The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina

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This article is about The Military College in South Carolina. For other uses, see The Citadel (disambiguation).
The Citadel
The Military College of South Carolina
The Citadel seal.png
Type Senior Military College
Established 1842
Endowment $254.3 million (2015)[1]
President LtGen John W. Rosa USAF, ret.
Provost BGen Connie L. Book SCM
Commandant CAPT Eugene F. Paluso USN, ret.
Academic staff
225
Students 3,506[2]
Undergraduates 2,250 cadets, 380 active duty military, veterans and part time civilian
Postgraduates 1200
Location Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.
32°47′50″N 79°57′40″W / 32.79722°N 79.96111°W / 32.79722; -79.96111Coordinates: 32°47′50″N 79°57′40″W / 32.79722°N 79.96111°W / 32.79722; -79.96111
Campus Urban, 300 acres (121 ha)
Colors Citadel Blue and White[3]
         
Athletics NCAA Division ISouthern Conference
Nickname Bulldogs
Mascot Spike
Live Mascots: General 2 & Boo X
Affiliations AASCU
Website www.citadel.edu
The Citadel wordmark.png

The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina, commonly referred to simply as The Citadel, is a state-supported, comprehensive college located in Charleston, South Carolina, United States. Established in 1842, it is one of six Senior Military Colleges in the United States. It has 17 academic departments divided into five schools offering 19 majors and 36 minors. The core program consists of military cadets pursuing bachelor's degrees who are required to live on campus. Non-cadet civilian programs are offered with 24 evening graduate programs, 7 non-cadet undergraduate degree programs, and both graduate and undergraduate online distance learning degree programs.[4][5]

College overview[edit]

The Corps of Cadets numbers 2,300 and approximately 1,200 students make up the The Citadel Graduate College which offers masters programs and evening civilian undergraduate programs both on campus and online. Women comprise 8% of the Corps and minorities 15%. Approximately half of The Citadel's cadet enrollment is from the state of South Carolina, cadets come from 45 states and 15 foreign countries.[2][6] South Carolina residents receive a discount in tuition, as is common at state-sponsored schools. The Citadel receives 8% of its operating budget from the state.[7] In 2016 the schools ROTC program commissioned 151 officers, more than any other Senior Military College and ranking only behind the service academies.
The Citadel military program combines academics, physical challenges and military discipline. The South Carolina Corps of Cadets is one of the largest uniformed student bodies in the United States and all members of the corps of cadets are required to participate in ROTC; The academic program is divided into five schools – Engineering, Science and Mathematics, Humanities and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Education; Bachelor's degrees are offered in 19 major programs of study and 36 minors. The Citadel Graduate College offers 29 master's degrees and 21 graduate certificates along with 2 educational specialist courses; a 2+2 evening program allows the pursuit of undergraduate bachelor's degrees in 8 subjects and online degrees in 2 subjects. Online master's degrees are offered in Engineering Management, Leadership, and other fields. 94% of the faculty hold doctoral degrees and the majority are full-time professors; the ratio of cadets to faculty is 13–1 and the average class size is 20.[8]

All students, both cadets and civilian students, are eligible to compete on The Citadel's athletic teams. While all programs make use of the Citadel campus and professors, only cadets live on campus.[9][10] The veterans program, reinstated in the fall of 2007, allows veterans to attend classes with cadets and complete their degrees if certain criteria are met.[11] Enlisted members from the Marine Corps and Navy also attend cadet classes as part of a program to commission highly qualified NCOs.[12]

History[edit]

