The Crucible

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The Crucible
Cruciblecover.jpg
Written by Arthur Miller
Characters Abigail Williams
Reverend John Hale
Reverend Samuel Parris
John Proctor
Elizabeth Proctor
Thomas Danforth
Mary Warren
John Hathorne
Giles Corey
Rebecca Nurse
Date premiered January 22, 1953
Place premiered Martin Beck Theatre, New York City
Original language English
Subject Salem witch trials, McCarthyism
Genre Tragedy, drama
Setting Salem, Massachusetts Bay Colony

The Crucible is a 1953 play by American playwright Arthur Miller. It is a dramatized and partially fictionalized story of the Salem witch trials that took place in the Massachusetts Bay Colony during 1692-93. Miller wrote the play as an allegory of McCarthyism, when the U.S. government blacklisted accused communists.[1] Miller himself was questioned by the House of Representatives' Committee on Un-American Activities in 1956 and convicted of contempt of Congress for refusing to identify others present at meetings he had attended.[2]

The play was first performed at the Martin Beck Theatre on Broadway on January 22, 1953, starring E.G. Marshall, Beatrice Straight and Madeleine Sherwood. Miller felt that this production was too stylized and cold and the reviews for it were largely hostile (although The New York Times noted "a powerful play [in a] driving performance").[3] Nonetheless, the production won the 1953 Tony Award for Best Play.[4] A year later a new production succeeded and the play became a classic.[5] It is a central work in the canon of American drama.[6]

Synopsis[edit]

Act One[edit]

Betty Parris, the teenage daughter of Salem Reverend Samuel Parris, lies motionless. The previous evening Reverend Parris discovered Betty, some other girls and his Barbadian slave, Tituba, engaged in some sort of ritual in the woods. The village is rife with rumors of witchcraft. A crowd has gathered outside Rev. Parris' house. The Reverend questions the girls' apparent ringleader, his niece Abigail Williams, who denies they were engaged in witchery. Parris decides to invite Reverend John Hale, an expert in witchcraft and demonology, to investigate and leaves to address the crowd.

The other girls involved in the incident join Abigail and a briefly roused Betty. Abigail coerces and threatens the others to "stick to their story" of merely dancing in the woods – and deny other events took place, including nudity and attempts to place a curse on Abigail's former employer Elizabeth Proctor, which involved drinking chicken blood. The other girls are frightened of the truth being revealed and being labelled witches, so go along with Abigail. Betty faints back into unconsciousness.

John Proctor, a local farmer and husband of Elizabeth, enters. He sends the other girls out (including Mary Warren, his family's maid) and is alone with Abigail, who tells him that she and the girls were merely dancing in the woods and not performing witchcraft. It is revealed that Abigail was formerly a servant of the Proctors, and that she and John had an affair, for which she was fired. Abigail still harbors feelings for John and believes he reciprocates, but John says he does not. Abigail angrily mocks John for denying his true feelings for her. As they argue, Betty bolts upright and begins screaming.

Rev. Parris runs back into the bedroom and various villagers arrive: the wealthy and influential Thomas and Ann Putnam, respected local woman Rebecca Nurse and the Putnam's neighbor, Giles Corey. Tensions between them emerge. Mrs. Putnam is a bereaved parent seven times over; she blames witchcraft for her losses and Betty's ailment. Rebecca is rational and suggests a doctor be called, instead. Mr. Putnam and Corey have a dispute over land ownership. Parris is unhappy with his salary and living conditions as Reverend of Salem, and accuses Proctor of heading a conspiracy to oust him from the church. Abigail, standing quietly in a corner, witnesses all of this.

Reverend Hale arrives and begins his investigation. Before leaving, Giles fatefully remarks that he has noticed his wife reading unknown books and asks Hale to look into it. Hale questions Rev. Parris, Abigail and Tituba closely over the girls' activities in the woods. As the facts emerge, Abigail claims Tituba forced her to drink blood. Tituba counters that Abigail begged her to conjure a deadly curse. Parris threatens to whip Tituba to death if she doesn't confess to witchcraft. Tituba breaks down and falsely claims that the devil is bewitching her and others in town. With prompting from Hale and Putnam, Tituba accuses Sarah Osborne and Sarah Good of witchcraft. Mrs. Putnam identifies Osborne as her former midwife and asserts that she must have killed her children. Abigail leaps up, begins contorting wildly and names Osborne and Good, as well as Bridget Bishop as having been "dancing with the devil". Betty suddenly rises and begins mimicking Abigail’s movements and words, and accuses George Jacobs. Hale orders the arrest of the named people.

