|Studio album by|
|Released||December 15, 1992|
|Studio||Death Row (Los Angeles, California)|
|Dr. Dre chronology|
|Singles from The Chronic|
The Chronic is the debut studio album by American hip hop producer and rapper Dr. Dre. It was released on December 15, 1992, by his own record label Death Row Records and distributed by Interscope Records. Recording sessions for the album took place in June 1992 at Death Row Studios in Los Angeles and at Bernie Grundman Mastering in Hollywood. The album is named after a slang term for high-grade cannabis, and its cover is an homage to Zig-Zag rolling papers. It was Dr. Dre's first solo album after he had departed from hip hop group N.W.A and its label Ruthless Records over a financial dispute.
On The Chronic, he included both subtle and direct insults at Ruthless and its owner, former N.W.A member Eazy-E. Although a solo album, it features many appearances by then-emerging American rapper Snoop Doggy Dogg, who used the album as a launch pad for his own solo career.
The Chronic peaked at number three on the Billboard 200 and has been certified 3x Platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) with sales of 3 million copies in the United States, which led to Dr. Dre becoming one of the top ten best-selling American performing artists of 1993. The Chronic spent eight months in the Billboard Top 10. The album's three singles became top ten Billboard singles. "Nuthin' but a ‘G’ Thang" peaked at number two on the Billboard Hot 100 and at number one on both the Hot Rap Singles and Hot R&B Singles charts.
Dr. Dre's production has been noted for popularizing the G-funk subgenre within gangsta rap. The Chronic has been widely regarded as one of the most important and influential albums of the 1990s and regarded by many fans and peers to be one of the most well-produced hip hop albums of all time. In 2020, the album was selected by the Library of Congress for preservation in the National Recording Registry for being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".
The production on The Chronic was seen as innovative and ground-breaking, and received universal acclaim from critics. AllMusic commented on Dr. Dre's efforts, "Here, Dre established his patented G-funk sound: fat, blunted Parliament-Funkadelic beats, soulful backing vocals, and live instruments in the rolling basslines and whiny synths" and that "For the next four years, it was virtually impossible to hear mainstream hip-hop that wasn't affected in some way by Dre and his patented G-funk." Unlike other hip hop acts (such as The Bomb Squad) that sampled heavily, Dr. Dre only utilized one or few samples per song. In Rolling Stone's The Immortals – The Greatest Artists of All Time, where Dr. Dre was listed at number 56, Kanye West wrote on the album's production quality: "The Chronic is still the hip-hop equivalent to Stevie Wonder's Songs in the Key of Life. It's the benchmark you measure your album against if you're serious."
Jon Pareles of The New York Times described the production, writing "The bottom register is swampy synthesizer bass lines that openly emulate Parliament-Funkadelic; the upper end is often a lone keyboard line, whistling or blipping incessantly. In between are wide-open spaces that hold just a rhythm guitar, sparse keyboard chords." Pareles observed that the songs "were smoother and simpler than East Coast rap, and [Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg] decisively expanded the hip-hop audience into the suburbs." Until this point, mainstream hip hop had been primarily party music (for example, Beastie Boys) or pro-empowerment and politically charged (for example, Public Enemy or X-Clan), and had consisted almost entirely of samples and breakbeats. Dr. Dre ushered in a new musical style and lyrics for hip hop. The beats were slower and mellower, samples from late 1970s and early 1980s funk music. By mixing these early influences with original live instrumentation, a distinctive genre known as G-funk was created.
The album's lyrics caused some controversy, as the subject matter included sexism and violent representations. It was noted that the album was a "frightening amalgam of inner-city street gangs that includes misogynist sexual politics and violent revenge scenarios". Most of the N.W.A members were addressed on the album; Eazy-E and Ice Cube were dissed on the second single "Fuck Wit Dre Day", while MC Ren however was shouted out on the album's intro. Dr. Dre's dissing of former bandmate, Eazy-E, resulted in vicious lyrics, which were mainly aimed at offending his enemy with homosexual implications, although it was noted to have "a spirited cleverness in the phrasing and rhymes; in other words, the song is offensive, but it's creatively offensive".