The Citadel presidents
Captain William F. Graham, USA 1843–1844
Major Richard W. Colcock, USA 1844–1852
Major Francis W. Capers, CSA 1852–1859
Major Peter F. Stevens, SCM 1859–1861
Major James B. White, SCM 1861–1865
Colonel John P. Thomas, CSA 1882–1885
BrigGen George D. Johnston, CSA 1885–1890
Colonel Asbury Coward, CSA 1890–1908
Colonel Oliver J. Bond, SCM 1908–1931
General Charles P. Summerall, USA 1931–1953
Colonel Louis S. LeTellier, SCM 1953–1954 (Interim)
General Mark W. Clark, USA 1954–1965
General Hugh P. Harris, USA 1965–1970
MajGen James A. Duckett, SCM '32 1970–1974
LtGen George M. Seignious, USA '42 1974–1979
MajGen Wallace Anderson, SCM 1979 (Interim)
VADM James B. Stockdale, USN 1979–1980
MajGen James Grimsley, Jr., USA '42 1980–1989
LtGen Cladius E. Watts, USAF '58 1989–1996
BrigGen Roger C. Poole, USAR '59 1996–1997 (Interim)
MajGen John S. Grinalds, USMC 1997–2005
BrigGen Roger C. Poole, USAR '59 2005–2006 (Interim)
LtGen John W. Rosa, Jr., USAF '73 2006–present

The Citadel traces its origins to a series of arsenals constructed by the state of South Carolina in the 1820s; founded by an act of the state legislature in 1842 as the South Carolina Military Academy it originally consisted of the Citadel Academy in Charleston and the Arsenal Academy in Columbia. The Arsenal was burned by General Sherman's forces during the American Civil War and never reopened. The Citadel Academy was occupied by Union troops in 1865 and reopened as an educational institution in 1882. During the Civil War, the SCMA Corps of Cadets was organized into a military unit known as the Battalion of State Cadets which took part in nine engagements. In January 1861, Citadel Academy cadets manning a battery on Morris Island fired the first shots of the conflict when they shelled the Union steamship Star of the West which was attempting to resupply Fort Sumter. In December 1864, the cadet battalion made up more than a third of a Confederate force that defended a strategic rail line during the Battle of Tulifinny, the only occasion when the entire student body of a U.S. college fought in combat.

In 1922, the school moved from its original location on Marion Square in downtown Charleston to a new campus on the banks of the Ashley River on the northwest side of the city. The Citadel has grown steadily from an enrollment of 460 to its present 3,500. During World War II, The Citadel had the highest percentage of any American college student body serving in the military and all but 46 of its living graduates were members of the armed forces.[13] Alumni served as members of the Flying Tigers and Doolittle Raiders; 280 died in the service of their country. The first black cadet enrolled in 1966 and women were admitted in 1996. A graduate program was started in 1968. A major capital improvement campaign started in 1989 saw the replacement or extensive renovation of a majority of the buildings on campus, academic offerings have been continuously expanded to offer in demand courses and degrees in fields such as Mechanical Engineering, Computer Science, Cybersecurity and Criminal Justice; beginning in 2017 a Bachelors program in Nursing will be offered.[14] Citadel cadets and alumni have served in every United States military action from the Mexican War to the current Global War on Terrorism.

Academics[edit]

Rankings[edit]

In 2015 for the fifth consecutive year, U.S. News & World Report ranked The Citadel highest among public institutions in the "Regional Universities – South" category and third out of all 94 universities (public and private) in the same category,[15][16] defined as those institutions offering "a full range of undergrad programs and some master's programs". In 2015 U.S. News & World Report also ranked The Citadel as the third best value among institutions in the "Regional Universities – South" category. In 2005 Newsweek named The Citadel as one of America's "hottest colleges".[17]

In 2010, The Citadel ranked first nationally in graduation rate for public colleges with matriculents having a median SAT of 1100 and currently ranks 25th out of all US public colleges in 4 year graduation rate.[18] As of 2012, the four-year graduation rate is 63% compared to a national average of 30%;[19] the six-year rate is 72%.[20] Additionally, the class of 2012 had an average SAT score of 1102, which was the second-highest average SAT score in school history.[21]

Schools[edit]

During the 2002–03 academic year, The Citadel reorganized its existing Departments into five schools, each headed by a Dean. The schools comprise Business; Education; Engineering; Humanities and Social Sciences; and Science and Mathematics.[22]

School Departments Undergraduate
Majors
Undergraduate
Minors
Graduate
degrees
Graduate
certificates
School of Business 1 1 1 1 0
Zucker Family School of Education 1 1 0 10 2
School of Engineering 4 4 1 4 13
School of Science and Mathematics 5 12 13 9 3
School of Humanities and Social Sciences 6 10 19 5 3

Business[edit]

