The Damned (1969 film)

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The Damned
The Damned Poster.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Luchino Visconti
Produced by Ever Haggiag
Alfred Levy
Screenplay by Nicola Badalucco
Enrico Medioli
Luchino Visconti
Starring Dirk Bogarde
Ingrid Thulin
Helmut Griem
Helmut Berger
Renaud Verley
Umberto Orsini
Albrecht Schönhals
René Koldehoff
Florinda Bolkan
Charlotte Rampling
Music by Maurice Jarre
Cinematography Pasquale De Santis
Armando Nannuzzi
Edited by Ruggero Mastroianni
Production
company
Ital-Noleggio Cinematografico
Praesidens
Pegaso Cinematografica
Eichberg-Film
Distributed by Ital-Noleggio Cinematografico (Italy)
Warner Bros.-Seven Arts (International)
Release date
  • 14 October 1969 (1969-10-14) (Rome premiere)
  • 16 October 1969 (1969-10-16) (Italy)
  • 27 January 1970 (1970-01-27) (West Germany)
Running time
154 minutes[1]
Country Italy
West Germany
Language English
German
Box office 2,638,507 admissions (France)
$1.2 million (US/Canada)[2]

The Damned (Italian title: La caduta degli dei, lit. "The Fall of the Gods") is a 1969 Italian-German historical drama film written and directed by Luchino Visconti. The plot centers on the Essenbecks, a wealthy industrialist family who have begun doing business with the Nazi Party, a thinly veiled reference to the Essen-based Krupp family of steel industrialists.

The Italian title is the conventional translation of the term Götterdämmerung (with its Wagnerian association), but for the German version, the title Die Verdammten ("The Damned") was chosen. All versions use Götterdämmerung as a subtitle, however.

The German Trilogy[edit]

The Damned has often been regarded as the first of Visconti's films described as "The German Trilogy, followed by Death in Venice (1971) and Ludwig (1973). Author Henry Bacon, in his book "Visconti: Explorations of Beauty and Decay" (1998), specifically categorizes these films together under a chapter "Visconti & Germany." Visconti's earlier films had analyzed Italian society during the Risorgimento and postwar periods. Peter Bondanella's Italian Cinema (2002) depicts the trilogy as a move to take a broader view of European politics and culture. Stylistically, "They emphasize lavish sets and costumes, sensuous lighting, painstakingly slow camerawork, and a penchant for imagery reflecting subjective states or symbolic values," comments Bondanella.[3]

Plot[edit]

The film centers on the Essenbecks, a wealthy industrialist family who have begun doing business with the Nazi Party. On the night of the Reichstag fire, the family's conservative patriarch, Baron Joachim von Essenbeck, who represents the old aristocratic Germany and detests Adolf Hitler, is murdered. Herbert Thalmann, the family firm's vice president, who openly opposes the Nazis, is framed for the crime. He escapes the grasp of the Gestapo, but his wife Elizabeth and their children do not.

The family's empire passes to the control of an unscrupulous relative, the boorish SA officer Konstantin. Waiting in the wings are his son Günther, a sensitive and troubled student, and his nephew, Martin, an amoral, sexually deviant playboy who is secretly molesting his young cousin as well as a poor Jewish girl. Martin is dominated by his possessive mother, Sophie, the widow of Baron Joachim's only son, a fallen World War I hero.

Friedrich Bruckmann, an employee of the family firm and Sophie's lover, ascends in power despite his lowly social status, thanks to Sophie's support and the SS officer and family relation Aschenbach, who pits family factions against each other to move their steel and munition works into state control. Friedrich kills Konstantin in the SS coup against the SA during its 1934 meeting to deal with its dissatisfaction with Hitler. Known as The Night of the Long Knives, the SA meeting and the subsequent executions of its leaders by the SS is portrayed as a homosexual orgy and bloody gangster-style massacre. Aschenbach then dismisses Friedrich, who now controls the family fortunes, as a weak social climber and not a loyal Nazi.

Herbert Thalmann then returns to the family table. He reveals that his wife and children were sent to Dachau concentration camp, where his wife died; he is handing himself over to the Gestapo in return for the freedom of his children. Aschenbach makes a deal with the discounted and ignored heir, Martin, to remove Friedrich and Sophie from control, so that Martin may get what is owed him. Martin has sex with his mother, who falls into a catatonic state. Now in the SS, Martin allows Friedrich, who by decree has inherited the name and title of von Essenbeck, to wed his mother, and then hands them poison to commit suicide. He then hands over the family's steel works to the Nazi government, which means that the way to war is more than secured.

Cast[edit]

Response[edit]

The film opened to worldwide acclaim.[citation needed] It received an Oscar nomination for Best Screenplay and was named Best Foreign Film by the National Board of Review. Among the international cast, Helmut Berger was singled out for his performance as Martin, a vicious sexual deviant who uses his amoral appetites to his own twisted ends. The film was the tenth most popular movie at the French box office in 1970.[4]

The film has appeared on critics' lists such as the New York Times Best 1000 Movies Ever Made[5] and Halliwell's Top 1000: The Ultimate Movie Countdown.[6]

The film's entry in the Lexikon des Internationalen Films praises it for its presentation of the connection of "moral decadence, sexual neurosis, aetheticist death wish, narcisist self-centeredness and political opportunism," also saying that the effect is partially weakened by the film's "decorative circuitousness and artificial stylisation."[7]

Filmed in both Italy and Germany, the film was given an "X" rating by the MPAA and was heavily edited when shown on CBS television late night. Warner Bros. submitted the film for re-classification for their DVD release of the film in 2004. The film's rating was changed from an "X" to an "R."

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Damned (X)". British Board of Film Classification. 1969-09-19. Retrieved 2013-06-03. 
  2. ^ "Big Rental Films of 1970", Variety, 6 January 1971, p. 11
  3. ^ Bonadella, Peter. A History of Italian Cinema. p. 264. 
  4. ^ "1970 Box Office in France". Box Office Story. 
  5. ^ Peter M. Nichols, A. O. Scott (February 2004). The New York Times Guide to the Best 1,000 Movies Ever Made. 
  6. ^ Walker, Peter (2005). Halliwell's Top 1000. 
  7. ^ zweitausendeins.de/filmlexikon/

External links[edit]