Snoop Doggy Dogg, who had a significant role on the album, was praised for his lyrics and flow, and it was mentioned that "Coupled with his inventive rhymes, Snoop's distinctive style made him a superstar before he'd even released a recording of his own" and that his involvement was as important to the album's success as its production. Touré of The New York Times remarks that "While Snoop delivers rhymes delicately, the content is anything but. Growing up poor, often surrounded by violence, and having served six months in the Wayside County jail outside of Los Angeles (for cocaine possession) gave Snoop Dogg experiences upon which he draws." Snoop Dogg later commented on the "reality" of his lyrics, stating "My raps are incidents where either I saw it happen to one of my close homies or I know about it from just being in the ghetto. I can't rap about something I don't know. You'll never hear me rapping about no bachelor's degree. It's only what I know and that's that street life. It's all everyday life, reality."
"Nuthin' but a 'G' Thang" was released as the first single on November 19, 1992. It peaked at number two on the Billboard Hot 100 and number one on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Singles & Tracks and Hot Rap Singles. It sold over a million copies and the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) certified it Platinum on March 24, 1993. The song was nominated for Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group at the 1994 Grammy Awards, but lost to Digable Planets' "Rebirth of Slick (Cool Like Dat)". Steve Huey of AllMusic named it "the archetypal G-funk single" and added "The sound, style, and performances of "Nuthin' but a 'G' Thang" were like nothing else on the early-'90s hip-hop scene." He praised Snoop Dogg's performance, stating "[Snoop Dogg's] flow was laconic and relaxed, massively confident and capable of rapid-fire tongue-twisters, but coolly laid-back and almost effortless at the same time". Today it is one of the most critically and commercially lauded hip-hop/rap songs of all time. It is rated the 134th best song of all time by Acclaimedmusic.net, and the sixth best hip-hop/rap song, and voted in a VH1 poll as the 13th best song of the 1990s.
"Fuck wit Dre Day (and Everybody's Celebratin')" was released as the second single on May 20, 1993 and like the previous single, it was a hit on multiple charts. It reached number eight on the Billboard Hot 100 and number six on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Singles & Tracks. It sold over 500,000 units and the RIAA certified it Gold on October 8, 1993. Allmusic writer Steve Huey stated that the song was "a classic hip-hop single", citing Dr. Dre's production as "impeccable as ever, uniting his signature whiny synth melodies with a halting, descending bass line, a booming snare, and soulful female vocals in the background" and alluded to Snoop Dogg, stating "Attitude was something Snoop had by the boatload, his drawling, laid-back delivery projecting unassailable control – it sounded lazy even though it wasn't, and that helped establish Snoop's don't-give-a-damn persona." The track contains direct insults to rappers East coast rapper Tim Dog, 2 Live Crew member Luke, and Dre's former accomplices Eazy-E & Ice Cube.
"Let Me Ride" was released as a cassette single on September 13, 1993. It experienced moderate success on the charts, reaching number 34 on the Billboard Hot 100 and number three on the Hot Rap Singles. The song won Dr. Dre Best Rap Solo Performance at the 1994 Grammy Awards. On this song and "Nuthin but a "G" Thang", Time magazine noted that Dr. Dre's verses were delivered with a "hypnotically intimidating ease" and made the songs feel like "dusk on a wide-open L.A. boulevard, full of possibility and menace".
|Encyclopedia of Popular Music|||
|Los Angeles Times|||
|The Rolling Stone Album Guide|||
|The Village Voice||C+|
In a contemporary review for Rolling Stone, Havelock Nelson wrote that the album "drops raw realism and pays tribute to hip-hop virtuosity." Entertainment Weekly said that it "storms with rage, strolls with confidence, and reverberates with a social realism that's often ugly and horrifying". The Source claimed that Snoop Dogg's "Slick Rick-esque style" produces "new ground for West Coast MCs" and that the album is "an innovative and progressive hip-hop package that must not be missed." Edna Gundersen of USA Today found "Dre's prowess as beat-master and street preacher" to be "undeniable". Jonathan Gold of the Los Angeles Times wrote that, although the rappers lack "quick wit" and "rhythmic virtuosity", Dre's artistry is "on a par with Phil Spector's or Brian Wilson's." Gold argued that, because Dre recreates rather than samples beats and instrumental work, the finished album's fidelity is not inflected by that of "scratchy R&B records that have been played a million times", unlike productions from East Coast hip hop.
