The City on the Edge of Forever

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For the South Park episode, see City on the Edge of Forever.
"The City on the Edge of Forever"
Star Trek: The Original Series episode
Episode no. Season 1
Episode 28
Directed by Joseph Pevney
Written by Harlan Ellison
Featured music Fred Steiner (original)
Cinematography by Jerry Finnerman
Production code 028
Original air date April 6, 1967 (1967-04-06)
Guest appearance(s)
Episode chronology
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"The Alternative Factor"
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"Operation: Annihilate!"

"The City on the Edge of Forever" is the 28th episode of the American science fiction television series Star Trek, and the penultimate episode of the first season. It was first broadcast in the United States on NBC on April 6, 1967. Set in the 23rd century, the series follows the adventures of Captain James T. Kirk (William Shatner) and his crew aboard the Starfleet starship USS Enterprise. In this episode, after Doctor Leonard McCoy (DeForest Kelley) travels back in time and changes history, Kirk and Spock (Leonard Nimoy) follow him to correct the timeline. In doing so, Kirk falls in love with Edith Keeler (Joan Collins), but realizes that in order to save his future, he must let her die.

The writing of this episode took over ten months, from the initial pitch by Harlan Ellison to the final re-write by Gene Roddenberry. Steven W. Carabatsos and Dorothy Fontana, both story editors on the show, undertook re-writes of the teleplay, and changes have also been attributed to producer Gene L. Coon. The experience of the process led to an animosity between Ellison and Roddenberry for the rest of the latter's life, in particular over a claim by Roddenberry that Ellison had the character Scotty dealing drugs in one version of the script. The episode went over budget by more than $50,000, and overran the production schedule. Mistakes were made in the set design with an instruction for "runes" misconstrued as a request for "ruins". With Matt Jefferies ill, Rolland Brooks designed the set and the Guardian of Forever, to the surprise of Jefferies on his return.

"The City on the Edge of Forever" placed second in the ratings, with Nielsen ratings showing 11.64 million viewers watching the first half hour and a 28.4 percent audience share for the remainder. The episode has been frequently stated to be the best episode of the entire franchise, with it fondly received by cast, crew, and critics. Elements such as the tragic ending were highlighted by several reviewers. It won several awards, including the Writers Guild of America Award for Best Episodic Drama on Television and the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation. Despite claims by Roddenberry, it did not win a Nebula Award. The Guardian of Forever later re-appeared in the Star Trek: The Animated Series episode "Yesteryear", and was suggested at one point to appear in Star Trek: The Next Generation. It has been included in a variety of Star Trek novels, comic books and video games. "The City on the Edge of Forever" was one of the first instances of "hell" being used as profanity on television.

Plot[edit]

Chief Medical Officer Leonard McCoy (DeForest Kelley) is treating an injured Lt. Hikaru Sulu (George Takei) when the Enterprise is rocked by a distortion and McCoy accidentally injects himself with an overdose of cordrazine. Delusional, he flees from the bridge to the transporter room, beaming himself down to a nearby planet. Captain James T. Kirk (William Shatner) leads a landing party to look for McCoy, and they come across an ancient glowing stone ring, which is causing the distortions. The "Guardian of Forever" (voiced by Bartell LaRue) explains that it is a doorway to any time and place. While Spock (Leonard Nimoy) is recording historic images from the portal, McCoy escapes through it, into the past. The landing party suddenly loses contact with the Enterprise and is informed by the Guardian that the past has been altered. The ship—along with the entire Federation—no longer exists.

The Guardian permits Kirk and Spock to follow McCoy in an effort to repair the timeline. They arrive in New York City during the 1930s' Great Depression. After stealing some clothes in order to blend in, they meet a woman named Edith Keeler (Joan Collins), who runs the 21st Street Mission. Spock begins to construct a processor to interface with his tricorder to find out how McCoy altered history. He discovers that they arrived at some point shortly before McCoy's arrival. While they await his arrival, they work for Keeler and Kirk begins to fall in love with her. After some time, unbeknownst to Kirk, McCoy stumbles into the mission, delirious, and Keeler takes him in. Spock finishes his work reviewing the Guardian's images of the original and altered timelines and discovers Keeler was supposed to have died in an accident, which was prevented by McCoy. Instead, Keeler started a pacifist movement, causing the United States to delay its entrance into World War II, allowing Nazi Germany enough time to develop a nuclear weapon and win the war. Kirk knows that Keeler must die in order to undo the damage to the timeline.

Keeler nurses McCoy back to health, and he tells her his story. Though Keeler is skeptical, she tells McCoy that he would like her eccentric new friend. Later, en route to see a movie, Keeler mentions McCoy to Kirk, who tells her to wait there before running to find Spock. The Starfleet trio reunite in front of the mission. As a curious Keeler crosses the street to join them, she steps in front of a fast-moving truck. Instinctively, Kirk reacts, but freezes when he remembers that Keeler must die. McCoy attempts to go to her aid, but is restrained by Kirk as Keeler is struck and killed. McCoy tells Kirk that he could have saved her. With Keeler's death, history returns to its original form. Kirk, Spock, and McCoy return to the Guardian's planet where, as far as the rest of the landing party are concerned, the three have only been away for a few minutes. The Guardian confirms that the timeline has been restored. The crew on the Enterprise contacts the landing party and the traumatized Kirk responds with the instructions, "Let's get the hell out of here."

Production[edit]

Writing[edit]

Initial pitch and outlines[edit]

Harlan Ellison was one of the first writers to be recruited by Gene Roddenberry for Star Trek. Roddenberry was aiming to have the best science fiction writers produce scripts for the show, and had identified Ellison immediately; at the time, Ellison had been nominated for the 1965 Writers Guild of America Award for Outstanding Script for a Television Anthology with his script for The Outer Limits episode "Demon with a Glass Hand" (he went on to win).[1] Rather than being assigned a pre-written premise, Ellison was allowed to develop his own and propose it in a 10-page outline.[2][3] Ellison was inspired by reading a biography of evangelist Aimee Semple McPherson, and thought that it would be an interesting idea to have Kirk travel back in time and fall in love with a similar woman of good intent, but someone who must die in order to preserve the future. Ellison considered that it would have a heartrending effect on Kirk.[2]

Harlan Ellison (pictured in 1982) was one of the first writers to be hired for Star Trek

In March 1966, Ellison pitched the idea to Roddenberry, who accepted it. A week later, he turned in his first script treatment. Producer Robert H. Justman later recalled that he thought it was brilliant. When writing it, Ellison did not have as many restrictions as some of the later writers; he was hired prior to the series bible being created. The first version introduced Lieutenant Richard Beckwith, who is sentenced to death after he kills a fellow crewman when he is threatened with the exposure of his involvement in the illegal drug trade. Ellison had included this element since he expected the starship to be like any other military unit, having at least some unlawful people.[2] Beckwith is then escorted to the surface of a nearby planet alongside Kirk, with Spock to carry out the execution by firing squad. Because of the planet's atmosphere, they have to wear environmental suits. On arriving, they find an ancient civilization and the remains of a city—this was Ellison's "city on the edge of forever". It is inhabited by several 9-foot-tall (2.7 m) men, the Guardians of Forever, who protect an ancient time machine.[4]