The School of Business offers undergraduate and graduate degrees in Business Administration. Accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business since 1996, more cadets major in Business Administration than any other major. The MBA program is also the largest of The Citadel's graduate programs. The school will relocate to a new building to be constructed south of campus beginning in 2017. The building will be named for Rick and Mary Lee Bastin.[23]

Education[edit]

The Zucker Family School of Education houses undergraduate and graduate education programs in several specialties. On November 11, 2014, The Citadel named its School of Education for the Zucker Family, after Anita Zucker made a $4 million donation to the school for its education programs.[24] The school is currently located in Capers Hall, but will relocate to Bond Hall upon the completion of Bastin Hall.[23]

Engineering[edit]

The School of Engineering, which claims to be the fifth oldest such program in the nation, has long offered undergraduate degrees in Civil and Electrical Engineering. In 2014, the school added a Bachelor of Science in mechanical engineering program and added 13 additional degree and certificate programs in 2015, including master's degrees in Civil, Electrical, and Mechanical Engineering. The school is located in Letellier Hall (Civil and Mechanical Engineering) and Grimsley Hall (Electrical Engineering).[25][26] U.S. News & World Report ranked The Citadel's School of Engineering 22nd among all undergraduate engineering programs without doctoral degrees in the United States in 2015, the fifth straight year that the school has been in the Top 25.[15][16]

Humanities and Social Sciences[edit]

The School of Humanities and Social Sciences consists of six departments: Criminal Justice, English, History, Modern Languages, Political Science, and Psychology. The school offers six majors (with multiple concentrations) and 19 minors, and awards more than 50% of the credit hours earned at The Citadel. For graduate work, the school offers five degree programs and three certificates, including cyber security and intelligence analysis. These programs resulted in the school being named a National Center of Academic Excellence in Cyber Defense by the National Security Agency.[27] The school is located in Capers Hall, which will soon be rebuilt and modernized.[23]

Science and Mathematics[edit]

The School of Science and Mathematics is composed of the Departments of Biology, Chemistry, Health, Exercise, and Sport Science, Mathematics and Computer Science, and Physics. The school, along with the Zucker Family School of Education and the School of Engineering, sponsor the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) Center of Excellence, which hosts a variety of events throughout the year, including the annual Storm The Citadel week featuring a trebuchet competition.[28]

Academic programs[edit]

In addition to the centerpiece Corps of Cadets residential day military program, The Citadel offers several degree options to non-cadets, including but not limited to targeting active duty military, veterans, as well as civilians in both classroom and online settings.[29]

Corps of Cadets[edit]

The flagship program serves the South Carolina Corps of Cadets, a residential, full-time day program in a military environment. Focusing on educating the "whole person," membership in the Corps of Cadets is for students pursuing undergraduate degrees.[6]

Graduate College[edit]

The Citadel offers evening programs under the banner of The Citadel Graduate College (CGC), serving the Lowcountry by offering regionally and professionally accredited bachelor's, master's and specialist degrees as well as certificate programs scheduled around the student's profession, family and lifestyle. CGC offers 19 graduate programs with concentrations in education, psychology, computer science and business.[note 1] The Masters of Business Administration program is nationally accredited, CGC also offers undergraduate evening programs in business and engineering. Some programs are offered through the Lowcountry Graduate Center consortium in North Charleston, South Carolina.

Evening Undergraduate Studies[edit]

Undergraduate programs offered through CGC are housed within the Evening Undergraduate Studies program. These programs include 2+2 programs, allowing students with associates degrees from a South Carolina technical college to complete their undergraduate work in seven majors, including business, engineering (civil, electrical, or mechanical), criminal justice, political science, and social studies education.[30]

Enlisted Commissioning Programs[edit]

The Citadel is home to Enlisted Commissioning Programs for the Navy and Marine Corps.[31] The first Marine Enlisted Commissioning Education Program (MECEP) in the nation was established at The Citadel in 1973. Navy enlisted members attend as part of the Seaman to Admiral (STA-21) Program. Participants in these programs attend day classes with cadets in their service uniform, including ROTC, but are not required to live on campus.[32]

Leadership training[edit]

ROTC[edit]

All cadets are required to undergo four years of ROTC training in one of the four branches of the armed services, but they are not required to enter military service after graduation. Approximately 30% of Citadel Cadets are commissioned upon graduation.