Greg Kot was less enthusiastic in the Chicago Tribune, deeming The Chronic superficial, unrefined entertainment, while writing that "Dre combines street potency with thuggish stupidity in equal measure." Village Voice critic Robert Christgau dismissed it as "sociopathic easy-listening" and "bad pop music" whose innovation—Dre's departure from sampling—is not inspired by contemporary P-Funk, but rather blaxploitation soundtracks, which led him to combine trite bass lines with imitations of "Bernie Worrell's high keyb sustain, a basically irritating sound that in context always signified fantasy, not reality—stoned self-loss or, at a best Dre never approaches, grandiose jive." He felt that the brutal lyrical threats were vague and lacked detail, but that Snoop Dogg rhymed "drolly" and less dully than Dre. Select's Adam Higginbotham opined that The Chronic was not as strong as releases from other gangster rap artists such as Ice Cube and Da Lench Mob and found it neither as "musically sharp, nor as lyrically smart as the latter". His review concluded that the album sounded like "all the pedestrian bits from The Predator", but that it was still better than anything Eazy-E had released.
In a retrospective piece, Jon Pareles from The New York Times said that The Chronic and Snoop Dogg's Doggystyle "made the gangsta life sound like a party occasionally interrupted by gunplay". AllMusic's Steve Huey compared Dr. Dre to his inspiration, George Clinton, stating "Dre's just as effortlessly funky, and he has a better feel for a hook, a knack that improbably landed gangsta rap on the pop charts". Rhapsody writer Brolin Winning named the album as "an untouchable masterpiece of California Gangsta Rap" and that it had "track after track of G-Funk gems". In Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time, it was noted that "Dre funked up the rhymes with a smooth bass-heavy production style and the laid-back delivery of then-unknown rapper Snoop Doggy Dogg." Time magazine's Josh Tyrangiel states that Dr. Dre created "a sound that defined early 90s urban L.A. in the same way that Motown defined 60s Detroit". Laura Sinagra, writing in The Rolling Stone Album Guide (2004), said that The Chronic "features system-busting Funkadelic beats designed to rumble your woofer while the matter-of-fact violence of the lyrics blows your smoke-filled mind".
In 1994, "Nuthin' but a "G" Thang" and "Let Me Ride" were nominated at the 36th Grammy Awards, with the latter winning Best Rap Solo Performance for Dr. Dre. That year, readers of Hip Hop Connection voted it the fourth best album of all time, leading the magazine to speculate, "In a few years' time, it could even be remembered as the best rap album of all time."
The Chronic was included in Vibe magazine's list of the 100 Essential Albums of the 20th Century, and the magazine later included it in their list of the Top 10 Rap Albums of All Time, dubbing it a "decade-defining opus". The record was ranked eighth in Spin magazine's "90 Greatest Albums of the '90s", and in 2005, it was ranked at number thirty-five in their list of the "100 Greatest Albums, 1985–2005". Rolling Stone ranked The Chronic at number 138 on their list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time, and at 37 in their 2020 update. In 2005, MTV Networks listed The Chronic as the third greatest hip hop album in history. The following year, Time magazine named it as one of "The All-Time 100 Albums". In a retrospective issue, XXL magazine awarded The Chronic a perfect "XXL" rating. The Source, who originally gave the album a rating of 4.5 out of 5 mics in 1993, would later include it in their list of the 100 Best Rap Albums; in 2008, the magazine's former editor Reginald Dennis remarked that he "would have given it a five" in retrospect—the magazine's editors had a strict rule forbidding five-mic ratings at the time—and that "no one could have predicted the seismic shift that this album would produce". The Chronic is listed in the book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die.
As of 2015, the album has sold 5.7 million copies in the United States, and was certified Triple Platinum by RIAA on November 3, 1993. It is Dr. Dre's second-bestselling album, as his follow-up album, 2001, was certified sextuple Platinum. The album first appeared on music charts in 1993, peaking on the Billboard 200 at number three, and peaking on Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums at number one. The Chronic spent eight months in the Billboard Top 10. The album's three singles became top ten Billboard singles. "Nuthin' but a "G" Thang" peaked at number two on the Billboard Hot 100 and at number one on both the Hot Rap Singles and Hot R&B Singles charts. "Fuck Wit Dre Day (And Everybody's Celebratin')" became a top ten single on four different charts, including the Hot R&B Singles (number 6) and the Hot 100 (number 8).