Kirk then asks to see the history of the United States on the machine, and as it reaches the Great Depression of the 1930s, Beckwith dives into the projection and vanishes. The guardians inform Kirk that history has been altered, and upon returning to the Enterprise, they discover that the vessel is now manned by renegades. They fight their way back to the transporter room and return to the planet, where the Guardians allow Kirk and Spock to pursue Beckwith into the past. They are informed by the Guardians that Beckwith prevented the death of Edith Koestler, and as in the final version, Kirk falls in love with her; in this version however, he does so knowing that she must die and in the end. Emotionally, he cannot stop Beckwith from attempting to save Koestler—Spock has to do it.[4] Roddenberry had asked for the ship specifically to be placed in danger, and so Ellison added the renegade element in response.[5]

Roddenberry disagreed with some of Kirk's actions in the first draft, and he asked Ellison to rewrite the treatment without pay. The redraft took a further five weeks, after which Roddenberry gave more notes and Ellison took another two weeks to respond. There were still plans to film the episode in the first half of the season at that point, as a version included Yeoman Janice Rand (Grace Lee Whitney). When a version was received on May 13, Roddenberry and the executives at Desilu and NBC were all relieved—there had been concerns over the amount of time taken, as scripts were being pitched, written, and approved in the time taken for Ellison to revise his outline. This version dropped the environmental suits due to cost, and rewrote the information given to Kirk by the Guardians, making it more general and less Earth-specific. It also changed Edith Kostler's surname to Keeler. However, the majority of the plot points were unchanged.[6]

Development of the teleplay[edit]

Gene Roddenberry (pictured in 1961), was among those who re-wrote Ellison's script in an attempt to bring it within budget and enable it to be filmed

There were immediate concerns from Justman over the potential cost of attempting to film the treatment. He had particular concerns about a time portal effect, a scene involving a mammoth and the number of exterior and night shoots that would be required. Despite this, Roddenberry asked Ellison to turn it into a shooting script and set aside a desk for him in the assistant director's room, expecting him to attend the office every day until he finished it.[6] He ended up with a smaller office of his own at his request, but disliked it sufficiently that he spent the majority of his time on set. He would play loud rock and roll music in the office, and then leave it for the set. On one occasion story editor John D. F. Black caught him on set during the filming of "Mudd's Women" and had him escorted back to the office. The music went on, and Black went back to tell Ellison to turn it down, but the writer had already climbed out the window and left.[7] But on other occasions, he would work late into the night and slept on the couch in Justman's office.[8] As the delays added up, the slots assigned to "The City on the Edge of Forever" were reallocated to other episodes.[9] Although this period was later claimed to be of various lengths, Ellison completed the first draft teleplay in three weeks, handing it to Justman on June 7.[10] Black later said that Ellison always had "40 things going" in reference to him doing multiple assignments at once.[11] In response, Ellison said that doing multiple assignments at the same time was simply how screenwriters earned a living in the 1960s.[5]

Justman's initial glee at receiving the script was short lived. He realized quickly that it was unfilmable due to cost, and the characters were not behaving as per the writer's guide. One such exchange between Kirk and Spock had the Vulcan character accusing humans of being barbaric, while Kirk saying Spock was ungrateful because humans were more advanced than Vulcans. Justman thought it was a good script, but could never be re-written and filmed in time for the first season. Ellison was asked to revise it once more,[12] with the issues blamed on requests from NBC,[13] and submitted a further version a week later. The production team were starting to lose patience, as he was not revising it in line with their requests, and he began arguing with Justman over the budget issues.[12] On August 15 Ellison turned in a second revised draft to Justman, titled "final draft" on the front cover. Justman wrote a memo immediately to fellow producer Gene L. Coon, saying that after five months, Ellison had failed to reduce the budget requirements for the episode to something which could be filmed.[14]

Roddenberry and Justman both spoke to Ellison, seeking further changes, but failed. William Shatner was sent to Ellison's house to try to get the writer to reconcile.[15] He claimed he was shouted at and thrown off the property,[16] but Ellison said that he had read the script through while sitting on a couch and had left to tell Roddenberry that he liked it. Ellison suggested that Shatner had a personal interest in having the script revised because Leonard Nimoy had more lines than he did in Ellison's version, and had spent the time on the couch line counting.[17] Meanwhile, Steve Carabatsos replaced Black as story editor on the show and was told by Coon to fix the script. Carabatsos replaced the new characters with an accident involving McCoy and an overdose of adrenaline and removed the Guardians of Forever, replacing them with a time travel portal. Ellison subsequently accused him of "taking a chainsaw" to the script. Roddenberry disliked the new version sufficiently that he convinced Ellison to come back and rewrite it again.[15]

When D.C. Fontana rewrote the teleplay, she added McCoy's accidental overdose in the first act

On December 19 Ellison submitted a further revised teleplay, dated December 1. Justman suggested in a memo that Roddenberry might be able to rewrite the latest version to one which could be usable.[15] He said that although it was a "fine story" and Ellison was an "extremely talented writer", he felt that it needed to be either rewritten by someone else or scrapped altogether. Taking this advice in hand, Roddenberry rewrote the script over the Christmas–New Year period, handing in a new version on January 9, 1967. His changes included the elimination of the evil version of the Enterprise and the addition of some comedy elements. Justman was pleased with Roddenberry's changes and told Coon that it was close to being filmable but that he still expected it to exceed the budget for a single episode by some way.[18][n 1]

Dorothy Fontana was hired as a new story editor, replacing Carabatsos. She had previously been Roddenberry's secretary and was well aware of the script's problems from reading the previous versions. When she arrived at work for her first day in her new role, Roddenberry gave her a copy of his revision and told her to try rewriting it. She later referred to that day as "walking into a hornets' nest", and the script itself as a "live grenade". Among the changes in her version was the introduction of the drug cordrazine. Ellison specifically criticized this change, as his most recent version of the script called for an alien creature's venom to cause the symptoms in McCoy. He said that "Gene [Roddenberry] preferred having an accomplished surgeon act in such a boneheaded manner that he injects himself with a deadly drug!"[20]

Justman praised Fontana's version, saying that it was the version which was most likely to be shot. But he suggested that it had now lost the "beauty and mystery inherent in the screenplay as Harlan originally wrote it." He said that he felt bad, because if he had not seen Ellison's earlier versions then he would have probably would have been "thrilled" with Fontana's version. Still unsatisfied with the script, Roddenberry set about rewriting it once more, entitling the result, dated February 1, the final draft.[20] Ellison later called elements of the dialogue in this version "precisely the kind of dopey Utopian bullshit that Roddenberry loved",[21] and added that Roddenberry had "about as much writing ability as the lowest industry hack".[20] However, Shatner later believed that it was actually re-written by Gene L. Coon and only supervised by Roddenberry.[22] Ellison requested via his agent that he be credited on the script only as Cordwainer Bird. In response, Roddenberry threatened to have Ellison blacklisted by the Writers Guild of America, and the writer was eventually convinced to be credited by name. None of the other writers involved in the work chose to seek credit for the script, since they agreed with Roddenberry that it was important for Star Trek to be associated with writers such as Ellison.[23]

Direction and casting[edit]

Joan Collins (pictured in 1956), was a well known actress before appearing in "The City on the Edge of Forever".