Act Two[edit]

Act Two is set in the Proctor's home. John and Elizabeth are incredulous that nearly forty people have been arrested for witchcraft based on the pronouncements of Abigail and the other girls. John knows their apparent possession and accusations of witchcraft are untrue, as Abigail told him when they were alone together in the First Act. Elizabeth is disconcerted to learn her husband was alone with Abigail. John demands that Elizabeth stop judging him over past sins. Elizabeth believes John still lusts after Abigail and tells him that as long as he does, he will never redeem himself.

Mary Warren, their maid, enters and gives Elizabeth a 'poppet' (doll-like puppet) she made in court that day while sitting as a witness. Angered that Mary is spending time in court instead of working in their house, John threatens to beat her. Mary retorts that she saved Elizabeth's life that day, as Elizabeth was accused of witchcraft and was to be arrested until Mary spoke in her defense. Mary refuses to identify Elizabeth's accuser, but Elizabeth surmises accurately that it must have been Abigail. She implores John to go to court and tell the judges that Abigail and the rest of the girls are pretending. John is reluctant, fearing that doing so will require him to publicly reveal his past adultery.

Reverend Hale arrives, stating he is interviewing all the people named in proceedings, including Elizabeth. He mentions that Rebecca Nurse was also named, but personally vouches for her Christian character. Hale is skeptical about the Proctors' Christian character, noting that they do not attend church regularly and that their second child has not yet been baptized; John replies that he doesn’t care for Parris and will not tolerate him to lay hands on his son, citing a well-known example of Parris' greed and vanity. Challenged to recite the Ten Commandments, John forgets "thou shalt not commit adultery". When Hale questions her, Elizabeth is angered that he doesn't question Abigail. Unsure of their Christian character, Hale prepares to take his leave. At Elizabeth's urging, John tells Hale he knows that the girl's afflictions are pretense. When Hale responds that many of the accused have confessed, John points out that they were bound to be hanged if they didn’t: Hale reluctantly acknowledges this point.

Suddenly, Giles Corey and Francis Nurse enter the house and inform John and Hale that both of their wives have been arrested on charges of witchcraft; Martha Corey for having been implicated in the reading of strange books by a guilt-stricken Giles, and Rebecca Nurse on charges of murdering children. Court officers led by clerk Ezekiel Cheever and town marshal George Herrick arrive soon afterwards and present a warrant for Elizabeth's arrest, much to Hale's surprise. Cheever picks up the poppet on Elizabeth's table and finds a needle inside. He informs John that Abigail had a pain-induced fit earlier that evening and a needle was found stuck into in her stomach; Abigail claimed that Elizabeth stabbed her with the needle through powers of witchcraft, using a poppet as a conduit. John brings Mary into the room to tell the truth about the poppet; Mary asserts that she made the doll and stuck the needle into it, and that Abigail saw her do so. Cheever is unconvinced and prepares to arrest Elizabeth.

John becomes greatly angered, tearing the arrest warrant to shreds and threatening Herrick and Cheever with a musket until Elizabeth calms him down and surrenders herself. He calls Hale a coward and asks him why the accusers' every utterance goes unchallenged. Hale is conflicted, but suggests that perhaps this misfortune has befallen the Proctors and all of Salem because of a great, secret crime that must be brought to light. Taking this to heart, John orders Mary to go to court with him and expose the other girls' lies, but Mary is too frightened of Abigail. Mary also knows about John and Abigail's affair and that Abigail is willing to expose it. John is shocked but determines the truth must prevail, whatever the personal cost.

Act Three[edit]

The third Act takes place thirty-seven days later in the Courthouse building of Salem, during the trial of Martha Corey. Francis and Giles desperately interrupt the proceedings, demanding to be heard. The court is recessed and the men thrown out of the main room, reconvening in an adjacent room. John Proctor arrives with Mary Warren and they inform Deputy Governor Danforth and Judge Hathorne about the girls' lies. Danforth informs an unaware John that Elizabeth is pregnant, and promises to spare her from execution until the child is born, hoping to placate John into dropping his case. John refuses to back down and submits a deposition signed by ninety-one locals attesting to the good character of Elizabeth, Rebecca Nurse and Martha Corey. Marshal Herrick adds his corroboration of John's good name, as well.

