The Chessmaster 2000 cover art
|Developer(s)||David Kittinger, Kathe and Dan Spracklen, Johan de Koning|
Feral Interactive (Mac OS X)
|Platform(s)||MS Windows, MS-DOS, Nintendo Entertainment System, Game Boy, Game Gear, PlayStation, Xbox 360, PlayStation Portable, PlayStation 2|
Chessmaster is a chess-playing computer game series which is now owned and developed by Ubisoft. It is the best-selling chess franchise in history, with more than five million units sold as of 2002[update].
Since Chessmaster 3000 for Windows 3.x the moves are explained with voice output.
- 1986: The Chessmaster series started with The Chessmaster 2000 first published by Software Country, and soon after by The Software Toolworks. It was published for Amiga, Apple II, Atari 8-bit, Atari ST, ZX Spectrum, Commodore 64, Amstrad CPC, MSX, Macintosh, and DOS. The game had a chess engine written by David Kittinger and the manufacturer rated the game at 2000 Elo. USCF rated it 2100; in reality, it is unknown at what strength it plays because the testings were done on slow 1980s computers. In July 1986, CM became the first commercially available software to win the Personal Computer class of the United States Open Computer Chess Championship in Mobile, Alabama.
- 1988: The Fidelity Chessmaster 2100 was published for the Apple IIGS.
- 1989: The Fidelity Chessmaster 2100 was published for DOS.
- 1990: The Chessmaster was published for the NES, and the Game Boy.
- 1990: The Fidelity Chessmaster 2100 was published for the Amiga.
- 1991: The Chessmaster was published for the SNES.
- 1991: The Chessmaster was published for the Game Gear.
- 1991: Chessmaster 3000 was published for DOS, Windows 3.x.
- 1993: Chessmaster 4000 Turbo was published for Windows 3.x.
- 1993: Chessmaster 3000 was published for Macintosh.
- 1995: Chessmaster 4000 was published for Windows 95.
- 1995: Chessmaster 3D for PlayStation had the Chessmaster 4000 engine.
- 1996: Chessmaster 4000 was published for Macintosh.
- 1996: Mindscape publishes Chessmaster 5000 for Windows 95.
- 1997: Chessmaster 5500 was published for Windows 95.
- 1998: Chessmaster 6000 was published for Windows 95 and Windows 98 and Macintosh.
- 1999: Chessmaster 7000 was published for Windows 98 and Chessmaster II was published for PlayStation.
- 2000: Chessmaster 8000 was published for Windows 98.
- 2002: Ubisoft publishes Chessmaster 9000 for Windows 98/ME/XP
- 2004: Chessmaster 10th Edition was published for Windows XP.
- 2004: Chessmaster 9000 was published for Mac OS X by Feral Interactive.
- 30 October 2007: The current version, Chessmaster XI, was released for Windows XP/Vista (titled Chessmaster: Grandmaster Edition) and Nintendo DS (titled Chessmaster: The Art of Learning), and 12 February 2008 for PlayStation Portable (also titled Chessmaster: The Art of Learning). It includes numerous tutorials by International Master Joshua Waitzkin and GM Larry Christiansen for players of all skill levels. Also contains the minigames Fork my fruit (which practices forking), Minesweeper (practices safety of pieces) and the tail game (where the player chooses a long-range chess piece, then trying to make a long tail using captured pieces, and avoiding the enemy pieces to capture the main piece or tail parts).
The Chessmaster chess engine is called The King, written by Johan de Koning of the Netherlands. It was introduced in Chessmaster 4000; the first edition featured a chess engine written by David Kittinger, who went on to develop the engines for Interplay's USCF Chess, WChess for the German company Millennium 2000, and Sierra Entertainment's Power Chess, Majestic Chess and Disney's Aladdin Chess Adventures. The second edition had an engine designed by Kate and Dan Spracklen of Sargon fame.
According to the September 2009 Swedish Chess Computer Association (SSDF) rating list, Chessmaster 9000 has an estimated Elo rating of 2718 on an Athlon-1200 PC. If multiple versions of other engines are stripped out of their list, Chessmaster 9000 ranks 14th among all engines tested. As of May 2008[update], Chessmaster 9000 remains the most recent version rated by the SSDF.
The King engine allows users to create new playing styles, also called "personalities", by manipulating several dozen different settings, such as King Safety, Pawn Weakness, Randomness, Mobility and others. Individual piece values can also be adjusted. Chessmaster 9000, for example, features over 150 different personalities ranging from International Grandmaster strength down to Stanley, a chimpanzee who, in most situations, plays completely random moves.