Joseph Pevney was assigned as the director of this episode. He had previous experience in directing full-length films, and later explained that "The City on the Edge of Forever" came the closest episode in Star Trek to that same level of work and challenge, stating that he treated it as a film.[23] But he was critical of Ellison's version of the script, saying that he "had no sense of theater" and it was fortunate that Roddenberry re-wrote it. He praised Ellison's level of detail in the 1930s setting, and for the general idea behind the episode.[11]

The crew were surprised when actress Joan Collins expressed an interest in appearing in the series.[24] After her agent asked her if she wanted to appear on the show, Collins mentioned it to her children. When her oldest daughter was enthusiastic about the show, Collins decided to accept the offer from the studio.[25] D'Agosta called her a "notorious actress", but said that at the time they saw approaches from a wide ranges of actors and actresses who wanted to appear on the series. Pevney said "Joan Collins was very good in it. She enjoyed working on the show and Bill and Leonard were both very good to her... Using her was a good choice."[24] Collins would later recall that Keeler was a Nazi sympathiser,[26] a view which has been supported by other biographies of the actress.[27] Ellison said in response that this was not an intended character trait.[28]

John Harman appeared as Rodent in "The City on the Edge of Forever", and would return in a more prominent role in "A Piece of the Action". Although some sources have credited the voice of the Guardian to James Doohan, it was actually performed by Bartell LaRue. The actor later appeared onscreen in the episode "Bread and Circuses", and provided further voiceover work in "The Gamesters of Triskelion", "Patterns of Force" and "The Savage Curtain". Also returning to Star Trek in this episode, was David L. Ross as Lt. Galloway and John Winston as Lt. Kyle.[24]

Filming, costumes and post production[edit]

Filming began on February 3, 1967, with an expectation that it would take six days to film. The shoot was completed a day and a half behind schedule on February 14. The overall cost was $245,316,[24] compared to the budget of $191,000 for this episode.[29] The normal budget for episodes during the first season were $185,000.[30] Roddenberry later claimed that around $257,000 was spent on the episode, and said that he could have saved a further $20,000 if he had not insisted on high quality casting and sets.[31] He also claimed that the original Ellison version would have cost a further $200,000 on top of what was already spent.[32]

The shoot began on location at the Desilu Forty Acres, with Pevney aiming to complete all the location filming in a single day in order to complete the episode in the allocated six days. The site had been used previously for the episodes "Miri" and "The Return of the Archons". None of the producers expected him to do so, but with the series already $74,507 already in the red and with two more episodes left to film, Desilu had to appear to NBC to be attempting to trying to keep to costs. Extensive work was completed during the daylight hours, on the set which had been used for other series such as the The Andy Griffith Show, with Floyd's barber shop appearing in some of the shots. The filming continued into the night, and with Pevney running out of time, he director was not sure when to stop. The problem was that other series such as Rango and Gomer Pyle had the sets booked up for the next several days, and they were unsure whether they would have time to return and film the missing scenes.[33]

After a weekend break, filming resumed on the Desilu Gower Street sets, where My Three Sons was normally shot. These were used to represent the interior of the mission where Keeler nurses McCoy back to health. DeForest Kelley felt that McCoy should also fall for Keeler;[33] so Pevney shot the scenes with that element included but never included it in the final cut. The following two days were spent on the same sets, while on day 5 the action moved to the bridge set for the Enterprise. This day's shoot was meant to include scenes in the transporter room and in the Enterprise corridors, but by now the production was a full day behind and these were pushed to the following day. Part way through day 6, the filming moved to a neighboring set for the exterior ruin shots and the Guardian of Forever, which was used for the next two and a half days.[34] The montage of historical footage was all taken from the Paramount film library, as was the footage of the Brooklyn Bridge.[35]

Harlan Ellison long maintained that the ancient ruins were the result of someone's misreading his description in the script of the city as "covered with runes." When informed that the word "runes" did not appear in any version of his treatments or script, Ellison responded in Edge Words, the letter column of IDW's comic book adaptation of his original script, by admitting that his memory was faulty, and that he actually told Matt Jefferies that the set should appear "Ancient, incredibly ancient, with runes everywhere..." He surmises that he perhaps slurred the word "runes" and Jefferies misheard him.[36] Fontana later explained that Jefferies was not working that week due to an illness, and so Rolland Brooks, the chair of the Art Department, took over set design duties. He had been drinking while reading the script and failed to understand what "rune stones" were. He looked it up in a dictionary, and drunkenly reached "ruin" first, which resulted in a set filled with broken columns. Brooks had also been responsible for the creation of the Guardian of Forever, to which Jefferies exclaimed "What the hell is this?" when he returned to work, too late to change it.[34]

Music[edit]

There are a number of musical pieces reused from earlier episodes in "The City on the Edge of Forever", including sufficient use of the scores from "The Cage", "Where No Man Has Gone Before" and "The Naked Time" that Alexander Courage received an "additional music by" credit.[37] Further pieces came from "Shore Leave", "Charlie X" and "The Enemy Within".[38] A partial score was created by Fred Steiner, his final work of the first season. His work on Star Trek tended to focus on the use of violins and cellos to highlight romantic moments, and he did not use violas in any of his works on the series.[38] This episode originally featured the 1931 song "Goodnight Sweetheart", which was originally composed by Ray Noble with lyrics by Jimmy Campbell and Reg Connelly.[39] For the version used in the episode, the lyrics were recorded by an unknown session musician.[40]

It had been licensed to appear in the episode,[41] and at first, Steiner sought to use motifs from "Goodnight, Sweetheart" as the basis of his score. He wanted this to be subtle and introduce the melody of the song over time, but Justman realized what Steiner was attempting and rejected it on the basis that he did not want the song introduced too early in the episode. Another work of Steiner's which was rejected for "The City on the Edge of Forever" was an alternative main title track using saxophone and celesta which he had hoped would set the episode in the tone of the 1930s.[42] The music recorded specifically for "The City on the Edge of Forever" was recorded in stereo, which was unusual for the series. This was rediscovered when a 15-disc soundtrack of The Original Series was being compiled by La-La Land Records, which they hypothesized was because the accompanying vocals appeared on a separate track.[43]