The deposition is dismissed by Parris and Hathorne as an attack on the court. Rev. Hale wonders aloud why arguments for the defense are being construed as attacks on the court. Danforth replies that given the "invisible nature" of witchcraft, the word of the accused and their advocates cannot be trusted. At the urging of Parris and Hathorne, he then orders that all ninety-one persons named in the deposition be arrested for questioning. Giles Corey submits his deposition, accusing Thomas Putnam of forcing his daughter to accuse George Jacobs in order to buy up his land (as convicted witches have to forfeit all of their property.) When asked to reveal the source of his information, Giles refuses, fearing that he or she will also be arrested. When Danforth threatens him with arrest for contempt, Giles argues that he cannot be arrested for "contempt of a hearing." Danforth then declares the court in session and Giles is arrested.

John submits Mary's deposition, which declares that she was coerced to accuse people by Abigail. Abigail and the other girls are brought in. Abigail denies Mary's assertions that they are pretending, and stands by her story about the poppet. When challenged by Parris and Hathorne to 'pretend to be possessed', Mary is too afraid to comply. John attacks Abigail's character, revealing that she and the other girls were caught dancing naked in the woods by Rev. Parris on the night of Betty Parris' alleged 'bewitchment'. When Danforth begins to questions Abigail, she claims that Mary has begun to bewitch her with a cold wind and John loses his temper, calling Abigail a whore. He confesses their affair, says Abigail was fired from his household over it and that Abigail is trying to murder Elizabeth so that she may, "dance with me on my wife's grave."

Danforth brings Elizabeth in to confirm this story, beforehand forbidding anyone to tell her about John's testimony. Unaware of John's public confession, Elizabeth fears that Abigail has revealed the affair in order to discredit John and lies, saying that there was no affair, and that she fired Abigail out of wild suspicion. John cries out in despair as Elizabeth is led away. Hale begs Danforth to reconsider, now agreeing Abigail is "false", but to no avail; Danforth throws out this testimony based solely upon John's earlier assertion that Elizabeth would never tell a lie.

Confusion and hysteria begin to overtake the room. Abigail and the girls run about screaming, claiming Mary's spirit is attacking them in the form of a yellow bird, which nobody else is able to see. Several times, Mary yells at the girls to stop it, but they only start repeating Mary's words. When Danforth tells the increasingly distraught Mary that he will sentence her to hang, she joins with the other girls and recants all her allegations against them, claiming John Proctor forced her to turn her against the others and that he harbors the devil. John, in despair and having given up all hope, declares that "God is dead", and is arrested. Furious, Reverend Hale denounces the proceedings and quits the court.

Act Four[edit]

Act Four takes place three months later in the town jail, early in the morning. Tituba, sharing a cell with Sarah Good, has gone insane from all of the hysteria, hearing voices and now actually claiming to talk to Satan. Marshal Herrick, depressed at having arrested so many of his neighbors, has turned to alcoholism. Many villagers have been charged with witchcraft; most have confessed and been given lengthy prison terms and their property seized by the government; twelve have been hanged; seven more are to be hanged at sunrise for refusing to confess, including John Proctor, Rebecca Nurse and Martha Corey. Giles Corey was tortured to death by pressing as the court tried in vain to extract a plea; by holding out, Giles ensured that his sons would not be disinherited. The village has become dysfunctional with so many people in prison or dead, and with the arrival of news of rebellion against the courts in nearby Andover, whispers abound of an uprising in Salem.

Danforth and Hathorne have returned to Salem to meet with Parris, and are surprised to learn that Hale has returned and is meeting with the condemned. Parris reports that Abigail and Mercy Lewis stole his life's savings from his house and have disappeared, and that he has received death threats. He begs Danforth to postpone the executions in order to secure confessions, hoping to avoid executing some of Salem's most well-regarded citizens. Hale, blaming himself for the hysteria, has returned to counsel the condemned to falsely confess and avoid execution. He presses Danforth to pardon the remaining seven and put the entire affair behind them. Danforth refuses, stating that pardons or postponement would cast doubt on the veracity of previous confessions, not to mention the hangings.