The Chronic didn't chart on the UK Albums Chart until 2000, eight years after its original release, and peaked at number 43 in July 2004. It has sold 260,814 copies there. The Chronic re-entered the charts in 2003, peaking on the Ireland Albums Top 75 at number 48, and on the UK Albums Top 75 in 2004 at number 43.
Having split from N.W.A, Dr. Dre's first solo album established him as one of the biggest hip hop stars of his era. Yahoo! Music writer S.L. Duff wrote of the album's impact on his status in hip hop at the time, stating "Dre's considerable reputation is based on this release, alongside his production technique on Snoop's Doggystyle" and his early work with N.W.A. Whatever one thinks of the over-the-top bravado rapping, the tracks and beats Dre assembled are beyond reproach". The Chronic brought G-funk to the mainstream – a genre defined by slow bass beats and melodic synthesizers, topped by P-Funk samples, female vocals, and a laconic, laid-back lyrical delivery referred to as a "lazy drawl". The album takes its name from a slang term for premium grade cannabis, chronic. The album cover is an homage to Zig-Zag rolling papers. Robert Christgau said that, although he "can't stand" it, he respects The Chronic "for its influence and iconicity".
The album launched the careers of West Coast hip hop artists, including Snoop Doggy Dogg, Daz Dillinger, Kurupt, Nate Dogg, and Warren G, Dr. Dre's stepbrother – all of whom pursued successful commercial careers. The Chronic is widely regarded as the album that re-defined West Coast hip hop, demonstrated gangsta rap's commercial potential as a multi-platinum commodity, and established G-funk as the most popular sound in hip hop music for several years after its release, with Dr. Dre producing major albums that drew heavily on his production style. The album's success established Death Row Records as a dominant force in 1990s hip hop. It has been re-released 3 times, first as a remastered CD, then as a remastered DualDisc with enhanced stereo and four videos, and in 2009 as "The Chronic Re-Lit" with a bonus DVD containing a 30-minute interview and 7 unreleased tracks. The singles "Fuck wit Dre Day" and "Nuthin' but a "G" Thang" are in best-selling video game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas on the fictional radio station Radio Los Santos. On April 20, 2020 the album was distributed across all major streaming services, as it had previously been an Apple Music exclusive since 2015.
All songs produced by Dr. Dre.
|1||"The Chronic" (Intro)||Snoop Dogg, Dr. Dre, Colin Wolfe||
|2||"Fuck wit Dre Day (And Everybody's Celebratin')"||Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg, Colin Wolfe||4:52|
|3||"Let Me Ride"||Dr. Dre, RBX, Snoop Dogg||
|4||"The Day the Niggaz Took Over"||Dr. Dre, RBX, Snoop Dogg, Dat Nigga Daz||
|5||"Nuthin' but a 'G' Thang"||Snoop Dogg, D.O.C., Dr. Dre||
|6||"Deeez Nuuuts"||Dr. Dre, Dat Nigga Daz, Snoop Dogg, Colin Wolfe, Nate Dogg||5:06|
|7||"Lil' Ghetto Boy"||Snoop Dogg, D.O.C., Dr. Dre||
|8||"A Nigga Witta Gun"||D.O.C., Snoop Dogg, Dr. Dre||
|9||"Rat-Tat-Tat-Tat"||Dr. Dre, Snoop Dogg||
|10||"The $20 Sack Pyramid" (Skit)||D.O.C., Snoop Dogg, Dr. Dre||
|11||"Lyrical Gangbang"||Kurupt, RBX, The Lady of Rage, Snoop Dogg, Dr. Dre, D.O.C.||4:04|
|12||"High Powered"||Dr. Dre, RBX, Colin Wolfe||