By the time "The City on the Edge of Forever" was released in the 1980s for home media use, such as on VHS and Laserdisc, the licence for the use of "Goodnight, Sweetheart" had lapsed and was instead picked up by a different studio.[44] A new score was created to replace the song where it was used in the episode,[45] however the new pieces did not match the existing Steiner works as they used a different orchestral arrangement. Steiner was not contacted or informed of the modifications to the episode,[44] and was instead composed by J. Peter Robinson.[46][unreliable source?] The original intention was not to restore "Goodnight, Sweetheart" to the DVD release,[47] and issue the DVD with a disclaimer on the box, "Some music has been changed for this DVD." However, the original "Goodnight, Sweetheart" portion was erroneously included and Paramount reportedly had to pay royalties. Since the royalties had been paid,[citation needed] all subsequent releases have included the original "Goodnight, Sweetheart" music and with the 1980s scores omitted.[48]

Reception[edit]

Broadcast[edit]

"The City on the Edge of Forever" was first broadcast in the United States on April 6, 1967, on NBC.[35] A 12-city overnight Trendex report compiled by Nielsen ratings showed that during the first half-hour, it held second place in the ratings behind Bewitched on ABC with 11.64 million viewers compared to Bewitched's 15.04 million. The episode beat My Three Sons on CBS. During the second half-hour it remained in second place with 28.4 percent of the audience share, behind the 32.1 percent for Love on a Rooftop, also on ABC.[49]

A High Definition remastering of "The City on the Edge of Forever", which introduced new special effects and starship exteriors as well as enhanced music and audio, was shown for the first time on October 7, 2006, in broadcast syndication in the United States. It was the fifth remastered episode to be shown.[50] This meant that the episode was made available to over 200 local stations across the United States with the rights to broadcast Star Trek, and depending on the station it was broadcast either on October 7 or 8.[51]

Cast and crew response[edit]

This episode has been held in high regard by those who have worked on Star Trek. Roddenberry ranked it as one of his ten favourite episodes,[52] and said it was his favourite alongside "The Menagerie" and the second pilot, "Where No Man Has Gone Before".[53] In the final interview before he died, he said it was his favourite outright. Fontana said it was one of her two favourite episodes that she was not credited for, alongside "The Trouble with Tribbles".[52]

The main cast have also said it was among their favourites. Shatner has often chosen either this, or "The Devil in the Dark" as the best episode, saying "'City' is my favourite of the original Star Trek series because of the fact it is a beautiful love story, well told."[52] Nimoy has said that it was one of his favourites, alongside "The Devil in the Dark", "Amok Time", "Journey to Babel", "This Side of Paradise" and "The Naked Time".[54] In his 1995 book, I Am Spock, Nimoy said that episodes such as "The City on the Edge of Forever" and "Amok Time" were "just as powerful and meaningful to today's audiences as they were to viewers back in the 1960s."[55] Kelley said it was his favourite,[53] adding "I thought it was one of the most dramatic endings ever seen on a television show."[52] Karl Urban, who plays McCoy in the 2009 Star Trek and the sequels, said that "The City on the Edge of Forever" was one of his favourite episodes alongside "The Corbomite Maneuver", "Amok Time" and "Arena".[56]

Critical acclaim[edit]

"The City on the Edge of Forever" has been frequently cited as the best episode of the Star Trek franchise.[57][58] In a preview of the episode in the Albuquerque Journal, it was said to be a "surprise variation of the 'time tunnel' theme" and was described as "an absorbing tale, a bit hard to take at times, but imaginative nonetheless."[59] When Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home was released in October 1987, Luis Aguilar at the The Washington Post said that "The City on the Edge of Forever" was superior to the film, calling it a "brilliant, beautifully executed story".[60]

TV Guide ranked it #68 in their 100 Most Memorable Moments in TV History feature in its July 1, 1996 edition, featured ranked it #92 on the 100 greatest TV episodes of all time,[61] and ranked it #80 on its list of "TV's Top 100 Episodes of All Time."[62] In their 2003 book, Beyond the Final Frontier: An Unauthorised Review of Star Trek, Mark Jones and Lance Parkin described "The City on the Edge of Forever" as "Righly regarded as the highlight of original Star Trek" and the "epitome of what Star Trek does best". They said that having Kirk allow Keeler to die was "horrifying and heart-rending, adding another dimension to his character."[63]

Zack Handlen of The A.V. Club gave the episode an 'A' rating in 2009, describing it as "a justly revered classic". But he said that McCoy's accidental overdose was a "stretch" and gave the episode "a surprisingly awkward start, with little indication of the greatness that is to follow." He called the ending "brutal" and praised the conundrum that Kirk is placed in, faced with the death of Keeler. Handlen suggested that it would have made a better final episode of the season, instead of "Operation: Annihilate".[64] Also in 2009, it was reviewed by Torie Atkinson and Eugene Myers for Tor.com, where they gave it a rating of six out of six. They were concerned that the episode might not live up to the memory when they re-watched it, but said "it remains an incredible episode, often imitated but rarely surpassed in science fiction in any medium." They said that both the tragic and comedic moments helped to balance the episode, and said that the ending was abrupt but fitting because of the change in Kirk despite the Guardian's announcement of "all is as it was before".[65]

Keith DeCandido gave the episode a rating of ten out of ten when he reviewed it for Tor.com in 2015. He said that the episode centered on people, which he saw as a common theme among the great episodes of Star Trek. DeCandido supported the view of Spock, that while Keeler's compassionate nature was to be applauded, it was at the wrong time and as war with Nazi Germany was the only way.[66] Darren Franich compared "The City on the Edge of Forever" to the 12 Monkeys television series in 2015, calling the episode "one of the great episodes of television". However, he criticised it as well, saying "complete crock of pseudo-scientific claptrap. It’s wacky like only old science-fiction is wacky – and it’s slow like only old television is slow." He listed nine "leaps of narrative logic" that a viewer must overcome to accept the plot. But he felt that it was fearless in comparison to modern science fiction, in that there was no attempt to make it self-aware, nor introduce a comedic character to ground it. Franich said that the ending was "one of the all-time great moments in Star Trek history".[67]