Danforth and Hale summon Elizabeth and ask her to persuade John to confess. She is bitter towards Hale, both for doubting her earlier and for wanting John to give in and ruin his good name, but agrees to speak with her husband, if only to say goodbye. She and John have a lengthy discussion, during which she commends him for holding out and not confessing. John says he is refusing to confess not out of religious conviction but through contempt for his accusers and the court. The two finally reconcile. Elizabeth has forgiven John and is saddened that he cannot forgive himself and see his own goodness. Knowing in his heart that it is the wrong thing for him to do, John agrees to falsely confess to engaging in witchcraft, deciding that he has no desire or right to be a martyr.

Danforth, Hathorne, and a relieved Parris ask John to testify to the guilt of the other hold-outs and the executed. John refuses, saying he can only report on his own sins. Danforth is disappointed by this reluctance, but at the urging of Hale and Parris, allows John to sign a written confession, to be displayed on the church door as an example. John is wary, thinking his verbal confession is sufficient. As they press him further John eventually signs, but refuses to hand the paper over, stating he does not want his family and especially his three sons to be stigmatized by the public confession. The men argue until Proctor renounces his confession entirely, ripping up the signed document. Danforth calls for the sheriff and John is led away, to be hanged. Hale pleads with Elizabeth to talk John around but she refuses, stating John has "found his goodness".

Characters (in order of appearance)[edit]

Reverend Samuel Parris
Parris is the minister of Salem's church, disliked by many residents because of his greedy, domineering personality. He is more concerned about his reputation than the well-being of his sick daughter Betty. He is also more concerned about his missing niece, Abigail Williams, and the money taken by her, than for the lives of Williams' and the other girls' victims. Abigail and Betty were the first to accuse others of witchcraft, and he owned the slave, Tituba, the first to be accused of witchcraft.
Tituba
Tituba is Reverend Parris's slave. Parris seems to have owned and purchased her in Barbados back in his time as a merchant. She cares for the children and prepares a potion for the girls to attract the men and boys they fancy, Abigail wants to kill Elizabeth Proctor for John Proctor and rarely Elizabeth Parris. Additionally, she attempts to raise the spirits of Ann Putnam's dead children at their behest. During the first scene of the play, she is turned in by Abigail and responds by claiming that four women in Salem are witches. She is not seen again until the final scene of the play taking place in the jail. By this point the events have troubled her to the point that she is haunted by hallucinations and hysteria. She and Sarah Good (whose infant child died in prison) are both mentally unsound by this point.
Abigail Williams
Williams is Parris' 17-year-old niece and the play's antagonist.[7] Abigail was previously the maid for the Proctor house, fired by Elizabeth after her discovery of Abigail's affair with her husband, John. Abigail and her uncle's slave, Tituba, lead the local girls in love-spell rituals in the Salem forest over a fire. Rumors of witchcraft fly, and Abigail tries to use the town's fear to her advantage. She accuses many of witchcraft, starting first with the society's outcasts and gradually moving up to respected members of the community. Finally, she accuses Elizabeth Proctor, believing that John truly loves her and not Elizabeth. Abigail wants Elizabeth out of the way so that she and John can marry. John says that Abigail "hopes to dance with me upon my wife's grave." She is manipulative and charismatic, attacking anyone who stands in her way. She flees Salem during the trials with Mercy Lewis.
Susanna Walcott
Susanna is a nervous and hasty girl, a little younger than Abigail and she participated with Abigail, Betty, Mercy and Mary in the ritual in the woods. She works for Dr. Griggs.
Ann Putnam
Ann Putnam is the wife of Thomas Putnam. She has one daughter, Ruth (in real life, Ann Putnam, Jr.), but has "laid seven babies un-baptized in the earth." Ann is accusatory and harsh, due to the trauma of the deaths of all save one of her children. In real life, Ann Putnam (née Carr) bore twelve children, ten of whom survived their parents, who both died in 1699.
Thomas Putnam
Thomas Putnam lives in Salem and owns land close to Giles Corey. Giles accuses him of trying to steal it, and says that Putnam got his daughter to accuse Giles' wife of witchcraft. This possibility is strongly supported in the play. Putnam uses the girls to advance his own greed, resentments and grudges.
Betty Parris
Betty Parris is the ten-year-old daughter of Reverend Samuel Parris and is the first to become ill after being "bewitched".
Mercy Lewis
Mary Warren
John Proctor
John Proctor is the play's protagonist and husband of Elizabeth Proctor. John is a local farmer and a committed Quaker, but also possesses a healthy independent streak, demonstrated in his willingness to challenge traditional authority figures (the Reverends and Judges) with whom he disagrees. Contemporary notes describe him as a "strong-willed beast of a man".[8] John's earlier affair with maid Abigail Williams and her subsequent, unrequited feelings for him are shown to underlie many of the play's events. John suffers guilt and the distrust of his wife over the affair, but is willing to be publicly shamed over it in order to stop the witch trials. John argues the case for reason and justice during the trials, and encourages his maid Mary Warren to testify in court to the girls' lies. But during her testimony Mary is intimidated by the girls, who prey on her fear and weakness of character. Mary recants her testimony and instead accuses John Proctor of practising witchcraft, resulting in his arrest. Initially, John refuses to confess out of spite for his accusers rather than on moral or religious grounds, but during a later conversation with his wife Elizabeth, decides he does not want to be executed (martyred) over the charge. He confesses to being guilty of witchcraft, but withdraws the confession when the judges demand he testify against others (notably his devout neighbor Rebecca Nurse) and make a public display of his guilt. Ultimately, John Proctor is hanged.
The real John Proctor was also an innkeeper as well as a farmer, and was aged 60 when executed; Elizabeth was his third wife. He was strongly and vocally opposed to the witch trials from their beginning, being particularly scornful of spectral evidence used in the trials. As in the play, Elizabeth was accused of practicing witchcraft and arrested before John. Unlike the play, John maintained his innocence throughout the ordeal. He was hanged in August, 1692.[8]
Giles Corey
Giles is a friend of John Proctor who is very concerned about his own land, which he knows Thomas Putnam is trying to steal by getting the girls to accuse Giles' wife, Martha, of witchcraft. Giles learns this from an anonymous source, whom he declines to name, as he knows that this person would be persecuted. He is subjected to being pressed by stones when he refuses to plea "aye or nay" to the charge of witchcraft. The character of Giles Corey is based on a real person of the same name. His wife was hanged due to the witchcraft accusations. It is unusual for persons to refuse to plead, and extremely rare to find reports of persons who have been able to endure this painful form of death in silence, as explained in the following quote from Elizabeth Proctor:

