The Diary of a Young Girl
1947 first edition
|Original title||Het Achterhuis|
|Translator||B. M. Moored|
|Cover artist||Helmut Salden|
|Subject||World War II, Nazi occupation of the Netherlands|
Published in English
The Diary of a Young Girl (also known as The Diary of Anne Frank) is a book of the writings from the Dutch language diary kept by Anne Frank while she was in hiding for two years with her family during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands. The family was apprehended in 1944, and Anne Frank died of typhus in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp. The diary was retrieved by Miep Gies, who gave it to Anne's father, Otto Frank, the family's only known survivor. The diary has since been published in more than 60 different languages.
First published under the title Het Achterhuis. Dagboekbrieven 14 Juni 1942 – 1 Augustus 1944 (The Annex: Diary Notes 14 June 1942 – 1 August 1944) by Contact Publishing in Amsterdam in 1947, the diary received widespread critical and popular attention on the appearance of its English language translation Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl by Doubleday & Company (United States) and Valentine Mitchell (United Kingdom) in 1952. Its popularity inspired the 1955 play The Diary of Anne Frank by the screenwriters Frances Goodrich and Albert Hackett, which they adapted for the screen for the 1959 movie version. The book is included in several lists of the top books of the 20th century.
- 1 Background
- 2 Format
- 3 Dear Kitty
- 4 Synopsis
- 5 Editorial history
- 6 Reception
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
During the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands, Anne Frank received a blank diary as one of her presents on June 12, 1942, her 13th birthday. According to The Anne Frank House, the red, checkered autograph book which Anne used as her diary was actually not a surprise, since she had chosen it the day before with her father when perusing a bookstore near her home. She began to write in it on June 14, 1942, two days later. On July 5, 1942, Anne′s older sister Margot received an official summons to report to a Nazi work camp in Germany, and on July 6, Margot and Anne went into hiding with their father Otto and mother Edith. They were joined by Hermann van Pels, Otto's business partner, including his wife Auguste and their teenage son Peter. Their hiding place was in the sealed-off upper rooms of the annex at the back of Otto's company building in Amsterdam. The rooms were concealed behind a movable bookcase. Mrs. van Pels's dentist, Fritz Pfeffer, joined them four months later. In the published version, names were changed: the van Pelses are known as the Van Daans, and Fritz Pfeffer as Mr Dussel. With the assistance of a group of Otto Frank's trusted colleagues, they remained hidden for two years and one month.
They were betrayed in August 1944, which resulted in their deportation to Nazi concentration camps. Of the eight people, only Otto Frank survived the war. Anne died when she was 15 years old in Bergen-Belsen, from typhus. The exact date of her death is unknown and has long been believed to be in early March, a few weeks before the prisoners were liberated by British troops in April 1945. However, new research in 2015 indicated that Anne may have died as early as February.
In manuscript, her original diaries are written over three extant volumes. The first volume (the red-and-white checkered autograph book) covers the period between June 14 and December 5, 1942. Since the second surviving volume (a school exercise book) begins on December 22, 1943, and ends on April 17, 1944, it is assumed that the original volume or volumes between December 1942 and December 1943 were lost—presumably after the arrest, when the hiding place was emptied on Nazi instructions. However, this missing period is covered in the version Anne rewrote for preservation. The third existing volume (which was also a school exercise book) contains entries from April 17 to August 1, 1944, when Anne wrote for the last time before her arrest.:2
The manuscript, written on loose sheets of paper, was found strewn on the floor of the hiding place by Miep Gies and Bep Voskuijl after the family's arrest, but before their rooms were ransacked by the Dutch police and the Gestapo. They were kept safe and given to Otto Frank after the war, with the original notes, when Anne's death was confirmed in the autumn of 1945.
The diary is not written in the classic forms of "Dear Diary" or as letters to oneself; Anne calls her diary "Kitty", so almost all of the letters are written to Kitty. Anne used the above-mentioned names for her annex-mates in the first volume, from September 25, 1942 until November 13, 1942, when the first notebook ends. It is believed that these names were taken from characters found in a series of popular Dutch books written by Cissy van Marxveldt.