U.S. Coast Guard Auxiliary University Program[edit]

In addition to their required ROTC course, cadets interested in pursuing a career with the United States Coast Guard can join The Citadel's Coast Guard Auxiliary Unit Program (AUP). Originally established as The Citadel Coast Guard Society in 2007 and officially designated as Coast Guard Auxiliary Flotilla 12-8a Citadel Detachment in 2008, The Citadel's Auxiliary Unit Program is one of the first Coast Guard Auxiliary University Programs in the nation. The purpose of the unit is to orient and educate cadets on service options within the United States Coast Guard, to include Direct Commissions, Officer Candidate School (OCS), active duty and reserve enlistments, and continued service with the auxiliary.[33][34]

Krause Center for Leadership and Ethics[edit]

Established with a gift from L. William Krause '64, the Krause Center for Leadership and Ethics offers symposiums, classes and training seminars to help instill the principles of leadership, ethics, morals and service. A minor in leadership studies is also sponsored through this program. Training is conducted each year for freshmen and sophomores on honor and ethics. Leadership classes are also given to cadets in the senior chain of command. The institute also sponsors programs that offer cadets an opportunity to perform community service and instill a sense of commitment to one's fellow man.[35]

Cadet Officer Leadership School[edit]

Selected members of Air Force JROTC units from the Southeastern United States cadets are eligible to spend a week at The Citadel for officer training for their home JROTC units. A routine day attending Cadet Officer Leadership School (COLS) begins with waking up to Reveille for morning PT, the remainder of the day is uniform wear and inspection, two classes and constant regulation drill. On the day of graduation from the school, cadets participate in a "pass in review" ceremony where awards and decorations are given to certain cadets who have gone above the normal standards. A PT ribbon and a Leadership School ribbon are given to all cadets who graduate from COLS back at their home unit.[citation needed]

Cadet life[edit]

Undergraduate students desiring to join the South Carolina Corps of Cadets must meet physical fitness and SAT/ACT testing standards for acceptance.[36] On occasion, waivers to height/weight standards can be granted upon successful completion of the physical training test. On most days, cadets have both morning and afternoon physical (fitness) training, called "PT", military instruction on leadership, weapons, drill, and discipline, in addition to their regular college classes.

Most weekdays start with a formal muster and inspection of all personnel and their rooms. Cadets then march to structured military meals. After a day spent in classes, sports, intramurals and other activities, the day usually ends with an evening muster formation and mandatory evening study period during which there is enforced quiet time and all cadets are required to be in the barracks, library or academic buildings. Cadets are restricted to campus during the week, but are allowed general leave on weekends and have limited but gradually escalating privileges for weekend and overnight passes.[citation needed]

Because The Citadel corps of cadets program emphasizes corps unity and discipline, cadets may not be married and must live on campus in the barracks with their assigned company. The Citadel emphasizes an extremely strict disciplinary and physical fitness indoctrination for fourth-class cadets, who are called knobs because of the shaved heads of the males,[37]:93 which they must maintain until the end of their first year when they are then recognized as upperclassmen.

Cadets who accumulate too many demerits or breach regulations can be punished by serving confinements or tours. A tour is one hour spent marching in the barracks with a rifle at shoulder arms and is normally performed when a cadet would otherwise be permitted to leave campus. A confinement is one hour spent in a cadet's room when they would normally be permitted to leave campus.

Citadel Cadet Class Ring. The non-cadet ring is not shown

First class cadets, those in their senior year, receive their class rings at a special ring presentation ceremony, which was previously held in the college's chapel, but which now takes place in the school's field house. The Citadel ring is 10 karat gold with no gem stone. The design is common to all cadets/non-cadets and the design does not change with each class, with the exception of the class year. Students not enrolled in the corps of cadets may receive a ring which is the same size, and similar design but does not say "Military College of South Carolina."[37]:188–20[38]

One of the core values of The Citadel is a Honor Code that mandates that all cadets and students not lie, cheat, steal or tolerate those who do. A cadet-run Honor Court investigates all alleged violations and conducts trials; expulsion may be a penalty when found guilty, but cadets may also be given leniency and are then required to keep an honor journal and undergo a "get-well" plan to remain at the school.