He were not hanged. He would not answer yes or no to his indictment; for if he denied the charge they'd hang him surely, and auction out his property. So he stand mute, and died Christian under the law. And so his sons will have his farm. It is the law, for he could not be condemned a wizard without he answer the indictment, aye or nay.

Giles' reason for holding out so long is because as long as he did not answer yes or no, his children would inherit his property.
Rebecca Nurse
Rebecca Nurse is a well-respected member of the community, married to Francis Nurse. She is the voice of reason and compassion in the play. Having had many grandchildren, she is a foil for Mrs. Putnam, all but one of whose children died in childbirth and who is anxious to blame Betty and Ruth's "ailment" on witchcraft. Rebecca later faces John Proctor in Act 4. Since he refuses to condemn his friends (Rebecca among them), he rips up his 'confession' and dies a martyr.
Reverend John Hale
John Hale is a minister from Beverly, Massachusetts. Reverend Samuel Parris invites him to Salem to examine Betty, Parris' daughter. He is depicted as a young minister who studied witchcraft and other demonic arts. A devout Christian, Hale wishes to seek out the witches and 'save their souls.' Upon witnessing the horrors of the witch trials in Salem and after seeing Mary Warren accuse John Proctor as a witch, Hale famously declares "I quit this court!". In reality, Hale was in his mid-fifties when the witch trials commenced.
Elizabeth Proctor
John Proctor's wife. She is accused of witchcraft, and is only saved from death because she is pregnant during the hysteria. Abigail hates her for being Proctor's wife, and for keeping Proctor's heart. By the end of the play Elizabeth acknowledges that her own coldness towards her husband led to the fateful affair. By the end Elizabeth allows her husband to die the honorable death he sought, saying she would not take away his goodness.
Ezekiel Cheever
George Herrick/John Willard
Judge John Hathorne
Deputy Governor Thomas Danforth
Danforth is pretentious, officious and selfish, a judge whose primary loyalty is to himself and to his position. Seen by Miller as being the "true" villain of the piece – despite the fact that in real life Danforth did not ever sit on the Court of Oyer and Terminer, but rather on the Massachusetts Superior Court of Judicature, which passed down no death sentences – the author described his version of Danforth accordingly in a New York Times interview: "... [t]he rule-bearer, the man who always guards the boundaries which, if you insist on breaking through them, have the power to destroy you. His "evil" is more than personal, it is nearly mythical. He does more evil than he knows how to do; while merely following his nose he guards ignorance, he is man's limit."[9]

