The Dead (short story)
|Genre(s)||Short story or Novella|
|Media type||Print (hardback and paperback)|
- Gabriel Conroy – The main character of the story.
- Kate Morkan and Julia Morkan – Gabriel and Mary Jane's aunts, elderly sisters who throw a party every year during Christmas time.
- Mary Jane Morkan – Niece of Kate and Julia Morkan.
- Lily – Maid.
- Gretta Conroy – Gabriel's wife.
- Molly Ivors – Colleague of Gabriel, very patriotic about Ireland.
- Mr. Browne – Only Protestant guest at the party.
- Freddy Malins – An alcoholic and friend of Gabriel Conroy.
- Bartell D'Arcy – A famous, retired tenor.
- Patrick Morkan – The deceased brother of Kate and Julia (Mary Jane's father). Famously rode a mill horse that led him in circles around the statue of King William III in Dublin.
Gabriel Conroy, Gretta Conroy, Kate and Julia Morkan, and Bartell d'Arcy are all alluded to in James Joyce's later work, Ulysses, though no character from "The Dead" makes a direct appearance in the novel.
The story centres on Gabriel Conroy, a university professor, on the night of the Morkan sisters' annual dance and dinner in the first week of January 1904, a celebration of the Feast of the Epiphany. Gabriel, favourite nephew of the sisters, arrives late to the party with his wife Gretta, where he is eagerly received. It is snowing outside and Gabriel observes that "we're in for a night of it." After a somewhat awkward encounter with Lily, the caretaker's daughter who the Morkan sisters have working the door, Gabriel goes upstairs to where the party attendants are dancing. Gabriel worries about the speech he is to give, especially that it contains too many academic references for his audience, and Freddy Malins arrives drunk, as the hosts had feared.
As the party moves on, student Mary Jane plays a difficult piano piece Gabriel does not find engaging, and he thinks about his family during the performance. While they dance, he is confronted by Miss Ivors, an Irish nationalist, about his publishing a weekly literary column in a newspaper with unionist sympathies, and she teases him as a "West Briton," that is, a supporter of English political control of Ireland. Gabriel thinks this charge is highly unfair, but fails to offer a satisfactory rejoinder, and the encounter ends awkwardly, which bothers him the rest of the night. Miss Ivors exhorts him to come to the Aran Islands, off the rural west of Ireland, but he says he prefers to travel on the continent. He becomes more disaffected when he tells his wife of the encounter, who expresses an interest in returning to visit her childhood home of Galway. The music and party continues, but Gabriel retreats into himself, thinking of the snow outside and his impending speech.
Before dinner, Miss Ivors slips out. Dinner begins, with Gabriel seated at the head of the table. The guests discuss music and the practices of certain monks. Once the dining has died down, Gabriel thinks once more about the snow and begins his speech, praising traditional Irish hospitality, observing that "we are living in a sceptical...thought-tormented age," and referring to Aunt Kate, Aunt Julia and Mary Jane as the Three Graces. The speech ends with a toast, and the guests sing "For they are jolly gay fellows."