Included in The Citadel Graduate College are active duty Marine Corps and Navy enlisted personnel attending The Citadel under the Seaman To Admiral program (STA-21) and the Marine Enlisted Commissioning Education Program (MECEP), which originated at The Citadel in 1973.[39]

The Regimental Band and Pipes[edit]

Established in 1909, the Regimental Band is one of the twenty-one companies that comprise the current Corps and is a prominent feature at every formal parade. Prospective members must pass an audition. None of the band's members are music majors, as The Citadel does not offer such a major, yet the band and pipes enjoy an international reputation. The Band and Pipes made their inaugural appearance at the Edinburgh Military Tattoo in 1991 and were the only group from the United States to perform that year. Selected again by the Director of the Royal Edinburgh Military Tattoo in Scotland to represent the United States at the 2010 Silver Jubilee Tattoo, The Citadel Regimental Band and Pipes performed their own seven-minute segment of the Jubilee program in August, 2010 as well as performing as part of the massed pipes and massed bands. Selected for a third time to represent the United States at the 2015 Tattoo, the Regimental Band performed the opening fanfare for the Tattoo's theme "East meets West" as well as the massed bands finale. Combined with the Citadel pipe band, their own seven-minute segment of the show featured musical numbers reflecting a wide variety of uniquely American music.[40]

The Citadel Pipe Band, established by General Mark W. Clark in 1955, is one of the few college bagpipe bands in the country[41] and it performs at the weekly parade at The Citadel, as well as at numerous other public events. The Citadel Regimental Band participated in the Presidential Inaugural parade in 1953, and again combined with the pipe band in the 1961 and 1985 Presidential Inaugural parades.

In the summer of 2013 the Band and Pipes performed as the United States representative at the week-long Royal Nova Scotia International Tattoo in Halifax, Canada.[42][43]

The Summerall Guards performing the Citadel Series.

Summerall Guards[edit]

Main article: The Summerall Guards

The Summerall Guards is a silent drill team consisting of 61 cadets chosen each spring from the junior class. Founded in 1932, the team performs a routine called The Citadel Series that has changed very little from its inception and has never been written down. The Guards have performed at numerous high profile events around the United States, including three presidential inaugurations, the National Cherry Blossom Festival, Mardi Gras in New Orleans and at several NFL games.[44]

Honors Program[edit]

An Honors Program is available for cadets with exceptional academic standing and includes a core curriculum of honors courses conducted by the most highly rated faculty members, small seminars and classes are conducted in a discussion type forum that encourages intellectual advancement. The program also assists the most highly qualified cadets in applying for scholarships, grants and merit based internships; since 1992 The Citadel has produced 14 Fulbright Scholars and three Truman Scholars.[45]

Each year cadets participate in study abroad programs in numerous foreign countries, an internship program in Washington, D.C. allows cadets an opportunity to work at various government agencies and in the offices of congressmen and senators. Summer internship programs are available in many cities with major United States corporations.[46]

Athletics[edit]

Main article: The Citadel Bulldogs

The Citadel competes in NCAA Division I and has been a member of the Southern Conference since 1936; the school mascot is the Bulldog. Men's intercollegiate sports are football, basketball, baseball, wrestling, cross country, indoor and outdoor track, rifle, tennis and golf; women's sports are volleyball, soccer, cross country, indoor and outdoor track, rifle and golf. Numerous club sports include lacrosse, rugby, pistol, sailing, crew, ice hockey and triathlon.