Anne's already budding literary ambitions were galvanized on 29 March 1944 when she heard a London radio broadcast made by the exiled Dutch Minister for Education, Art, and Science, Gerrit Bolkestein, calling for the preservation of "ordinary documents—a diary, letters ... simple everyday material" to create an archive for posterity as testimony to the suffering of civilians during the Nazi occupation. On May 20, 1944, she notes that she started re-drafting her diary with future readers in mind. She expanded entries and standardized them by addressing all of them to Kitty, clarified situations, prepared a list of pseudonyms, and cut scenes she thought would be of little interest or too intimate for general consumption. By the time she started the second existing volume, she was writing only to Kitty.
There has been much conjecture about the identity or inspiration of Kitty, who in Anne's revised manuscript is the sole recipient of her letters. In 1996, the critic Sietse van der Hoek wrote that the name referred to Kitty Egyedi, a prewar friend of Anne's. Van der Hoek may have been informed by the publication A Tribute to Anne Frank (1970), prepared by the Anne Frank Foundation, which assumed a factual basis for the character in its preface by the then chairman of the Foundation, Henri van Praag, and accentuated this with the inclusion of a group photograph that singles out Anne, Sanne Ledermann, Hanneli Goslar, and Kitty Egyedi. Anne does not mention Kitty Egyedi in any of her writings (in fact, the only other girl mentioned in her diary from the often reproduced photo, other than Goslar and Ledermann, is Mary Bos, whose drawings Anne dreamed about in 1944) and the only comparable example of Anne's writing unposted letters to a real friend are two farewell letters to Jacqueline van Maarsen, from September 1942.
Theodor Holman wrote in reply to Sietse van der Hoek that the diary entry for 28 September 1942 proved conclusively the character's fictional origin. Jacqueline van Maarsen agreed, but Otto Frank assumed his daughter had her real acquaintance in mind when she wrote to someone of the same name. However, Kitty Egyedi said in an interview that she was flattered by the assumption, but doubted the diary was addressed to her:
|“||Kitty became so idealized and started to lead her own life in the diary that it ceases to matter who is meant by 'Kitty'. The name ... is not meant to be me.||”|
— Kitty Egyedi
Anne had expressed the desire in the rewritten introduction of her diary for one person that she could call her truest friend, that is, a person to whom she could confide her deepest thoughts and feelings. She observed that she had many "friends" and equally many admirers, but (by her own definition) no true, dear friend with whom she could share her innermost thoughts. She originally thought her girlfriend Jacque van Maarsen would be this person, but that was only partially successful. In an early diary passage, she remarks that she is not in love with Helmut "Hello" Silberberg, her suitor at that time, but considered that he might become a true friend. In hiding, she invested much time and effort into her budding romance with Peter van Pels, thinking he might evolve into that one, true friend, but that was eventually a disappointment to her in some ways, also, though she still cared for him very much. Ultimately, the closest friend Anne had during her short life was her diary, for it was only to Kitty that she entrusted her innermost thoughts.
In her diary, Anne wrote of her very close relationship with her father, lack of daughterly love for her mother (with whom she felt she had nothing in common), and admiration for her sister's intelligence and sweet nature. She did not like the others much initially, particularly Auguste van Pels and Fritz Pfeffer (they latter shared her room). She was at first unimpressed by the quiet Peter; she herself was something of a chatterbox (a source of irritation to some of the others). As time went on, however, she and Peter became very close, though she remained uncertain in what direction their relationship would develop.