The personality feature has inspired many amateur computer chess enthusiasts to attempt to find more optimum personalities. In Chessmaster 10th Edition, the creation of new personalities has been made easier than before.
- Larry Christiansen vs. Chessmaster 9000 (September 2002), annotated at GameKnot: Game 1, Game 2, Game 3, Game 4
Chessmaster won the four-game match against Christiansen held in September 2002, by a score of 2½-1½. The Chessmaster program was operated by John Merlino, the Project Manager of Chessmaster at the time of the match. Four different personalities were used in the match, the first three of which were based on famous human Grandmasters: Alexander Alekhine, Bobby Fischer, and Mikhail Botvinnik. The final game of the match used the default "Chessmaster" personality. Christiansen won the first game, lost the second and third games, and the fourth game resulted in a draw.
To date, various versions of Chessmaster have appeared on Amiga, Apple II, Apple IIGS, Atari 8-bit, Atari ST, Amstrad CPC, ZX Spectrum, MSX, Commodore 64, DOS, PC, Macintosh, Nintendo Entertainment System, Super Nintendo Entertainment System, Game Boy, Game Boy Color, Game Boy Advance, Nintendo DS, Sega Genesis (as a Sega Channel exclusive), Sega Game Gear, PlayStation, PlayStation 2, Xbox, and mobile phones. Early Macintosh versions Chessmaster 3000 and 4000 were developed by Sebastian Rapport and Troy Heere that leveraged the Kittinger and de Koning engines respectively. Later Macintosh versions were ported by Feral Interactive, and the latest Macintosh version available is Chessmaster 9000. Ubisoft also offers a downloadable version of the game, Chessmaster Challenge, which differs from Chessmaster 10th Edition in its simplified interface and scaled-down tutorials.
The more recent editions of Chessmaster include both 2D and 3D designs, and a large number of different boards and themed chess piece designs. The interface was revised for Chessmaster 10th Edition and features animated 3D sets in which the pieces "walk" between squares and have simulated battles when a piece is taken, reminiscent of Battle Chess or the Wizard's chess set from Harry Potter. Chessmaster 10th Edition also comes packed with a pair of red and blue glasses to view the set in "enhanced 3D".
Xbox Live Arcade
This version of Chessmaster contained a bug allowing the white player to indefinitely hold up a match until a player resigned. The game was eventually patched so that neither player would gain or lose Elo points if they resign before the first move.
The combined sales of the Chessmaster series had reached 1 million copies by September 1996. The series surpassed 5 million units in sales by 2002, making it the highest-selling computer chess series ever at the time.
In 1989, Computer Gaming World found Chessmaster 2100's features "the clear winners" over Sargon 4, in 1992 reported that Chessmaster 3000 had added "a lot" to its predecessors, with new tutorial features and a variety of computer opponents making the game "a truly impressive sequel", and in 1994 approved of Chessmaster 4000 Turbo's new AI "personalities" based on historical chess players. 4000 Turbo received a perfect 10 out of 10 score from Electronic Entertainment.
Critical reaction to the Chessmaster series has been mostly positive. GameSpot commented that "Chessmaster has remained the consummate standard in console chess games since the '80s." IGN said that "the series itself remains the best way to play and learn about chess on the PC."
Chessmaster: Grandmaster Edition, the most recent PC edition of the series, scored positive reviews, with PC Gamer saying: "this one-stop shop for an entire chess-playing and learning family should last until you're all grandmasters." Chessmaster 10th Edition holds an 84% rating on review aggregator site GameRankings. IGN gave Chessmaster 10th Edition a score of 8.4/10, calling it "the best chess game in town." GameSpot's review of Chessmaster 10th Edition said, "If you're looking for a good chess program that's packed with a plethora of features and all the bells and whistles, you'll be very happy with Chessmaster 10th Edition.
The mobile phone version of Chessmaster received a score of 9/10 from IGN, who called it "an absolutely superlative product that will be enjoyed for week after week by fans of the mental contest." IGN criticized the Nintendo DS version of Chessmaster: The Art of Learning for its lack of multiplayer, but gave it an overall positive review, with a score of 7.8/10. IGN criticized the "boring" presentation of the PlayStation Portable version of Chessmaster: The Art of Learning, but added that "there's no doubt that the information is valuable and can teach you the finer points of the game."