|13||"The Doctor's Office" (Skit)||Dr. Dre, Kevin Lewis, Jewell, The Lady of Rage||
|14||"Stranded on Death Row"||Kurupt, RBX, The Lady of Rage, Snoop Dogg||
|15||"The Roach" (The Chronic Outro)||RBX, The Lady of Rage, Dat Nigga Daz||
|16||"Bitches Ain't Shit"||Dr. Dre, Colin Wolfe, Snoop Dogg, The D.O.C., Kurupt, Dat Nigga Daz||
|1.||"The Chronic" (In Enhanced Stereo)||62:04|
|2.||"Nuthin' But A 'G' Thang" (Original Music Video)||4:47|
|3.||"Let Me Ride" (Original Music Video)||6:54|
|4.||"Dre Day" (Original Music Video)||6:15|
|5.||"Lil' Ghetto Boy" (Original Music Video)||5:04|
|17.||"Dre Day" (Original Music Video)||6:15|
|1.||"Dre Day" (Original Music Video)||6:15|
|2.||"Dre Day" (Censored Music Video)||6:14|
|3.||"Let Me Ride" (Original Music Video)||6:54|
|4.||"Let Me Ride" (TV Version Music Video)||4:24|
|5.||"Nuthin' But A 'G' Thang" (Original Music Video)||4:47|
|6.||"Nuthin' But A 'G' Thang" (Unrated Music Video)||4:48|
|7.||"Lil' Ghetto Boy" (Original Music Video)||5:04|
|8.||"Dr. Dre Interview"||30:22|
|9.||"The Robbery" (Featurette)||6:34|
|10.||"'The Chronic' Promo #1"||0:36|
|11.||"'The Chronic' Promo #2"||0:36|
|12.||"'The Chronic' Promo #3"||0:36|
|13.||"'The Chronic' Promo #4"||0:36|
|14.||"'The Chronic' Promo #5"||0:36|
|15.||"'The Chronic' Commercial #1"||0:36|
|16.||"'The Chronic' Commercial #2"||0:36|
|17.||"'The Chronic' Commercial #3"||0:36|
|18.||"'The Chronic' Commercial #4"||0:36|
|19.||"Dr. Dre in Saigon, CA" (Featurette)||4:24|
|20.||"Poor Young Dave" (Audio) (performed by Snoop Dogg)||2:54|
|21.||"Slippin' In The West" (Audio) (performed by CPO and Kurupt)||5:06|
|22.||"Smoke Enough Bud" (Audio) (performed by Jewell and Snoop Dogg)||5:26|
|23.||"Foo Nay Mic" (Audio) (performed by CPO)||4:24|
|24.||"Dogg Collar" (Audio) (performed by Snoop Dogg, Lady V, KV, Big Pimpin', 6'9°, Twin and Badass)||5:04|
|25.||"Touchdown" (Audio) (performed by Snoop Dogg and Threat)||4:26|
|26.||"Would You Ride" (Audio) (performed by Kurupt, Amber, Tyrone, Daz and Snoop Dogg)||6:29|
- "The Hoe Hopper" (featuring Snoop Doggy Dogg), recorded during the Chronic sessions but cut from the final album.
- "Rat-Tat-Tat-Tat (Original)," an alternate version to the one that was released in the album. The original instrumental was later used in Warren G's "And Ya Don't Stop" on his Regulate...G Funk Era album.
- "Mr. Officer" (featuring RBX and Prince Ital Joe), the original version of "The Day the Niggaz Took Over". A song named "Mr. Officer" by Michel'le was included in Suge Knight Represents: Chronic 2000. In 2016, the original song was leaked.
- "One Eight Seven" (featuring Snoop Doggy Dogg), a remix of "Deep Cover" with different lyrics and a slightly altered beat, originally intended for The Chronic but was cut because of the "Cop Killer" controversy, and found its way as a B-side on the "Dre Day" single.
- "Poor Young Dave" (featuring Snoop Doggy Dogg), released in 2009 on Chronic Re-Lit and From the Vault.
- "Die Muthafucka Die," a Dr. Dre solo track, later remixed for Suge Knight Represents: Chronic 2000, featuring Top Dogg, the remix was leaked in 2016.
- "Smoke On," a Snoop Doggy Dogg solo track, later included in The Chronic Re-Lit and From the Vault.
- "OG to BG" (featuring Snoop Doggy Dogg), a remixed version with Soopafly appeared in Suge Knight Represents: Chronic 2000. The original song was leaked in 2016.