The first transcription of Anne's diary was in German, made by Otto Frank for his friends and relatives in Switzerland, who convinced him to send it for publication. The second, a composition of Anne Frank's rewritten draft, excerpts from her essays, and scenes from her original diaries, became the first draft submitted for publication, with an epilogue written by a family friend explaining the fate of its author. In the spring of 1946 it came to the attention of Dr. Jan Romein and his wife Annie Romein-Verschoor, two Dutch historians. They were so moved by it that Anne Romein made unsuccessful attempts to find a publisher, which led Romein to write an article for the newspaper Het Parool:
|“||This apparently inconsequential diary by a child, this "de profundis" stammered out in a child's voice, embodies all the hideousness of fascism, more so than all the evidence of Nuremberg put together.||”|
— Jan Romein in his article "Children's voice" on "Het Parool", April 3, 1946.
This caught the interest of Contact Publishing in Amsterdam, who approached Otto Frank to submit a draft of the manuscript for their consideration. They offered to publish but advised Otto Frank that Anne's candor about her emerging sexuality might offend certain conservative quarters and suggested cuts. Further entries were also deleted. The diary was published under the name Het Achterhuis. Dagbrieven van 14 juni 1942 tot 1 augustus 1944 (The Secret Annex. Diary Letters from June 14, 1942 to August 1, 1944) on June 25, 1947. Otto later discussed this moment, "If she had been here, Anne would have been so proud." It sold well; the 3000 copies of the first edition were soon sold out, and in 1950 a sixth edition was published.
At the end of 1950, a translator was found to produce an English-language version. Barbara Mooyaart-Doubleday was contracted by Vallentine, Mitchell & Co. in England and by the end of the following year her translation was submitted, now including the deleted passages at Otto Frank's request and the book appeared in America and Great Britain in 1952, becoming a bestseller. Translations into German, Italian, Spanish, Russian, Japanese, and Greek followed. The play based on the diary won the Pulitzer Prize for 1955, and the subsequent movie earned Shelley Winters an Academy Award for her performance, whereupon Winters donated her Oscar to the Anne Frank House in Amsterdam.
Critical edition and other English translations
In 1986 a critical edition appeared, incorporating the findings of the Netherlands State Institute for War Documentation into challenges to the diary's authenticity. This was published in three volumes with a total of 714 pages.In 1989 an English edition of this appeared under the title of The Diary of Anne Frank: The Revised Critical Edition, including Barbara Mooyaart-Doubleday's translation, Anne Frank's two other draft versions, and the State Institute material.
A new translation by Susan Massotty based on the unexpurgated text was published in 1995. It was also translated into Chinese.
In the 1960s, Otto Frank recalled his feelings when reading the diary for the first time, "For me, it was a revelation. There, was revealed a completely different Anne to the child that I had lost. I had no idea of the depths of her thoughts and feelings." Michael Berenbaum, former director of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, wrote "Precocious in style and insight, it traces her emotional growth amid adversity. In it she wrote, 'In spite of everything I still believe that people are really good at heart.'"
Challenges to historical authenticity
Anne Frank's story has become symbolic of the scale of Nazi atrocities during the Second World War, a stark example of Jewish persecution under Adolf Hitler, and a dire warning of the consequences of persecution.
As reported in the New York Times in 2015, "When Otto Frank first published his daughter’s red-checked diary and notebooks, he wrote a prologue assuring readers that the book mostly contained her words". However, there have been many claims by holocaust denialists that Anne Frank's diary was fabricated. Holocaust deniers such as Robert Faurisson have claimed that the diary is a forgery, though critical and forensic studies of the text and the original manuscript have supported its authenticity.
The diary manuscripts contain two different hands, and Otto Frank told an Amsterdam court that much of the handwriting was his, as he had transcribed the diary before publication, originally publishing a novel called "The Annex: Diary Notes 14 June 1942 – 1 August 1944" (Het Achterhuis. Dagboekbrieven 14 juni 1942 – 1 augustus 1944, with the title "Anne Frank: the Diary of a Young Girl" being given to the book’s first English translation.
In his will, Otto Frank bequeathed the original manuscripts to the Netherlands Institute for War Documentation. After his death in 1980, the Institute commissioned a forensic study of the manuscripts. The material composition of the original notebooks and ink, and the handwriting found within them and the loose version were extensively examined. In 1986, the results were published: the handwriting attributed to Anne Frank was positively matched with contemporary samples of Anne Frank's handwriting, and the paper, ink, and glue found in the diaries and loose papers were consistent with materials available in Amsterdam during the period in which the diary was written.