The Citadel Bulldogs baseball team has won 20 Southern Conference regular season and tournament championships, most recently in 2010; 41 players have been selected in the MLB draft[47] The 1990 team won the Atlantic Regional, earning the school its first trip to the College World Series (CWS) and finishing the season ranked sixth in the final Collegiate Baseball poll with a record of 46–14; they also became the first military school to play in the CWS. Numerous alumni have played in the major leagues in recent years, Head Coach Fred Jordan '79 is the school's winningest with 800 victories as of the 2016 season.[48]

The football team has won three Southern Conference Championships and appeared in the Football Championship Subdivision playoffs four times; the 1960 team defeated Tennessee Tech 27–0 in the Tangerine Bowl.[49] The 1992 squad went 11–2 and finished the regular season ranked #1 in the I-AA poll.[50] The 2015 team recorded 9 wins including a victory over South Carolina; they were Conference Co-Champions and advanced to the second round of the FCS playoffs, 4 players were named to All-America teams. As of 2010 the football program had a graduation success rate of 90% compared to the Division I average of 65% [51] Several alumni have played in the professional ranks including current wide receiver Andre Roberts of the Detroit Lions; cornerback Cortez Allen recently played 5 seasons with the Pittsburgh Steelers. Fullback Nehemiah Broughton '05 played with the Washington Redskins, Arizona Cardinals and New York Giants; fullback Travis Jervey '95 was an All-Pro and member of the 1996 Super Bowl Champion Green Bay Packers, kicker Greg Davis '87 had a 12-year career with several teams including Arizona and the Atlanta Falcons. ESPN color commentator Paul Maguire '60 was a tight end and punter for three AFL champions with the Buffalo Bills and former St. Louis/Phoenix Cardinals running back Lyvonia "Stump" Mitchell '81 has been a head coach at two Division I colleges and served as an NFL assistant for Seattle, Washington and Arizona.

The wrestling team has sent 68 members to the NCAA Tournament and produced 4 All-Americans, with 3 in the past 2 seasons; Rob Hjerling was named the 2014 Southern Conference Coach of the Year.

Completed in 2005, the Inouye Marksmanship Center is utilized by cadets, law enforcement and the South Carolina National Guard. The rifle team has won four national championships;[52] Cadet Stephen Bowden was the 2013 National Individual Pistol Champion[53]

In 2010 The Citadel had a graduation success rate for athletes of 87%; this compares to the national Division I average of 70%.[citation needed]

Campus[edit]

Checkerboard Quadrangle of Padgett Thomas Barracks

The Citadel sits on a 300-acre (120 ha) tract of land on the Ashley River just to the northwest of downtown Charleston. There are 27 buildings grouped around a 10-acre (4.0 ha) grass parade ground. The buildings around the parade ground include ten classroom buildings, an administration building, five barracks, mess hall, a student activities building, chapel, library, a yacht club, a marksmanship center, a field house, faculty housing area and various support facilities including a laundry, cadet store, tailor shop and power plant. The campus is bounded on the west by the Ashley River, to the north by the Wagener Terrace neighborhood, to the east by Hampton Park and the Hampton Park Terrace neighborhood, and to the South by the Westside Neighborhood.

Just off the main campus are the football stadium, baseball stadium, and alumni center. Additionally, there is a large beach house facility located near the north end of the Isle of Palms.[54]

Summerall Chapel faces the Parade Grounds.

Summerall Chapel[edit]

The Summerall Chapel, designed by C.R. MacDonald, was started in September 7, 1936 and dedicated on Palm Sunday, April 10, 1938. The first services, however, were held in the chapel on September 19, 1937.[55] The chapel was named in honor of Citadel president Gen. Charles Pelot Summerall.[56] Inside, there is a set of thirty stained glass windows designed by H.G. Wilbert depicting the life of Jesus Christ which were executed by the Pittsburgh Stained Glass Studios in the 13th century Gothic style.[57] A $1 million repair program was developed for the chapel in 1985.[58]

The Daniel Library[edit]

Originally named "The Memorial Library and Museum" and opened in 1960, it was renamed in 1972, "The Daniel Library" in honor of Charles E. Daniel, '18 and Robert Hugh Daniel, '29, both lifelong benefactors of the college. Major renovations were completed in the fall of 2010. It houses over 200,000 volumes of material as well as electronic access to thousands of journals. The third floor of the building houses the campus archives and museum.[59][60]

The Prioleau Room on the first floor houses special collections and is considered by many as one of the best places on campus to study with its dark wood paneling and fireplace. The Daniel Library website has information for locating items in the catalog,[61] the Lowcountry Digital Library,[62] and The Citadel's own Digital Collections.[63]

The Howie Carillon

Campus Landmarks[edit]

Howie Bell Tower and Carillon[edit]