"The City on the Edge of Forever" has placed highly in many "best of" lists of Star Trek episodes.[66] In a special edition of Entertainment Weekly during the fall of 1994, "The City on the Edge of Forever" was ranked number one in a comprehensive listing of all 79 episodes.[68] It described it as "Cosmic themes, effective acting, and a heart-wrenching ending makes this the undisputed Uber-Trek".[69] IGN ranked it as number one out of their "Top 10 Classic Star Trek Episodes" in 2009. It said "This beautiful story poignantly establishes the maxim later explored in Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan: the needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few, or the one. Kirk's reaction before beaming up at the end of the episode is one of William Shatner's most moving moments in all of Trek."[70] In the Radio Times, David Brown listed as the second best episode for non-Star Trek fans to watch on Netflix in 2016, calling it a "tragic Back to the Future" and that "seeing as the bulk of the drama takes place during the depression of the 1930s, there's not much in the way of sci-fi gubbins to confuse a newcomer".[71] Jeremy Fuster at Yahoo! TV included it on a list of ten episodes to watch prior to the launch of the 2017 television series, calling it "one of the most heartbreaking episodes" of the series.[72]

Awards[edit]

Harlan Ellison's original version of the teleplay won the annual Writers Guild of America Award for Best Episodic Drama on Television. Justman later said that the submission of the original unfilmed version was out of spite,[73] and Roddenberry said in response to the victory "many people would get prizes if they wrote scripts that budgeted out to three times the show's cost."[74] The WGA rules allow only the credited writers to submit scripts for consideration, who may submit whichever draft of theirs that they may choose.[75] It was up against another Star Trek episode, nominated by the production team; "The Return of the Archons". Coon reportedly said at the time: "If Harlan wins, I'm going to die", and that "there are two scripts up tonight for the Writers' Guild Award, and I wrote them both."[11] On the night, Roddenberry and several of the crew were seated at a table which Desilu had purchased, while Ellison was at another. When he won, the Star Trek party rose to their feet and applauded, since they believed it would bring credibility to the series. Herbert Franklin Solow later recalled that this elation turned to horror when Ellison began talking about the interference of studio executives in the writing process, before holding aloft a copy of the original script and yelling "Remember, never let them rewrite you!" Ellison walked past the Desilu table as he left the podium, and shook the copy of the script at Roddenberry and his party.[76]

When Glen A. Larson claimed that it was Coon who had rewritten the original script and it was this version that was submitted to the Writer's Guild,[11] Ellison said that "pandas will fly out of Glen Larson's ass!". He explained that as the credited writer, he had the option of which version of the script to submit to the Guild.[77] A further claim was made by writer Don Ingalls, who said that Ellison had admitted in a drunken stupor to him late one night in a bar that he had tidied up and improved the script further prior to submitting it; this was then published in Justman and Solow's Inside Star Trek: The Real Story.[78] Ellison refuted Ingalls' claim, pointing out that he never drank since he did not like the taste and had never been drunk and so this could not have occurred.[79] Upon being informed, Solow promised to add a note refuting the claim in a future paperback edition,[80] but then decided to agree with Ingalls version of the story.[81]

"The City on the Edge of Forever" was awarded the Hugo Award in 1968 for the "Best Dramatic Presentation" at that year's World Science Fiction Convention. This was based on the filmed version, and not Ellison's original. But since the script remained to Ellison, he won the award once more. It was 25 years before another television program won that award again, the next occasion being for the episode "The Inner Light" from Star Trek: The Next Generation.[52] Roddenberry later claimed that he was present at the Hugo Awards, and said that Ellison rushed past him up onto the stage. However, he was not present.[82] Ellison remarked afterwards when talking about the Hugo win for the filmed version of the script, "I would like to be arrogant enough to think that the script was so good that even butchering it couldn't hurt it" and that compared to the other episodes of Star Trek that it was "a pretty good show".[57] Roddenberry would claim in response to Ellison's awards wins for the episode,[82] that he had won a Nebula Award for his work on it.[57] However, this was untrue,[82] and the Dramatic Presentation category was not created until 1974.[83][84]

Home media release and other adaptations[edit]

The first adaptation of "The City on the Edge of Forever" was as a re-working into a short story by author James Blish in the novel Star Trek 2.[52] He attempted to combine elements of both the televised version with aspects of Ellison's original version after being sent a copy of the original script by Ellison.[52][85] The front cover of the British release of the book featured the Guardian of Forever.[86] This was republished in 2016 alongside the Blish short stories of 44 other episodes in a single volume as Star Trek: The Classic Episodes.[87] The first home media release of "The City on the Edge of Forever" was on Compact Cassette from Startone productions in 1982.[88] A LaserDisc of the episode, alongside "The Alternative Factor" was released in 1985.[89] Further releases of all episodes of the series were made on VHS and Betamax.[90][91]

"The City on the Edge of Forever" was released on DVD paired with "Errand of Mercy" as part of the general release of the series in 2000,[92] and as part of the season one DVD set in 2004.[93] The episode was included in the remastered season one release on DVD and Blu-ray in 2009.[94] The remastered version included revamped and expanded special effects by CBS Digital under the guidance of Dave Rossi, as well as Mike and Denise Okuda. Changes included an expanded field of ruins on the Guardian's planet, as well as updated visuals of the planet from space. Rossi explained that they sought to tie the purple cloth backdrop used in the original version into the redesign, but was concerned that the "giant purplish desert flats" as seen from space were instead misconstrued as oceans.[95] "The City on the Edge of Forever" was also featured in several DVD sets featuring compilations of episodes, including the Star Trek: Fan Collective: Captain’s Log, as selected by Shatner,[66] and the Captain Kirk's Boldest Missions in 2015.[96]

Legacy[edit]

Ellison/Roddenberry feud[edit]

During the period in which the script was being developed, Roddenberry asked Ellison for his help in saving the show. In response, Ellison agreed with other science fiction writers, including Richard Matheson, Theodore Sturgeon and Frank Herbert to form "The Committee". Ellison wrote on their behalf to the combined membership of the recent World Science Fiction Convention to ask them to write in to NBC in order to save the show.[97] Shatner later credited Ellison for saving the show during the first season.[22] But after the work was completed on the episode, Roddenberry and Ellison did not speak for several years. Ellison said he felt used, while Roddenberry said he was being unfair and had unjustly condemned the episode, loudly and in public.[9] Ellison would sell copies of his original script at conventions, while Roddenberry's Lincoln Enterprises sold the filmed version.[98] In 1975, Ellison copyrighted the version of the first draft script as it was returned to him with notes,[21] which was then published in Six Science Fiction Plays by Simon & Schuster.[99] By this time, he and Roddenberry had taken consolatory steps towards each other,[100] and he was invited to pitch a story idea for a late 1970s Star Trek film,[101] despite saying that Star Trek was "dead" in an interview with The Washington Post when the film project was first announced.[102]