Although the Chessmaster engine is generally not as strong as the engines of other commercially available chess programs such as Fritz, critics have praised the Chessmaster series for its comprehensive tutorials aimed at players of amateur and moderate skill levels. In its review of Chessmaster 9000, IGN said that "the series has always distinguished itself with first-rate chess teaching tools," and welcomed the game's "appeal towards inexperienced and mid-level players. With all manner of tutorials, detailed analysis and exercises, the game helps ease newbies into the experience." GameSpot's review of Chessmaster 10th Edition commented positively on the game's "huge bundle of features aimed at everyone from the neophyte who's looking to learn the basics to the advanced wood pusher who may need practice for tournament play."
A common criticism of the series has been the lack of new features in successive installments. IGN's review of Chessmaster 10th Edition commented, "it simply doesn't add enough over any of the last two versions to make it a necessary upgrade."
In 1994, PC Gamer UK named Chessmaster 4000 Turbo the 20th best computer game of all time, calling it the best of the series so far and accessible to all skill levels. The editors wrote, "A chess game? In the Top 50? Well, why not?" In June 1994 Chessmaster 4000 was a finalist for Computer Gaming World's Strategy Game of the Year award, losing to Master of Orion The editors wrote that "Software Toolworks still has the capacity and the will to improve their best-selling chess engine".
Chessmaster 3000 was named the 40th best computer game ever by PC Gamer UK in 1997. The editors wrote that "it remains [...] the premier PC chess title, with just the right balance of fancy game options and high-end gameplay. ChessMaster 3000 runs much faster than subsequent versions of the game and makes a welcome change from guns and guts".
- Chessmaster 9000 Review
- Oxner, Bill (November 1986). "The Chessmaster 2000" (PDF). Computer Gaming World. No. 32. p. 44. Retrieved 17 April 2016.
- Chessmaster 3d Review
- Chessmaster II at GameFAQs. Accessed March 24, 2013.
- "The SSDF Rating List". Retrieved 30 April 2008.
- "CCRL 40/40 - Pure List". 4 February 2017. Archived from the original on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
- "Chessmaster 9000 Defeats Reigning US Chess Champion Larry Christiansen; Chessmaster Wins Four Game Match 2.5 to 1.5 Via Live Internet Broadcast on ChessClub.com". Business Wire. 1 October 2002.
- "Search Games - Chessmaster". GameFAQs. Retrieved 19 September 2007.
- Chessmaster Challenge Ubisoft
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- IGN Staff (5 December 2002). "Who's the Master?". IGN. Archived from the original on 7 February 2004. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
- Wagner, Roy (September 1989). "Chessmaster 2100 vs. Sargon 4". Computer Gaming World. pp. 20–21. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- Carter, Tim (August 1992). "Software Toolworks' Chessmaster 3000". Computer Gaming World. pp. 42–43. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
- Coleman, Terry (January 1994). "The Ultimate Gambit". The Ultimate Gambit. pp. 42, 44, 46.
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- New Games Cross Review - チェスマスター. Weekly Famitsu. No.323. Pg.39. 24 February 1995.
- NEW GAMES CROSS REVIEW: チェスマスター. Weekly Famicom Tsūshin. No.307. Pg.40. 4 November 1994.
- Chessmaster mobile review, GameSpot, 15 June 2004
- Chessmaster 10th Edition review, IGN, 26 August 2004
- PC Gamer, Chessmaster: Grandmaster Edition review, April 2008, p.64
- Chessmaster 10th Edition, GameRankings
- Chessmaster 10th Edition review, GameSpot, 7 September 2004
- Chessmaster mobile review Archived 21 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine, IGN, 7 July 2004
- Chessmaster: The Art of Learning - DS review, IGN, 4 December 2007
- Chessmaster: The Art of Learning - PSP review, IGN, 28 February 2008
- Chessmaster 8000 vs. Fritz 6, Roger McIntyre, Logical Chess
- Chessmaster 9000 vs. Fritz 6, Roger McIntyre, Logical Chess
- Chessmaster 9000 review, IGN, 17 September 2002
- Staff (19 January 1998). "The winners of the 1997 Computer Games Awards". Computer Games Strategy Plus. Archived from the original on 6 February 2005.
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- Flynn, James; Owen, Steve; Pierce, Matthew; Davis, Jonathan; Longhurst, Richard (July 1997). "The PC Gamer Top 100". PC Gamer UK. No. 45. pp. 51–83.
- Staff (April 1997). "Best of the Bunch; Finalists Named for CGW Premier Awards". Computer Gaming World. No. 153. pp. 28, 32.
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- The MS-DOS version of The Fidelity Chessmaster 2100 can be played for free in the browser at the Internet Archive
- Chessmaster XI website
- The Chessmaster 2000 review @ The DOS Spirit (Norwegian)