The survey of her manuscripts compared an unabridged transcription of Anne Frank's original notebooks with the entries she expanded and clarified on loose paper in a rewritten form and the final edit as it was prepared for the English translation. The investigation revealed that all of the entries in the published version were accurate transcriptions of manuscript entries in Anne Frank's handwriting, and that they represented approximately a third of the material collected for the initial publication. The magnitude of edits to the text is comparable to other historical diaries such as those of Katherine Mansfield, Anaïs Nin and Leo Tolstoy in that the authors revised their diaries after the initial draft, and the material was posthumously edited into a publishable manuscript by their respective executors, only to be superseded in later decades by unexpurgated editions prepared by scholars.
Matters were confused in 2015, when the owners of rights to the diary, the Anne Frank Fonds, a foundation in Basel, made an announcement about the authorship of the diary. With Anne Frank as author, the expiry of the copyright had been expected to occur in most of Europe on the 70th anniversary of her death, an uncertain date in the early months of 2015. However, as reported in the New York Times, foundation officials refused to release the copyright, announcing that the diary was co-authored by Otto Frank. According to Yves Kugelmann, a member of the board of the foundation, their expert advice was that Otto had created a new work by editing, merging, and trimming entries from the diary and notebooks and reshaping them into a "kind of collage", which had created a new copyright. Agnès Tricoire, a lawyer specializing in intellectual property rights, responded by warning the foundation to "think very carefully about the consequences". She added "If you follow their arguments, it means that they have lied for years about the fact that it was only written by Anne Frank."
The foundation also relies on the fact that another editor, Mirjam Pressler, had revised the text and added 25 per cent more material drawn from the diary for a "definitive edition" in 1991, and Pressler was still alive in 2016, thus creating another long-lasting new copyright.
It was reported around the world that in February 2014, 265 copies of the Frank diary and other material related to the Holocaust were found to be vandalized in 31 public libraries in Tokyo, Japan. The Simon Wiesenthal Center expressed "its shock and deep concern" and, in response, Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga called the vandalism "shameful." Israel donated 300 copies of Anne Frank's diary to replace the vandalized copies. An anonymous donor under the name of 'Chiune Sugihara' donated two boxes of books pertaining to the Holocaust to the Tokyo central library. After the media fuss, police arrested an unemployed man in March. In June, prosecutors decided not to indict the suspect after he was found to be mentally incompetent. It has been known to librarians that Nazi-related books such as the diary and Man's Search for Meaning attract people with mental disorder and are subject to occasional vandalism.
In 2010, the Culpeper County, Virginia school system banned the 50th Anniversary "Definitive Edition" of Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl, due to "complaints about its sexual content and homosexual themes." This version "includes passages previously excluded from the widely read original edition.... Some of the extra passages detail her emerging sexual desires; others include unflattering descriptions of her mother and other people living together." After consideration, it was decided a copy of the newer version would remain in the library and classes would revert to using the older version.
In 2013, a similar controversy arose in a 7th grade setting in Northville, Michigan, focusing on explicit passages about sexuality. The mother behind the formal complaint referred to portions of the book as "pretty pornographic."
The American Library Association stated that there have been six challenges to the book in the United States since it started keeping records on bans and challenges in 1990, and "Most of the concerns were about sexually explicit material".
- "Best (100) Books of the 20th Century] #8". Goodreads.
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- "50 Best Books defining the 20th century". PanMacMillan.com.
- "List of the 100 Best Non-Fiction Books of the Century, #20". National Review.
- Books of the Century: War, Holocaust, Totalitarianism. New York Public Library. 1996. ISBN 978-0-19-511790-5.
- "Top 100 Books of the 20th century, while there are several editions of the book. The publishers made a children's edition and a thicker adult edition. There are hardcovers and paperbacks, #26". Waterstone's.