Casts[edit]

Original 1953 Broadway cast:[10][11]

In June 1953 Miller recast the production, simplified the "pitiless sets of rude buildings" and added a scene.[11][12]

Boo Alexander – Betty Parris
Jacqueline Andre – Tituba
Fred Stewart – Rev. Samuel Parris
Madeleine SherwoodAbigail Williams
Barbara Stanton – Susanna Walcott
Jane Hoffman – Mrs Ann Putnam
Raymond Bramley – Thomas Putnam
Dorothy Joliffe – Mercy Lewis
Jennie Egan – Mary Warren
Arthur KennedyJohn Proctor
Jean AdairRebecca Nurse
Joseph SweeneyGiles Corey
E. G. MarshallRev. John Hale
Beatrice StraightElizabeth Proctor
Graham Velsey – Francis Nurse
Don McHenry – Ezekiel Cheever
George Mitchell – Marshall Herrick
Philip Coolidge – Judge Hathorne
Walter Hampden – Deputy Governor Danforth
Adele Fortin – Sarah Good
Donald Marye – Hopkins
The production was directed by Jed Harris and produced by Kermit Bloomgarden.

2002 Broadway revival cast:[13]

Liam NeesonJohn Proctor
Laura LinneyElizabeth Proctor
Brian Murray – Deputy Governor Danforth
John Benjamin HickeyRev. John Hale
Christopher Evan Welch – Rev. Parris
Angela BettisAbigail Williams
Tom AldredgeGiles Corey
Stephen Lee Anderson – Hopkins
Kristen Bell – Susanna Wallcott
Jennifer CarpenterMary Warren
Betsy Hogg – Betty Parris
J.R. Horne – Judge Hathorne
Patrice Johnson – Tituba
Sevrin Anne Mason – Mercy Lewis
Paul O'Brien – Thomas Putnam
Jeanna Paulsen – Ann Putnam
Frank Raiter – Francis Nurse
Dale Soules – Sarah Good/voice of Martha Corey
Helen StenborgRebecca Nurse
Henry Stram – Ezekiel Cheever
Jack Willis – Marshal Herrick

2016 Broadway revival cast:[14]

Ben Whishaw – John Proctor
Sophie Okonedo – Elizabeth Proctor
Ciarán Hinds – Deputy Governor Danforth
Saoirse Ronan – Abigail Williams
Bill Camp – Rev. John Hale
Tavi Gevinson – Mary Warren
Jason Butler Harner – Rev. Samuel Parris
Jim Norton – Giles Corey
Tina Benko – Ann Putnam / Sarah Good
Jenny Jules – Tituba
Thomas Jay Ryan – Thomas Putnam
Brenda Wehle – Rebecca Nurse
Teagle F. Bougere – Judge Hathorne
Michael Braun – Ezekiel Cheever
Elizabeth Teeter – Betty Parris
Ashlei Sharpe Chestnut – Susanna Walcott
Ray Anthony Thomas – Francis Nurse
Erin Wilhelmi – Mercy Lewis
This production was directed by Ivo van Hove
and featured an original score composed by Philip Glass.

Historical accuracy[edit]

In 1953, the year the play debuted, Miller wrote, "The Crucible is taken from history. No character is in the play who did not take a similar role in Salem, 1692."[15] This does not appear to be accurate as Miller made both deliberate changes and incidental mistakes. Abigail Williams' age was increased from 11 or 12[16] to 17, probably to add credence to the backstory of Proctor's affair with Abigail. John Proctor himself was 60 years old in 1692, but portrayed as much younger in the play, for the same reason.[17][18]

Miller claimed, in A note on the historical accuracy of this play, that "while there were several judges of almost equal authority, I have symbolized them all in Hathorne and Danforth".[17] However, his unilateral re-editing conflates Danforth with the historical and extremely influential figure of William Stoughton, who is not a character or even mentioned in the play. Both men were subsequent Deputy Governors, but Stoughton, who never married, was the strong and forceful leader of the trials, always ready to sign an order of execution, as well as an ally of Cotton Mather. It was Stoughton who ordered further deliberations after the jury initially acquitted Rebecca Nurse. He refused to ever acknowledge that the trials had been anything other than a success, and was infuriated when Governor Phips (whose own wife, somehow, had been named as a possible witch) ended the trials for good and released the prisoners.[19]