Standing next to Summerall Chapel and built in 1954, this structure honors one of the schools most revered alumni, US Army Major Thomas D. Howie, Class of 1929, who served as Commander of 3rd Battalion, 116th Infantry Regiment, 29th Infantry Division in the Normandy Campaign during World War II and was immortalized as "The Major of St Lo". Killed in action during the liberation of St. Lo, France, he was so respected that his flag draped body was carried on the hood of a jeep at the head of the column of troops so he could be accorded the honor of being the first American to enter the city. A photo of his body placed in the rubble of the St. Croix Cathedral came to symbolize the courage and sacrifice of US forces in the European Theater. Containing 59 bronze bells cast at the Royal Bergen Foundry in the Netherlands, the tower carillon is one of the largest in the Western Hemisphere.[64]

Seraph Monument[edit]

Located next to Mark Clark Hall at the northeast corner of Summerall Field, this uniquely shaped monument contains artifacts from the British submarine HMS Seraph which carried then Major General Mark Clark to a secret landing in Algeria prior to the Allied landings in the North African Campaign of World War II in order to negotiate a surrender of the Vichy French forces; the vessel was also involved in "Operation Mincemeat", perhaps the most famous clandestine operation of the conflict which succeeded in convincing the Germans that the allies intended to invade Sardinia not Sicily. The memorial honors Anglo-American friendship and cooperation during World War II and is the only shore location in the United States authorized to fly the Royal Navy Ensign.[65][66][67]

General Mark Clark Gravesite[edit]

Lying between Mark Clark Hall and Summerall Chapel is the burial plot of US Army General Mark Wayne Clark who served as Citadel President from 1954 to 1965 and President Emeritus until his death in 1984. One of the most famous and senior U.S. military commanders of World War II Clark served as General Dwight Eisenhower's deputy during the "Operation Torch" landings in North Africa then commanded the 5th Army in the Italian campaign liberating Rome in June, 1944. He later served as Commanding General of the 15th Army Group and in 1952 was appointed by President Truman as Supreme Commander of UN forces in Korea.[68]

The Citadel Ring Statue[edit]

Located at the southeast corner of the parade ground near Lesesne Gate, the main entrance to campus, is a giant replica of The Citadel ring, recognized as the most important and treasured symbol of a graduate. It was a gift to The Citadel Alumni Association from Palmetto Balfour, the current supplier of the official Citadel class rings.[69]

Monuments to the armed forces[edit]

On the parade ground are monuments dedicated to each of the military services and honoring the contributions of Citadel alumni to the military. They include a Marine landing craft (LVT-H-6); an Army Sherman Tank (M4A3) and an Army Missile (Corporal); an Air Force fighter jet (F-4C Phantom II); an AH-1 "Cobra" helicopter gunship and an anchor from the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Coral Sea. A United States Coast Guard Bell serves as a monument to Citadel graduates who have lost their lives upon the sea.[65]

Alumni[edit]

The Citadel has produced a wealth of distinguished alumni in many different career fields; well known alumni include longtime U.S. Senator Ernest "Fritz" Hollings, best selling novelist Pat Conroy, football commentator Paul Maguire, Space Shuttle astronaut Colonel Randy Bresnik, Detroit Lions wide receiver Andre Roberts, and the current Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps General Glenn Walters.[70] Notable alumni include 6 governors, 3 U.S. senators, 12 congressmen, the presidents of 46 colleges and universities, the Director of the U.S. Olympic Committee and many professional athletes.[71]

Approximately 35% of cadet graduates are commissioned as officers into the military, another 10% go directly to graduate programs; alumni currently serve in all five military services. Over the years, 285 Citadel alumni have reached the top ranks in the military by becoming flag officers (Generals, Admirals or Commodore), ten have served as a state Adjutant General.[72] Seven alumni have served as pilots with the two U.S. military flight demonstration units, the Thunderbirds and Blue Angels; graduates have served as commanders of both squadrons.[73][74] Alumni also serve in the military services of foreign countries including 5 four star generals from Thailand and the head of Jordan's Security Forces.[71]

Citadel alumni were killed in action during the Mexican–American War (6), Civil War (67), World War I (15), World War II (280), Korean War (32), Vietnam War (68), Lebanon (1), Grenada (1), the Gulf War (1), and the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan (18).[75]