However, this did not last. Roddenberry would go on to claim in an interview with Video Review magazine that Ellison wrote into the script that he had Scotty dealing drugs and when asked to remove it, Ellison claimed that Roddenberry had "sold out". At no point in any of the versions of the outlines or scripts did Scotty ever deal or take drugs.[103] Roddenberry repeated this claim elsewhere around the same period in 1987, including to Ben Harnson in an interview for Cinefantastique magazine,[14][104] and on the convention lecture circuit.[105] Two issues later, writer Alan Brennert wrote into the letters page of Video Review asserting that Scotty had never sold drugs in any version of the script.[106] In response, Roddenberry wrote to Brennert, dated March 25, 1987, and agreed that he had mistakenly attributed the drug dealing to Scotty.[107] But despite this, other publications have repeated the incorrect claim by Roddenberry since.[108] Roddenberry also claimed to have created the Edith Keeler character and based it on his father, a police officer, in an interview with Humanist magazine in March 1991.[109]

Until he was approached by TV Guide in December 1994, Ellison did not discuss the issues with the episode in print other than the introduction in Six Science Fiction Plays. He was reluctant to discuss it for the magazine, and in order to make them go away, asked for a sum of money that he believed was five times more than they had ever paid for an interview. To his surprise, they agreed. So he wrote the article, which immediately generated a backlash from Star Trek fans.[110]

In his 1996 book, Harlan Ellison's The City On the Edge of Forever, Ellison claimed to have never received more than a "pittance" from working on the episode.[111] He said that "every thug and studio putz and semi-literate bandwagon-jumper and merchandiser has grown fat as a maggot in a corpse off what I created." He said that was the reason why he wrote the book.[77] On March 13, 2009, Ellison filed a lawsuit against CBS Television Studios,[112] seeking 25% of net receipts from merchandising, publishing, and other income from the episode since 1967; the suit also names the Writers Guild of America for failing repeatedly to act on Ellison's behalf in the matter.[113] In a press statement, Ellison said "It ain't about the 'principle,' friend, it's about the money! Pay me! I'm doing it for the 35-year-long disrespect and the money!"[112] On October 22, 2009, the lawsuit was settled with Ellison claiming he was satisfied with the outcome.[113]

Guardian of Forever[edit]

Star Trek tribute band Five Year Mission pose with a replica Guardian of Forever at a fan convention

The Guardian of Forever, the time portal portrayed in the episode, is an irregular ring- or torus-shaped structure around 3 metres (9.8 ft) wide.[114] The Guardian's only other on-screen appearance was in the animated episode "Yesteryear" (1973), in which the Guardian's voice was provided by James Doohan (who portrays Chief Engineer Montgomery Scott).[52]

A return for the Guardian in The Next Generation was proposed by Trent Christopher Ganino and Eric A. Stillwell during the writing of the episode "Yesterday's Enterprise". This would have seen a team of Vulcan scientists led by Sarek studying the Guardian, and accidentally travelling back in time to the history of their planet where they cause the death of Surak, the founder of Vulcan logic. After they return, they discover that their people had allied with the Romulans and were at war with the Federation. In response, Sarek elects to return to the past and take on the role of Surak to restore the timeline.[115] Producer Michael Piller wanted the plot to be centered on the cast of The Next Generation, so Sarek and the Guardian were dropped from the story.[116]

In the unofficial mini-series Star Trek: Of Gods and Men, The Original Series character Charlie Evans used the Guardian to go back in time and change history. The Guardian also appears in an episode of Star Trek: New Voyages, which moreover portrays a second much larger Guardian through which a starship can fly.

Novels and short stories[edit]

The Guardian of Forever has also appeared in several Star Trek novels. The first appearance was in Star Trek: The New Voyages, a compilation of short stories which was the first anthology of Star Trek fiction. The short story "Mind Sifter" by Shirley S. Maiewski saw Captain Kirk stranded on 1950s Earth in a mental hospital, having been abducted by Kor, subjected to a Klingon mind sifter, and transported through the Guardian of Forever.[117] In A.C. Crispin's 1983 novel Yesterday's Son, the Guardian is used by Kirk, Spock and McCoy to visit Sarpeidon in the past from the episode "All Our Yesterdays". There they discover that the subject of Spock's romantic liaison, Zarabeth, had died years below but he had a son, Zar.[118] An audio recording by Nimoy and George Takei was subsequently released.[119] After the success of the book, Crispin was asked to write a sequel, Time for Yesterday in 1988, in which the Guardian is malfunctioning and the Enterprise crew must seek the help of Zar to communicate and repair it.[120]

Peter David decided to based his 1992 novel Imzadi off the same premise as the end of Ellison's version of "The City on the Edge of Forever", except in this case it was William Riker who went back in time using the Guardian deliberately to save the life of Deanna Troi. He felt that if Ellison was not allowed to use the idea in the episode, he could instead feature the premise in a novel.[121] The Guardian was also central to the plot of Judith and Garfield Reeves-Stevens' 1994 novel Federation as it recites three historical events to Captain Kirk.[122]

Brett Hudgins short story Guardians was featured in the seventh volume of Star Trek: Strange New Worlds in 2004,[123] an annually published work of fan stories.[124] In the story, the Horta from "The Devil in the Dark" colonise the Guardian's planet and end up acting as its protectors for the following generations over the following 50,000 years.[123] David R. George III decided to include the Guardian and spin-off from events in "The City on the Edge of Forever" in his 2006 trilogy, Crucible. In Provenance of Shadows, the instalment of the trilogy based on McCoy, part of the book is based in the reality where McCoy is trapped in the past and no-one comes to rescue him.[125] The events of "The City on the Edge of Forever" are also recanted in the fictional The Autobiography of James T. Kirk by David A. Goodman; the author said that the effects of the episode and the loss of Keeler would affect Kirk for a long time and may have been why the character never entered into a serious ongoing relationship.[126]

Comics and computer games[edit]

In the Gold Key Comics Star Trek line, the Guardian of Forever appeared in the story "No Time Like the Past" by George Kashdan and Al McWilliams and appearing in issue 56, published October 1978.[66][127] Kirk, Spock and McCoy must correct history after another traveller uses the Guardian to the second century BCE, and they confront both Hannibal and the Romans.[127] In the second volume of DC Comics run of Star Trek comics, the Guardian appears in issues 53 through 57 within the story "Timecrime" by |Howard Weinstein, Rod Whigham, Rob Davis, and Arne Starr.[66]

IDW Publishing published Ellison script as a comic book under the title of "Star Trek: Harlan Ellison's Original The City On The Edge Of Forever Teleplay" in 2014. Chief Creative Officer and Editor-in-Chief Chris Ryall said "Presenting Harlan Ellison’s brilliant original script for “City on the Edge” has been a goal of ours since IDW first began publishing Star Trek comics in 2007". Ellison worked alongside IDW on the comic, with artwork by J.K. Woodward and additional writing by Scott and David Tipton. Ellison said of the format, "To read a graphic novel is to engage your imagination is to engage all five of your senses, and to picture what the creator dreamed. And that’s what this book does for me."[128]