- Dr. Dre – vocals, synthesizers, producer, drum programming, mixing
- Snoop Doggy Dogg – vocals, co writer
- Lady of Rage – vocals
- Warren G – vocals ,co producer drum programing ,composer
- The D.O.C. – co-writer,vocals
- RBX – vocals,composer
- Nate Dogg – vocals , composer
- Dat Nigga Daz – vocals, drum programming,composer
- Kurupt – vocals ,composer
- Jewell - vocals
- Colin Wolfe – bass guitar, bass keyboard, co-writer
- Justin Reinhardt – keyboards
- Katisse Buckingham – flute, saxophone
- Eric "The Drunk" Borders – guitar
- Chris Clairmont – guitar
- Bernie Grundman - mastering
- Greg "Gregski" Royal – mixing
- Chris "The Glove" Taylor – mixing
- Willie Will – mixing
- Ben Butler – producer
- Suge Knight – executive producer
|Australian Albums (ARIA)||91|
|German Albums (Offizielle Top 100)||32|
|Irish Albums (IRMA)||48|
|Swedish Albums (Sverigetopplistan)||35|
|UK Albums (OCC)||43|
|UK R&B Albums (OCC)||11|
|US Billboard 200||3|
|US Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums (Billboard)||1|
|US Billboard 200||6|
|US Top R&B/Hip Hop Albums (Billboard)||2|
|United Kingdom (BPI)||Gold||260,814|
|United States (RIAA)||3× Platinum||5,700,000|
^shipments figures based on certification alone
- "The Chronic - Dr. Dre - Songs, Reviews, Credits - AllMusic". AllMusic. Archived from the original on December 21, 2017. Retrieved May 6, 2018.
- "Nuthin' but a "G" Thang - Dr. Dre | Songs, Reviews, Credits".
- Smith, Chris (2009). 101 Albums That Changed Popular Music. Oxford University Press. p. 221. ISBN 9780195373714.
- Caulfield, Keith (July 10, 2015). "Billboard 200 Chart Moves: Dr. Dre's 'Chronic' Returns After Over 20 Years". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Archived from the original on July 12, 2015. Retrieved July 11, 2015.
- "Gold & Platinum Searchable Database - December 26, 2013". RIAA. Archived from the original on August 30, 2014. Retrieved June 26, 2014.
- Stephen Holden (January 12, 1994). The Pop Life Archived February 5, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. The New York Times. Accessed March 24, 2008.
- Williams, Justin A. (2012). "Dr. Dre [Young, Andre Romelle]". The Grove Dictionary of American Music, 2nd Edition. Retrieved February 16, 2016.
- Billboard Singles: The Chronic. Allmusic. Retrieved on 2009-08-12.
- Dr. Dre The Chronic Album Info Archived April 8, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. RapCentral. Accessed March 5, 2008.
- Huey, Steve. "The Chronic – Dr. Dre". AllMusic. Archived from the original on November 7, 2015. Retrieved August 12, 2009.
- Timeline: 25 years of rap records Archived March 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine BBC News (October 11, 2004). Accessed April 8, 2008.
- "National Recording Registry Class Produces Ultimate 'Stay at Home' Playlist". Library of Congress. March 25, 2020. Retrieved March 25, 2020.
- Stephen Thomas Erlewine. Dr. Dre > Biography. Allmusic. Accessed March 5, 2008.
- Ethan Brown, (2005). Straight Outta Hollis, Queens Reigns Supreme: Fat Cat, 50 Cent, and the Rise of the Hip Hop Hustler. Anchor. ISBN 1-4000-9523-9. "[Unlike] popular hip-hop producers like the Bomb Squad, Dre instead utilized a single sample to drive a song."
- Kanye West (April 7, 2005). The Immortals – The Greatest Artists of All Time. Rolling Stone. Accessed March 9, 2008. Archived March 16, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- Jon Pareles (November 14, 1999). Music; Still Tough, Still Authentic. Still Relevant?. The New York Times. Accessed March 18, 2008.
- Jon Pareles (July 11, 2000). Rap Review; Four Hours Of Swagger From Dr. Dre And Friends. The New York Times. Accessed March 18, 2008.
- Stephen Thomas Erlewine. Beastie Boys > Biography. Allmusic. Accessed April 6, 2008.
- Stephen Thomas Erlewine. Public Enemy > Biography. Allmusic. Accessed April 6, 2008.
- Andy Kellman. X Clan Biography. Allmusic. Accessed April 6, 2008.
- Nelson, Havelock (March 18, 1993). "The Chronic". Rolling Stone. New York. Archived from the original on June 21, 2008. Retrieved September 8, 2012.
- Steve Huey. "Fuck Wit Dre Day" Review. Allmusic. Accessed March 6, 2008.
- Steve Huey. "Nuthin' But a "G" Thang" Review. Allmusic. Accessed March 6, 2008.