- "Anne Frank Diary Anniversary Marks the Day Holocaust Victim Received Autograph Book as a Birthday Present (PHOTO)". The Huffington Post. June 12, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
- "Anne Frank's birthday on theme of diary’s 70th anniversary". Anne Frank House. June 12, 2012. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
- "Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl: June 14, 1942 - November 17, 1942" (PDF). edHelper.com. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
- "The Diary of Anne Frank Learning Guide: Table of Contents". Shmoop University, Inc. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
- "Anne Frank Biography (1929–1945)". Biography.com. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
- "The hiding place - A bookcase hides the entrance". Anne Frank House. Retrieved April 29, 2014.
- Park, Madison (April 1, 2015). "Researchers say Anne Frank perished earlier than thought". CNN.
- "Ten questions on the authenticity of the diary of Anne Frank" (PDF). Anne Frank Stichting. 2007. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
- Frank, Anne (1997). The Diary of a Young Girl: The Definite Edition. Bantam Books. p. vii. ISBN 0553577123.
- Rosenberg, Jennifer. "5 Things You Don't Know About Anne Frank and Her Diary". About.com. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
- "Facts about The Diary of Anne Frank". Christian Memorials. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
- "Quotes by Kathe Egyedi from Quotes.net". Quotes.net. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
- Noonan, John (June 25, 2011). "On This Day: Anne Frank's Diary Published". Finding Dulcinea. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
- "Anne Frank's diary is published". Anne Frank House. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
- "Shelley Winters wins the Oscar for Best Supporting Actress for her role as Mrs van Pels in "The Diary of Anne Frank".". Anne Frank House. Retrieved April 27, 2014.
- Hyman Aaron Enzer, Sandra Solotaroff-Enzer, Anne Frank: Reflections on Her Life and Legacy (2000), p. 136
- Betty Merti, The World of Anne Frank: A Complete Resource Guide (1998), p. 40
- Frank, Anne, and Netherlands State Institute for War Documentation (2003) . The Diary of Anne Frank: The Revised Critical Edition. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-50847-6.
- See Frank 1947
- Doreen Carvajal, Anne Frank’s Diary Gains ‘Co-Author’ in Copyright Move dated November 13, 2015
- "The nature of Holocaust denial: What is Holocaust denial?", JPR report 3, 2000
- Faurisson, Robert (1982), "Is The Diary of Anne Frank genuine?", The Journal of Historical Review 3 (2): 147
- Mitgang, Herbert (June 8, 1989), An Authenticated Edition of Anne Frank's Diary, New York Times
- Peter Winter, Anne Frank Diary co-authored by father dated November 18, 2015
- Lee, Hermione (December 2, 2006), The Journal of Katherine Mansfield, The Guardian
- Fackler, Martin (February 21, 2014). "'Diary of Anne Frank' Vandalized at Japanese Libraries". The New York Times. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
- Mullen, Jethro (February 21, 2014). "Pages torn from scores of copies of Anne Frank's diary in Tokyo libraries". CNN. Retrieved February 21, 2014.
- "Wiesenthal Center Expresses Shock and Deep Concern Over Mass Desecrations of The Diary of Anne Frank in Japanese Libraries". February 20, 2014. Retrieved September 15, 2014.
- Brown, Sophie (February 28, 2014). "Israel donates hundreds of Anne Frank books to Tokyo libraries after vandalism". CNN. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
- "Israel donates Anne Frank books to Japan after vandalism". Associated Press/Haaretz. February 27, 2014. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
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- "No charges for Japanese in Anne Frank diary vandalism case: Report". The Straits Times/AFP. June 19, 2014. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
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- Maurielle Lue (2013-04-24). "Northville mother files complaint about passages in the unedited version of The Diary of Anne Frank". WJBK – Fox 2 News. Retrieved 2013-05-02.