In the massively multiplayer online role-playing game Star Trek Online, the mission "City on the Edge of Never" involves the player character using the Guardian to travel through time to 2270 to stop Klingons intent on altering history. The episode features the USS Kirk, and has the Guardian projecting a time portal into space, allowing the player to take their vessel through to the past. It featured voice acting by Nimoy, and was well received by reviewers with Kotaku writer Mike Fahey saying "This mission might have just made the entire game for me. Everything about it was simply perfect. If Star Trek Online fails for some reason, this mission will always be remembered."[129]

"Lets get the hell out of here", Nazis and other influences[edit]

Kirk's final line in the episode, "Lets get the hell out of here" caused problems for the crew as the network did not want a the word "hell" to appear on television episodes. Both Shatner and Roddenberry fought for the line to remain, with Roddenberry claiming to NBC that no other word would be suitable to be used instead. They agreed that it could be left in, and it was one of the first occasions in which the word "hell" was used as profanity on television.[11] The episode was also the first time that the Nazis were mentioned in Star Trek. They would go on to be featured more prominently in the second season episode "Patterns of Force" as well as episodes of Star Trek: Voyager and Star Trek: Enterprise.[130]

When a Star Trek film was being developed in the late 1970s, one of the ideas proposed by Roddenberry was to have the crew travel back to the 1960s and prevent the assassination of John F. Kennedy. This idea was based on "The City on the Edge of Forever", due to the popularity among fans by that time.[131] The episode was also suggested by Robert F. Moss in The New York Times as later influencing the plot of Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home.[132] This hypothesis was accurate, as when Nimoy met Harve Bennett to discuss proposed plots for the film, it was Bennett's love of "The City on the Edge of Forever" that led to him suggesting that they should include a time travel element in the film.[133] This led to the duo discussing the potential plot with Ellison.[134] A reference to "The City on the Edge of Forever" was included in the two-part Star Trek: Deep Space Nine episode "Past Tense", with a boxing poster appearing in a scene set in the 1930s featuring Kid McCook and Mike Mason. There was a similar poster advertising a match at Madison Square Garden in "The City on the Edge of Forever", while the one in "Past Tense" stated that it was a rematch in San Francisco.[66]

See also[edit]

Annotations[edit]