- Stephen Thomas Erlewine. Snoop Dogg > Biography. Allmusic. Accessed March 7, 2008.
- Touré (November 21, 1993). Pop Music; Snoop Dogg's Gentle Hip-Hop Growl Archived January 17, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. The New York Times. Accessed March 18, 2008.
- The Chronic – Billboard Singles. Allmusic. Accessed March 6, 2008.
- RIAA Searchable database – Dr. Dre Singles Archived October 17, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. RIAA. Accessed March 7, 2008.
- Dr. Dre Timeline Archived December 14, 2005, at the Wayback Machine. Rock on the Net. Accessed March 22, 2008.
- "Acclaimed Music". Acclaimed Music. Archived from the original on March 8, 2017. Retrieved June 26, 2014.
- "The Greatest | Show Cast, Episodes, Guides, Trailers, Web Exclusives, Previews". VH1.com. Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved September 28, 2011.
- Dr. Dre | Let Me Ride (Dirty Cassette Single) | Album Archived January 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. MTV. Accessed April 7, 2008.
- Grammy Searchable database – Dr. Dre Archived June 20, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. Grammy. Accessed March 4, 2008.
- Tyrangiel, Josh (November 13, 2006). "The All-Time 100 Albums: The Chronic". Time. New York. Archived from the original on October 21, 2011. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
- Pappademas, Alex. "Dr. Dre: The Chronic". Blender. New York. Archived from the original on September 2, 2009. Retrieved August 12, 2009.
- Larkin, Colin (2011). "Dr. Dre". The Encyclopedia of Popular Music (5th concise ed.). Omnibus Press. p. 2006. ISBN 978-0-85712-595-8.
- "Dr. Dre: The Chronic". Entertainment Weekly. New York: 54. January 8, 1993.
- Gold, Jonathan (December 27, 1992). "The Rap's Flat, But Ya Can't Beat the Beat". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on August 14, 2009. Retrieved August 12, 2009.
- Pearce, Sheldon (December 15, 2019). "Dr. Dre: The Chronic". Pitchfork. Retrieved December 15, 2019.
- Sinagra, Laura (2004). "Dr. Dre". In Brackett, Nathan; Hoard, Christian (eds.). The New Rolling Stone Album Guide (4th ed.). Simon & Schuster. p. 249. ISBN 0-7432-0169-8. Retrieved September 8, 2012.
- Gundersen, Edna (March 2, 1993). "Jesus Jones shows 'Perverse' grace". USA Today. McLean. p. 04.D. Archived from the original on February 10, 2013. Retrieved August 12, 2009.
- Christgau, Robert (March 1, 1994). "Consumer Guide". The Village Voice. New York. Archived from the original on December 14, 2012. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- The Mind Squad (Matty C) (February 1993). "Dr. Dre: The Chronic". The Source. New York (41): 55. Archived from the original on July 4, 2010.
- Kot, Greg (January 14, 1993). "Dr. Dre: The Chronic (Interscope)". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on April 17, 2013. Retrieved April 15, 2013.
- Christgau, Robert (July 12, 1994). "Methods of Escape: Ahmad and Warren G." The Village Voice. New York. Archived from the original on August 16, 2013. Retrieved July 5, 2013.
- Christgau, Robert (November 23, 1993). "Turkey Shoot". The Village Voice. New York. Archived from the original on August 15, 2013. Retrieved July 5, 2013.
- Higginbotham, Adam (April 1993). "Dr. Dre: The Chronic". Select. London (34): 74.
- Winning, Brolin. "About Dr. Dre". Rhapsody. Archived from the original on November 6, 2009. Retrieved March 9, 2008.
- "500 Greatest Albums of All Time — 138: Dr. Dre, 'The Chronic'". Rolling Stone. New York. May 31, 2012. Archived from the original on October 22, 2012. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
- Hip Hop Connection. London. July 1994.CS1 maint: untitled periodical (link)
- Group, Vibe Media (December 1999). "The Vibe 100". Vibe. New York. 7 (10): 164. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- Group, Vibe Media (June 2002). "Perfect 10". Vibe. New York. 10 (6): 108–09. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- Smith, RJ (September 1999). "Dr. Dre: The Chronic". Spin. New York. 15 (9): 122. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- Ganz, Caryn (July 2005). "Dr. Dre: The Chronic". Spin. New York. 21 (7): 81. Retrieved April 7, 2017.