The party is winding down, and as the guests filter out, Gabriel relates a family story about a dead relative whose horse once apparently got stuck circling a statue. Preparing to leave, he finds his wife standing, apparently lost in thought, at the top of the stairs. From another room, Bartell D'Arcy singing "The Lass of Aughrim" can be heard. The Conroys leave, walking through the snow, which will be general all over Ireland, a remarkable and rare occurrence in its temperate climate. Gabriel is excited, it has been a long time since he and Gretta have had a night in a hotel to themselves, and is overcome with love for his wife. Gretta is cool, reserved, and contemplative, much to Gabriel's dismay. When they arrive at the hotel, Gabriel's aspirations of passionate lovemaking are conclusively dashed by Gretta's lack of interest. He presses her about what is bothering her, and she admits that she is "thinking about that song, The Lass of Aughrim." She admits that it reminds her of someone, a young man named Michael Furey, whom she had courted in her youth in Galway. He used to sing The Lass of Aughrim for her. Furey died at seventeen, early in their relationship, and she had been very much in love with him. She believes that it was his insistence on coming to meet her in the winter and the rain, while already sick, that killed him. After telling these things to Gabriel, Gretta falls asleep. At first, Gabriel is shocked and dismayed that there was something of such significance in his wife's life that he never knew about. But as he moves towards sleep himself, his thoughts range more widely, and his emotions become less clear. He ponders the role of the countless dead in living people's lives, and observes that everyone he knows, himself included, will one day only be a memory, as Michael Furey now is to Gretta. He finds in this fact a profound affirmation of life. Gabriel stands at the window, watching the snow fall, and the narrative expands past him, edging into the surreal and encompassing the entirety of Ireland. As the story ends, we are told that "His soul swooned slowly as he heard the snow falling faintly through the universe and faintly falling, like the descent of their last end, upon all the living and the dead."
Dan Barry of The New York Times called "The Dead" "just about the finest short story in the English language" on the centennial of Dubliners. T. S. Eliot called it one of greatest short stories ever written. Joyce biographer and critic Richard Ellmann wrote "In its lyrical, melancholy acceptance of all that life and death offer, 'The Dead' is a linchpin in Joyce's work." Cornell University Joyce scholar Daniel R. Schwarz described it as "that magnificent short novel of tenderness and passion but also of disappointed love and frustrated personal and career expectations."
In 1987, it was adapted into a movie directed by John Huston, starring Anjelica Huston as Gretta Conroy and Donal McCann as Gabriel Conroy. It was the last movie Huston directed before dying that year.
In 1999, it was adapted into Broadway musical by Richard Nelson and Shaun Davey, which won a Tony Award for Best Book of a Musical. The original production starred Christopher Walken as Gabriel Conroy.
Joyce Carol Oates's 1973 story "The Dead" makes many allusions to Joyce's story.
- Bowen, Zach (1974). Musical Allusions in the Works of James Joyce: Early Poetry Through Ulysses. Albany: SUNY Press, pp. 11–13, 18–23. ISBN 0-87395-248-0
- Nora – A biography of Nora Joyce, Brenda Maddox, 1988.
- James Joyce's 'The Dead' and its Galway Connections, Peadar O'Dowd, Journal of the Galway Archaeological and Historical Society, Volume 51, 1999, pp. 189–193.
- Joyce, James (1914). Dubliners (Penguin Classics ed.). New York: Penguin Books. p. 177. ISBN 0-14-018647-6.
- Joyce, James (1914). Dubliners. New York: Penguin Books. p. 204. ISBN 0-14-018647-6.
- Joyce, James (1914). Dubliners. New York: Penguin Books. p. 219. ISBN 0-14-018647-6.
- Joyce, James (1914). Dubliners (Penguin Classics ed.). New York: Penguin Books. p. 225. ISBN 0-14-018647-6.
- "Singular Collection, Multiple Mysteries: Honoring James Joyce’s ‘Dubliners,’ Published 100 Years Ago", by Dan Barry The New York Times
- "An Exploration of 'The Dead'". Joyce's Dublin. UCD Humanities Institute. Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- Ellmann, Richard (1982). James Joyce (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 252. ISBN 0-19-503103-2.
- Schwarz, Daniel (1994). "Introduction: Biographical and Historical Contexts" in "The Dead". Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press. p. 19. ISBN 0-312-08073-5.
- Irish Playography entry for Hugh Leonard  retrieved 7 July 2013
- The Dead profile, from IMDB.com
- Film review of The Dead, from RogerEbert.com
- Tony Award history, from TonyAwards.com
- Taylor, Gordon O. (June 1983). "Joyce 'after' Joyce: Oates's 'The Dead'". Southern Review. 19 (3): 596. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
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