  1. ^ The revision over Christmas-New Year 1967 was attributed to Coon in Solow and Justman's 1996 book Inside Star Trek: The Real Story.[19]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Cushman & Osborne 2013, p. 504.
  2. ^ a b c Cushman & Osborne 2013, p. 505.
  3. ^ Shatner & Kreski 1993, p. 216.
  4. ^ a b Cushman & Osborne 2013, p. 506.
  5. ^ a b Ellison 1996, p. 39.
  6. ^ a b Cushman & Osborne 2013, p. 507.
  7. ^ Gross & Altman 1993, p. 43.
  8. ^ Shater & Kreski 1993, p. 217.
  9. ^ a b Ellison 1996, p. 14.
  10. ^ Cushman & Osborne 2013, p. 508.
  11. ^ a b c d e Gross & Altman 1993, p. 42.
  12. ^ a b Cushman & Osborne 2013, p. 509.
  13. ^ Ellison 1996, p. 24.
  14. ^ a b Cushman & Osborne 2013, p. 510.
  15. ^ a b c Cushman & Osborne 2013, p. 511.
  16. ^ Shatner & Kreski 1993, p. 219.
  17. ^ Ellison 1996, p. 42.
  18. ^ Cushman & Osborne 2013, p. 512.
  19. ^ Solow & Justman 1996, p. 282.
  20. ^ a b c Cushman & Osborne 2013, p. 513.
  21. ^ a b Ellison 1996, p. 8.
  22. ^ a b Shatner & Kreski 1993, p. 221.
  23. ^ a b Cushman & Osborne 2013, p. 514.
  24. ^ a b c d Cushman & Osborne 2013, p. 515.
  25. ^ "EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW: Legendary TOS Guest Star, Joan Collins". StarTrek.com. January 21, 2015. Retrieved July 9, 2016. 
  26. ^ Collins 1984, p. 248.
  27. ^ David 1988, p. 113.
  28. ^ Ellison 1996, p. 70.
  29. ^ Ellison 1996, p. 22.
  30. ^ Ellison 1996, p. 61.
  31. ^ Ellison 1996, p. 63.
  32. ^ Ellison 1996, p. 64.
  33. ^ a b Cushman & Osborne 2013, p. 516.
  34. ^ a b Cushman & Osborne 2013, p. 517.
  35. ^ a b Cushman & Osborne 2013, p. 518.
  36. ^ Star Trek: Harlan Ellison's The City on the Edge of Forever, Issue 2, July 2014
  37. ^ Bond 1998, p. 35.
  38. ^ a b Bond 1998, p. 17.
  39. ^ Block & Erdmann 2010, p. 144.
  40. ^ "Taking Notes: The Sourced Music of Star Trek". StarTrek.com. November 10, 2016. Archived from the original on March 2, 2010. Retrieved July 21, 2016. 
  41. ^ Bond 1998, p. 60.
  42. ^ Bond 1998, p. 72.
  43. ^ Gilchrist, Todd (April 30, 2014). "La-La Land's New Star Trek Soundtrack Set Boldly Goes Where No Box Set Has Before". Forbes. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  44. ^ a b Bond 1998, p. 18.
  45. ^ Farrand 1994, p. 113.
  46. ^ "FSM Board: PR: La-La Land announces 15CD Star Trek Collection". Filmscoremonthly.com. Retrieved August 17, 2012. 
  47. ^ "'City' DVD To Feature Rescored Music". TrekNation. April 12, 2000. Retrieved July 18, 2015. 
  48. ^ Clark 2012, p. 25.
  49. ^ Cushman & Osborne 2013, p. 519.
  50. ^ "TOS Remasters: Airdates and Affiliates". StarTrek.com. CBS Entertainment. November 6, 2006. Archived from the original on January 4, 2007. Retrieved March 19, 2015. 
  51. ^ "Remastering Star Trek: TOS FX, Music Enhanced". StarTrek.com. CBS Entertainment. August 31, 2006. Archived from the original on January 3, 2007. Retrieved March 19, 2015. 
  52. ^ a b c d e f g h Cushman & Osborne 2013, p. 521.
  53. ^ a b Van Hise 1992, p. 37.
  54. ^ Nimoy 1995, p. 61.
  55. ^ Nimoy 1995, p. 117.
  56. ^ Collura, Scott (May 30, 2016). "Star Trek Beyond's Karl Urban Loves Star Trek: The Motion Picture (and Thinks You Should Too)". IGN. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  57. ^ a b c Gross & Altman 1993, p. 41.
  58. ^ Robb 2012, p. 55.
  59. ^ "TV Key Previews". Albuquerque Journal. April 8, 1967. p. 9 – via Newspapers.com. open access publication - free to read
  60. ^ Aguilar, Luis (October 4, 1987). "Trek' Goes Where No Series Has Gone Before". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 13, 2016 – via HighBeam Research. (subscription required (help)). 
  61. ^ Jim. "The 100 Greatest TV episodes of all time". aol.com. Archived from the original on October 28, 2007. 
  62. ^ "TV's Top 100 Episodes of All Time" TV Guide; June 15, 2009; Pages 34–49
  63. ^ Jones & Parkin 2003, p. 25.
  64. ^ Handlen, Zack (April 24, 2009). ""The City On The Edge Of Forever" / "Operation—Annihilate!"". The A.V. Club. Retrieved July 9, 2016. 
  65. ^ Atkinson, Torie; Myers, Eugene (July 9, 2009). "Star Trek Re-watch: "The City on the Edge of Forever"". Tor.com. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  66. ^ a b c d e f DeCandido, Keith (September 25, 2015). "Star Trek The Original Series Rewatch: "The City on the Edge of Forever"". Tor.com. Retrieved July 9, 2016. 
  67. ^ Franich, Darren (April 10, 2015). "Entertainment Geekly: 'The City on the Edge of Forever' and why 12 Monkeys works". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  68. ^ Ellison 1996, p. 34.
  69. ^ "Trek: The Good, The Bad and the Dorky". Entertainment Weekly (Star Trek Special). Fall 1994. 
  70. ^ "IGN's Top 10 Classic Star Trek Episodes". IGN. April 16, 2009. Retrieved July 9, 2016. 
  71. ^ Brown, David (June 30, 2016). "The 10 best Star Trek episodes on Netflix – for someone who's not a Star Trek fan". Radio Times. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  72. ^ Fuster, Jeremy (May 20, 2016). "'Star Trek' 101: Must-See Episodes Before the New Series Launches". Yahoo! TV. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  73. ^ Cushman & Osborne 2013, p. 520.
  74. ^ Ellison 1996, p. 41.
  75. ^ Solow & Justman 1996, p. 289.
  76. ^ Solow & Justman 1996, p. 288.
  77. ^ a b Ellison 1996, p. 6.
  78. ^ Solow & Justman 1996, p. 185.
  79. ^ Ellison 1996, p. 72.
  80. ^ Ellison 1996, p. 73.
  81. ^ Ellison 1996, p. 74.
  82. ^ a b c Ellison 1996, p. 30.
  83. ^ Engel 1994, p. 96.
  84. ^ Franson & DeVore 1978, pp. 9–11.
  85. ^ Ellison 1996, p. 16.
  86. ^ Gentry & Gibson-Downs 1991, p. 94.
  87. ^ "Star Trek The Classic Episodes Anthology". TrekNation. April 27, 2016. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  88. ^ Gentry & Gibson-Downs 1991, p. 34.
  89. ^ "Star Trek #093: The Alternative Factor/The City on the Edge of Forever: Disc #13 [LV 60040-93]". LaserDisc Database. Archived from the original on May 5, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2014. 
  90. ^ Kelley (2008): p. 249
  91. ^ Kelley (2008): p. 250
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  93. ^ Snider, Mike (September 17, 2004). "Original 'Trek' boldly goes to DVD". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved July 13, 2016 – via HighBeam Research. (subscription required (help)). 
  94. ^ Hunt, James (May 20, 2009). "Star Trek: The Remastered Series Seasons 1, 2 & 3 review". Den of Geek. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved May 3, 2014. 
  95. ^ "Jules Verne Report: Rossi, Roddenberry, Takei, Aldrin". StarTrek.com. October 21, 2006. Archived from the original on May 4, 2010. Retrieved August 21, 2016. 
  96. ^ Remer, Justin (April 23, 2015). "Star Trek: The Original Series – Captain Kirk's Boldest Missions". DVD Talk. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  97. ^ Ellison 1996, p. 38.
  98. ^ Alexander 1995, p. 289.
  99. ^ Ellison 1996, p. 9.
  100. ^ Ellison 1996, p. 19.
  101. ^ Reeves-Stevens & Reeves-Stevens 1997, pp. 16–17.
  102. ^ Alexander 1995, p. 435.
  103. ^ Ellison 1996, p. 21.
  104. ^ Cushman & Osborne 2013, p. 567.
  105. ^ Ellison 1996, p. 48.
  106. ^ Ellison 1996, p. 28.
  107. ^ Ellison 1996, p. 29.
  108. ^ Ellison 1996, p. 25.
  109. ^ Alexander, David (March 1991). "Gene Roddenberry: Writer, Producer, Philosopher, Humanist". Humanist. 51 (2). p. 5. 
  110. ^ Ellison 1996, p. 33.
  111. ^ Ellison 1996, p. 5.
  112. ^ a b McNary, Dave (March 16, 2009). "'Trek' scribe sues Par". Variety. Retrieved July 13, 2016 – via HighBeam Research. (subscription required (help)). 
  113. ^ a b McNary, Dave (October 22, 2009). "Ellison, Paramount settle lawsuit". Variety. Retrieved October 22, 2009. 
  114. ^ Okuda, Okuda & Mirek 1994, p. 118.
  115. ^ Stillwell 2008, pp. 29–31.
  116. ^ Stillwell 2008, p. 33.
  117. ^ Ayers 2006, pp. 10–13.
  118. ^ Ayers 2006, pp. 46–47.
  119. ^ Gentry & Gibson-Downs 1991, p. 39.
  120. ^ Ayers 2006, pp. 71–72.
  121. ^ Ayers 2006, pp. 208–209.
  122. ^ Ayers 2006, pp. 129–130.
  123. ^ a b Ayers 2006, pp. 572–573.
  124. ^ Ayers 2006, p. 471.
  125. ^ Ayers 2006, pp. 151–153.
  126. ^ Franich, Darren (October 19, 2015). "The most important moments in Captain Kirk's life". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  127. ^ a b Brode & Brode 2015, pp. 165–166.
  128. ^ Towers, Andrea (March 7, 2014). "IDW to release Harlan Ellison's 'Star Trek' tale as new graphic novel". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 9, 2016. 
  129. ^ Fahey, Mike (February 24, 2010). "Star Trek MMO Log: The Final Frontier". Kotaku. Retrieved July 8, 2016. 
  130. ^ "Nazis on Star Trek". StarTrek.com. Archived from the original on March 27, 2006. Retrieved August 21, 2016. 
  131. ^ Engel 1994, p. 212.
  132. ^ Moss, Robert F. (June 4, 1989). "To Sci-Fi Writers, Hollywood is Mostly Alien". New York Times. p. 18. 
  133. ^ Nimoy 1995, p. 248.
  134. ^ Ellison 1996, p. 51.

References[edit]

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