Danforth did not sit on the Court of Oyer and Terminer. In fact he is recorded as being critical of the conduct of the trials, and played a role in bringing them to an end.[20] In the play, Thomas and especially Ann Putnam are disconsolate over the fact that only one of their children has survived to adolescence. In real life, the Putnams (who both died in 1699) were survived by ten of their twelve children, including Ann Jr., who, in 1706, issued perhaps the most heartfelt apology of any accuser. Thomas Putnam's conduct during the witch trial hysteria has been amply documented to have been almost entirely due to financial motivations and score-settling, something the play only makes reference to after introducing the Putnams' fictional deceased offspring as a deus ex machina.[21][22]

In the 1953 essay, Journey to The Crucible, Miller writes of visiting Salem and feeling like the only one interested in what really happened in 1692.[23] However, a long line of historians before Miller had attempted to record and tease apart the complexities of what took place at Salem, and certain battle lines had long before been drawn: Calef vs. Mather; Upham vs. Poole, skeptics or scholars vs. the faithful and the religious establishment. Miller's cursory and limited scholarship regarding the trials are lamentable, given the squabbling that has long taken place over various interpretations of the numerous details and facts. Many of Miller's characters were based on people who had little in the public record other than their statements from the trials, but others survived to expand, recant, or comment on the role they played at Salem, including jurors, accusers, survivors, and judges.[24] Rev. Parris issued his first in a series of apologies on November 26, 1694, and was removed from his position in 1697.[25] In 1698, Hale finished composing a lengthy essay about Salem that was reprinted by Burr in 1914.[26]

Language of the period[edit]

The play's action takes place 70 years after the community arrived as settlers from Britain. The people on whom the characters are based would have retained strong regional dialects from their home country. Miller gave all his characters the same colloquialisms, such as "Goody" or "Goodwife", and drew on the rhythms and speech patterns of the King James Bible to achieve the effect of historical perspective he wanted.[1]

Title[edit]

Miller originally called the play Those Familiar Spirits,[27] before renaming it as The Crucible. The word "crucible" is contextually defined as a container in which metals or other substances are subjected to high temperatures. Each character is metaphorically a metal subjected to the heat of the surrounding situation. The characters whose moral standards prevail in the face of death, such as John Proctor and Rebecca Nurse, symbolically refuse to sacrifice their principles or to falsely confess.

Adaptations[edit]

Film[edit]

The play was first adapted for film as The Crucible (1957) (also titled Hexenjagd or Les Sorcières de Salem), a joint Franco-East German film production by Belgian director Raymond Rouleau with a screenplay adapted by Jean-Paul Sartre, and by Miller himself as The Crucible (1996), the latter with a cast including Paul Scofield, Daniel Day-Lewis, and Winona Ryder. Miller's adaptation earned him an Academy Award nomination for Best Screenplay based on Previously Produced Material, his only nomination. In 2014 The Old Vic's production of The Crucible which starred Richard Armitage and directed by Yaël Farber was filmed and distributed to cinemas across the UK and Ireland.[28]

Opera[edit]

The play was adapted by composer Robert Ward as an opera, The Crucible, which was first performed in 1961 and received the 1962 Pulitzer Prize for Music[29] and the New York Music Critics' Circle Award.[30]

Television[edit]