- "The Greatest Hip-Hop Albums Of All Time: Dr. Dre – The Chronic". MTV Networks. Archived from the original on May 1, 2008. Retrieved March 4, 2008.
- "Dr. Dre: The Chronic". XXL. New York. December 2007.
- J-23 (May 27, 2008). "Death Of a Dynasty". HipHopDX. Archived from the original on June 1, 2008. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
- Dimery, Robert, ed. (2010). 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die: Revised and Updated Edition. Universe. ISBN 978-0-7893-2074-2.
- RIAA Searchable database – The Chronic Archived October 17, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. RIAA. Accessed March 4, 2008.
- RIAA Searchable database – 2001 Archived October 17, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. RIAA. Accessed March 4, 2008.
- Dr. Dre – Discography, Charts and Awards. Allmusic. Accessed March 4, 2008.
- Jones, Alan (August 14, 2015). "Official Charts Analysis: Dr. Dre tops UK Albums Chart with non-physical release". Music Week. Intent Media. Archived from the original on August 19, 2017. Retrieved November 7, 2015.
- Dr. Dre – The Chronic Chart Positions Archived March 5, 2008, at Wikiwix. aCharts. Accessed March 4, 2008.
- Duff, S.L. "Dr. Dre Reviews". Yahoo! Music. Yahoo!. Archived from the original on September 8, 2012. Retrieved September 8, 2012.
- Christgau, Robert (June 11, 2008). "The Great Lil Wayne Debate". Blender. Archived from the original on February 14, 2013. Retrieved July 5, 2013.
- GTA: San Andreas toasts success Archived January 5, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. BBC News (November 4, 2005). Accessed March 28, 2008.
- Jonathan Sidener (September 25, 2007). Microsoft pins Xbox 360 hopes on 'Halo 3' sales. SignOnSanDiego. Accessed March 28, 2008. Archived May 22, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- Spence D. (October 27, 2004). Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas – Radio Los Santos Archived March 12, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. IGN. Accessed March 28, 2008.
- "Dr Dre's 'The Chronic' is finally coming to Spotify". Time Out Worldwide. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
- The Chronic: Credits Archived March 10, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. RapBasement.com. Retrieved on 2009-04-16.
- "Images for Dr. Dre - The Chronic". www.discogs.com. Retrieved May 6, 2018.
- "Dr. Dre - The Chronic". Discogs. Archived from the original on January 25, 2015. Retrieved May 6, 2018.
- "Dr. Dre - The Chronic Re-Lit & From The Vault". Discogs. Archived from the original on October 11, 2016. Retrieved May 6, 2018.
- Ryan, Gavin (September 12, 2015). "ARIA Albums: Troye Sivan 'Wild' EP Debuts At No 1". Noise11. Archived from the original on September 12, 2015. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- "Longplay-Chartverfolgung at Musicline" (in German). Musicline.de. Phononet GmbH.
- "Swedishcharts.com – Dr. Dre – The Chronic". Hung Medien. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
- "Official Albums Chart Top 100". Official Charts Company. Retrieved May 18, 2015.
- "Official R&B Albums Chart Top 40". Official Charts Company.
- "Dr. Dre Chart History (Billboard 200)". Billboard. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- "Dr. Dre Chart History (Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums)". Billboard. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- "Billboard 200 albums year end 1993". Billboard.
- "Billboard Top R&B/Hip Hop Albums year end 1993". Billboard. Archived from the original on December 11, 2007. Retrieved September 8, 2009.
- "Dutch album certifications – Dr. Dre – Chronic" (in Dutch). Nederlandse Vereniging van Producenten en Importeurs van beeld- en geluidsdragers. Retrieved February 18, 2020. Enter Chronic in the "Artiest of titel" box.
- "British album certifications – Dr. Dre – The Chronic". British Phonographic Industry. Select albums in the Format field. Select Gold in the Certification field. Type The Chronic in the "Search BPI Awards" field and then press Enter.
- "American album certifications – Dr. Dre – The Chronic". Recording Industry Association of America. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Album, then click SEARCH.
- Nathan Brackett, Christian Hoard (2004). The New Rolling Stone Album Guide. Completely Revised and Updated 4th Edition. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-0169-8.
- The Chronic at Discogs
- Parents' Weekend with Dr. Dre: The Chronic at The Yale Herald
- The Chronic Stream