Fictional depictions[edit]

In film[edit]

  • In the film For the Boys (1991), Bette Midler's son graduates as Regimental Commander of the Corps of Cadets.[76] His commencement speech is filmed in front of 2nd Battalion Barracks.
  • Major Ben Marco, Denzel Washington's character in the movie The Manchurian Candidate (2004), was a graduate of The Citadel.
  • Several scenes of the movie Dear John (2010) were filmed at The Citadel.[77]

In literature[edit]

  • A thinly veiled depiction of The Citadel provides the background for Calder Willingham's novel End as a Man (1947) and the film adaptation, The Strange One (1957).
  • Pat Conroy's 1980 novel The Lords of Discipline was based on Conroy's experience as a cadet at The Citadel during the 1960s and on his research of other military schools. This book is a fictitious account of the first African American cadet at The Citadel and the class struggle that ensued to both keep and reject the cadet. The novel outraged many of his fellow graduates of The Citadel, who felt that the book was a thinly veiled portrayal of campus life that was highly unflattering. The rift was not healed until 2000, when Conroy was awarded an honorary degree and asked to deliver the commencement address the following year. That year Conroy spearheaded fundraising to renovate the banquet hall in The Citadel Alumni Association building. The Lords of Discipline was made into a movie of the same name starring David Keith and Robert Prosky in 1983. My Losing Season (2002, ISBN 0-553-38190-3) is a factual account of Conroy's senior season as a guard on the 1966–67 Citadel basketball team and includes many recollections of his time as both a cadet and athlete at the school.[78][79][80]
  • Through Their Eyes: What really happened in the world's toughest plebe system ... at least to these guys. (ASIN B00N340XAW, ISBN 978-1-312-49190-8), a narrative by George Steffner (Citadel Class of 1979), details the intricacies of the plebe, or knob, year at The Citadel. The book's tagline reads: "When General Mark W. Clark became president of The Citadel he determined to make the military college's plebe year the toughest in the world. This is an account of how thorough a job he did and a description of the lives of some of the cadets who endured what he created." Said by graduates to be the most accurate narrative of the school's freshman experience.[citation needed]

In music[edit]

  • Portions of Dave Matthews Band's music video, "American Baby" (from their 2005 studio album, Stand Up), were filmed at The Citadel.[81]

In television[edit]

  • The Citadel was used as the location for shooting a 1974 episode of the TV show Columbo called "By Dawn's Early Light", guest starring Patrick McGoohan.[82]
  • An episode of the TV show "Road Rules" was filmed at The Citadel in 2002.[83]
  • In Army Wives season 7 episode 8, after listening to an address by LTG Michael Holden (Brian McNamara), Cadet Jordan Young (Kaley Ronayne) enlists his assistance in helping her explain to her mother, Air Force Colonel Katherine "Kat" Young (Brooke Shields), Jordan's decision to forgo a commission in the Air Force and pursue her passion to fly attack helicopters as an Army officer.[84][85] Filming took place in Daniel Library, Bond Hall, and Summerall Field and included about seventy cadet extras. In episode 9, Cadet Young attends a memorial garden dedication in dress uniform with her mother. Cadet Young informs LTG Holden that she has officially declared for the Army, and her mother adds it was with her blessing. Season 7 episode 13 Cadet Young attends a ceremony in her dress uniform wearing her Army contract badge.[citation needed]
  • In Chapter 8 of House of Cards, Congressman and House Majority Whip Frank Underwood (Kevin Spacey) visits "The Sentinel", his alma mater, to be honored with a library named for him. The Sentinel is made to strongly resemble The Citadel. It is even depicted to have been established in 1841, one year before The Citadel was established. Charles McDougall confirmed in the director's commentary for the episode that The Sentinel was based on The Citadel and the name was changed because they couldn't get permission to use The Citadel's name or logo in the show. The Sentinel scenes were filmed at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore.[citation needed]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In 2007 The Citadel changed its graduate program's name from the College of Graduate and Professional Studies (CGPS) to The Citadel Graduate College (CGC).

References[edit]

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External links[edit]