be the single most influential text on the Soviet Union and other state socialist regimes and movements published since The Gulag Archipelago."
  4. ^ Ronald Aronson. Review: Communism's Posthumous Trial Reviewed Work(s): The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression by Stéphane Courtois; The Passing of an Illusion: The Idea of Communism in the Twentieth Century by François Furet; The Burden of Responsibility: Blum, Camus, Aron, and the French Twentieth Century by Tony Judt; Le Siècle des communismes by Michel Dreyfus. History and Theory, Vol. 42, No. 2 (May 2003), pp. 222-245
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Reviews: The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression by Stéphane Courtois". Harvard University Press. Retrieved 2008-02-24.
  6. ^ a b c d Chemin, Ariane (1997-10-30). "Les divisions d'une équipe d'historiens du communisme [Divisions among the team of historians of Communism]". Le (in French). ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 2016-08-03.
  7. ^ Rousso, Henry, ed. (2004), Stalinism and Nazism: History and Memory Compared, ISBN 978-0-8032-3945-6
  8. ^ a b Torpey, John (2001). "What future for the future? reflections on The Black Book of Communism". Human Rights Review. 2 (2): 135–143. doi:10.1007/s12142-001-1028-0.
  9. ^ a b c Aronson, Ronald (2003). "Communism's posthumous trial". History and Theory. 42 (2): 222–245. doi:10.1111/1468-2303.00240.
  10. ^ a b c Golsan, Richard J. (2006). French Writers and the Politics of Complicity: Crises of Democracy in the 1940s and 1990s. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8258-6.
  11. ^ a b Dean, Carolyn Janice (2010). Aversion and Erasure: The Fate of the Victim After the Holocaust. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4944-4.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Werth, Nicolas; Panné, Jean-Louis; Paczkowski, Andrzej; Bartosek, Karel; Margolin, Jean-Louis (October 1999), Courtois, Stéphane (ed.), The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression, Harvard University Press, pp. 92–97, 116–21, ISBN 978-0-674-07608-2
  13. ^ Stéphane Courtois, Joachim Gauck, Ehrhart Neubert et al., Das Schwarzbuch des Kommunismus. Unterdrückung, Verbrechen und Terror. (1998) Piper Verlag, München 2004, ISBN 3-492-04053-5
  14. ^ a b Friling, Tuvia; Ioanid, Radu; Ionescu, Mihail E.; Benjamin, Lya (2004). Distortion, negationism and minimization of the Holocaust in postwar Romania (PDF). International Commission on the Holocaust in Romania. p. 47; 59.
  15. ^ Pekacz, Jolanta T. (2001). "Twentieth-Century Communism—The Rise and Fall of an Illusion". Canadian Journal of History. 36 (2): 311–316. doi:10.3138/cjh.36.2.311.
  16. ^ a b Tismaneanu, Vladimir (January 2001), "Communism and the human condition: Reflections on the Black Book of Communism", Human Rights Review, Netherlands, 2 (2): 125–134, doi:10.1007/s12142-001-1027-1, p. 126
  17. ^ Scammell, Michael (20 December 1999). "The Price of an Idea". The New Republic. Archived from the original on 13 February 2002. Retrieved 18 September 2016.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  18. ^ a b Peter Kenez, "Little Black Book", Feed Magazine, 30 November 1999.
  19. ^ Revel, Jean François (2000). "Chapter 3". La Grande Parade: essai sur la survie de l'utopie socialiste. Paris: Éditions Plon. ISBN 9782259190565.
  20. ^ Revel, Jean François (2000). "Chapter 8". La Grande Parade: essai sur la survie de l'utopie socialiste. Paris: Éditions Plon. ISBN 9782259190565.
  21. ^ Revel, Jean François (2000). "Chapter 10". La Grande Parade: essai sur la survie de l'utopie socialiste. Paris: Éditions Plon. ISBN 9782259190565.
  22. ^ Revel, Jean François (2000). "Chapter 11". La Grande Parade: essai sur la survie de l'utopie socialiste. Paris: Éditions Plon. ISBN 9782259190565.
  23. ^ Revel, Jean François (2000). "Chapter 14". La Grande Parade: essai sur la survie de l'utopie socialiste. Paris: Éditions Plon. ISBN 9782259190565.
  24. ^ Ghodsee, Kristen (2017). Red Hangover: Legacies of Twentieth-Century Communism. Duke University Press. p. 140. ISBN 978-0822369493.
  25. ^ Gvosdev, Nikolas K. (2008). The Strange Death of Soviet Communism: A Postscript. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 9781412835176.
  26. ^ Ghodsee, Kristen (2014). "A tale of" Two Totalitarianisms": The crisis of capitalism and the historical memory of communism" (PDF). History of the Present. 4 (2): 115–142. doi:10.5406/historypresent.4.2.0115. JSTOR 10.5406/historypresent.4.2.0115.
  27. ^ Margolin, Jean-Louis; Werth, Nicolas (1997-11-14). "Communisme : retour à l'histoire" [Communism: Return to the history]. Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 2015-06-14.
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  29. ^ a b Getty, J Arch (Mar 2000), "The Future Did Not Work" (text), The Atlantic Monthly, Boston, 285 (3): 113.
  30. ^ Ellman, Michael (2000), "The 1947 Soviet Famine and the Entitlement Approach to Famines" (PDF), Cambridge Journal of Economics, 24 (5): 603–30, doi:10.1093/cje/24.5.603
  31. ^ Dallin, Alexander, Slavic Review, 59.
  32. ^ Bartov, Omer (Spring 2002), Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, 3, pp. 281–302.
  33. ^ Le Monde, 21 September 2000.
  34. ^ Amir Weiner, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 32, No. 3 (Winter, 2002), pp. 450-452
  35. ^ Suny, Ronald Grigor (2007). "Russian Terror/ism and Revisionist Historiography". Australian Journal of Politics & History. 53 (1): 5–19. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8497.2007.00439.x.
  36. ^ Tauger, Mark (1998). "War die Hungersnot in der Ukraine intendiert? (Submission in English)" (PDF). In Mecklenburg, Jens; Wolfgang Wippermann (eds.). Roter Holocaust? : Kritik des Schwarzbuchs des Kommunismus. Hamburg: Konkret Literatur Verlag. ISBN 978-3-89458-169-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2006.
  37. ^ Perrault, Gilles (December 1997), "Communisme, les falsifications d'un " livre noir "", Le Monde Diplomatique (in French), France
  38. ^ Chomsky, Noam. "Counting the Bodies". Spectrezine. Archived from the original on 2016-09-21. Retrieved 2016-09-18.
  39. ^ Dreyfus, Michel (2000). Le Siècle des communismes. Éditions de l'Atelier. ISBN 978-2-7082-3516-8.
  40. ^ Ferro, Marc; Beaufils, Thomas (2003). Le livre noir du colonialisme: XVIe-XXIe siècle : de l'extermination à la repentance. Paris: R. Laffont. ISBN 978-2-221-09254-5.
  41. ^ Kurz, Robert (2009). Schwarzbuch Kapitalismus: ein Abgesang auf die Marktwirtschaft. Eichborn. ISBN 978-3-8218-7316-9.
  42. ^ Collectif; Perrault, Gilles (2001). Le livre noir du capitalisme. Le Temps des cerises. ISBN 978-2-84109-325-0.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]