The play has been presented several times on television. One notable 1968 production starred George C. Scott as John Proctor, Colleen Dewhurst (Scott's wife at the time) as Elizabeth Proctor, Melvyn Douglas as Thomas Danforth, and Tuesday Weld as Abigail Williams. A production by the Royal Shakespeare Company at the Gielgud Theatre in London's West End in 2006 was recorded for the Victoria and Albert Museum's National Video Archive of Performance.[31]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ a b Blakesley (1992, xv).
  2. ^ Loftus (1957).
  3. ^ Abbotson (2005, 78) and Atkinson (1953).
  4. ^ "The Crucible". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved November 27, 2008. 
  5. ^ Roudané (1987, pg. 24).
  6. ^ Wilmeth and Bigsby (1998, p. 415).
  7. ^ Bloom (2008, 10).
  8. ^ a b Important Persons in the Salem Court Records, Salem Witch Trial Archive, University of Virginia, 2002.
  9. ^ Huftel, Sheila (1965). Arthur Miller: The Burning Glass. Citadel Press. 
  10. ^ Abbotson, Susan C.W. (2007). "The Crucible—First Performance". Critical companion to Arthur Miller: a literary reference to his life and work. New York: Infobase. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-8160-6194-5. 
  11. ^ a b Atkinson, Brooks (January 23, 1953). "The Crucible". The New York Times. Retrieved February 24, 2012. 
  12. ^ Atkinson, Brooks (July 2, 1953). "At the Theatre; Arthur Miller's The Crucible in a New Edition With Several New Actors and One New Scene". The New York Times. 
  13. ^ "The Crucible, Virginia Theatre". ibdb.com. Retrieved October 21, 2011. 
  14. ^ "The Crucible, Walter Kerr Theatre". Retrieved June 6, 2016. 
  15. ^ Miller, Arthur (February 8, 1953). "Journey to 'The Crucible'". The New York Times. Retrieved October 29, 2015. 
  16. ^ Lawson, Deodat. Further Account of the Tryals.  (appended to Cotton Mather's Wonders of the Invisible World in a subsequent ed. published in London in 1693)
  17. ^ a b Full Text, marshfield.k12.wi.us; accessed October 29, 2015.
  18. ^ "Abigail's Age Has Been Raised", hoydenabouttown.com, June 26, 2012; accessed September 7, 2015.
  19. ^ Mather, Cotton (October 1692). Intro to Wonders of the Invisible World. Boston. 
  20. ^ Calef, Robert (1700). More Wonders of the Invisible World. London, UK.  (included in Burr (1914), abridged but with a highly useful index).
  21. ^ Bower, Glenn. Just a Family History, books.google.com; accessed December 25, 2014.
  22. ^ Boyer, Paul S. (1974), Salem Possessed: The Social Origins of Witchcraft, Harvard University Press, pp. 133–40, retrieved March 24, 2013 
  23. ^ Miller, Arthur (February 8, 1953). "Journey to The Crucible". The New York Times. 
  24. ^ Calef, Robert (1700). More Wonders of the Invisible World. London, UK. 
  25. ^ Upham, Charles W. Salem Witchcraft, Volumes=I and II, Appendix IV. 
  26. ^ Burr, George Burr (1914). Narratives of the Witchcraft Cases. 
  27. ^ "Those Familiar Spirits" (PDF). Retrieved December 23, 2014. 
  28. ^ The Crucible Onscreen, thecrucibleonscreen.com; accessed December 23, 2014.
  29. ^ Pulitzer Prize Winners by Year
  30. ^ Obituaries, Opera News, vol. 78, no. 1, July 2013
  31. ^ List of titles, National Video Archive of Performance

Sources

  • Abbotson, Susan C.W. (2005). Masterpieces of 20th-century American Drama. Westport, CT: Greenwood. ISBN 0-313-33223-1. 
  • Atkinson, Brooks (January 23, 1953). "Review of The Crucible". The New York Times. 
  • Blakesley, Maureen (1992). The Crucible, a Play in Four Acts. Heinemann Plays ser. Oxford. ISBN 0-435-23281-9. 
  • Bloom, Harold (2008). Arthur Miller's The Crucible. Chelsea House. ISBN 978-0-7910-9828-8. 
  • Loftus, Joseph A. (June 2, 1957). "Miller Convicted in Contempt Case". The New York Times. 
  • Miller, Arthur (1992). "A Note on the Historical Accuracy of the Play", in Blakesley (1992, page xvii).
  • Ram, Atma (1988). Perspectives on Arthur Miller. Abhinav. ISBN 978-81-7017-240-6. 
  • Roudané, Matthew, ed. (1987). Conversations with Arthur Miller. Jackson, MS: UP of Mississippi. ISBN 978-0-87805-323-0. 
  • Wilmeth, Don B. & C. W. E. Bigsby, eds. (1998). The Cambridge History of American Theatre. 3. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-67985-5. 

Bibliography[edit]

Editions[edit]

  • Miller, Arthur The Crucible (Harmondsworth: The Viking Press, 1971); ISBN 0-14-02-4772-6 (edited; with an introduction by Gerald Weales. Contains the full text based on the Collected Plays, and various critical essays)
  • Nilan, Jack. "McCarthyism and the Movies". Retrieved February 16, 2016. 

External links[edit]