The following is the passage from the The Definitive Edition of the Diary of a Young Girl that has a mother in Northville filing a formal complaint. 'Until I was eleven or twelve, I didn't realize there was a second set of labia on the inside, since you couldn't see them. What's even funnier is that I thought urine came out of the clitoris…. When you're standing up, all you see from the front is hair. Between your legs there are two soft, cushiony things, also covered with hair, which press together when you're standing, so you can't see what's inside. They separate when you sit down and they're very red and quite fleshy on the inside. In the upper part, between the outer labia, there's a fold of skin that, on second thought, looks like a kind of blister. That's the clitoris.'
- Flood, Alison (May 7, 2013). "Anne Frank's Diary in US schools censorship battle". The Guardian. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
Copyright and ownership dispute
- Lebovic, Matt (December 18, 2014). "A most unseemly battle over the legacy of Anne Frank (In feud with Amsterdam museum, copyright holders are using final year before diaries enter the public domain to push a play, a TV docudrama, films, apps and an archive)". Jewish Times.
- Mullin, Joe (November 16, 2015). "Anne Frank foundation moves to keep famous diary copyrighted for 35 more years". Ars Technica. Retrieved November 17, 2015.
Editions of the diary
- Frank, Anne (1995) , Frank, Otto H.; Pressler, Mirjam, eds., Het Achterhuis [The Diary of a Young Girl – The Definitive Edition] (in Dutch), Massotty, Susan (translation), Doubleday, ISBN 0-385-47378-8; This edition, a new translation, includes material excluded from the earlier edition.
- Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl, Anne Frank, Eleanor Roosevelt (Introduction) and B.M. Mooyaart (translation). Bantam, 1993. ISBN 0-553-29698-1 (paperback). (Original 1952 translation)
- The Diary of Anne Frank: The Critical Edition, Harry Paape, Gerrold Van der Stroom, and David Barnouw (Introduction); Arnold J. Pomerans, B. M. Mooyaart-Doubleday (translators); David Barnouw and Gerrold Van der Stroom (Editors). Prepared by the Netherlands State Institute for War Documentation. Doubleday, 1989.
- The Diary of a Young Girl: The Definitive Edition, Otto H. Frank and Mirjam Pressler (Editors); Susan Massotty (Translator). Doubleday, 1991.
- Frank, Anne and Netherlands State Institute for War Documentation (2003) . The Diary of Anne Frank: The Revised Critical Edition. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-50847-6.
- Jacobson, Sid; Ernie Colón (April 2010). A Graphic Biography: The Anne Frank Diary. The Netherlands: Uitgeverij Luitingh.
Other writing by Anne Frank
- Frank, Anne. Tales from the Secret Annex: Stories, Essay, Fables and Reminiscences Written in Hiding, Anne Frank (1956 and revised 2003)
- Lisa Kuitert: De uitgave van Het Achterhuis van Anne Frank, in: De Boekenwereld, Vol. 25 hdy dok
- Anne Frank Remembered: The Story of the Woman Who Helped to Hide the Frank Family, Miep Gies and Alison Leslie Gold, 1988. ISBN 0-671-66234-1 (paperback).
- The Last Seven Months of Anne Frank, Willy Lindwer. Anchor, 1992. ISBN 0-385-42360-8 (paperback).
- *filmed as Laatste Zeven Maanden van Anne Frank (English title: The Last Seven Months of Anne Frank) in 1988, directed by Willy Lindwer.
- Anne Frank: Beyond the Diary – A Photographic Remembrance, Rian Verhoeven, Ruud Van der Rol, Anna Quindlen (Introduction), Tony Langham (Translator) and Plym Peters (Translator). Puffin, 1995. ISBN 0-14-036926-0 (paperback).
- Memories of Anne Frank: Reflections of a Childhood Friend, Hannah Goslar and Alison Gold. Scholastic Paperbacks, 1999. ISBN 0-590-90723-9 (paperback).
- “Memories Mean More to Us than Anything Else: Remembering Anne Frank’s Diary in the 21st century” by Pinaki Roy, The Atlantic Literary Review Quarterly (ISSN 0972-3269; ISBN 978-81-269-1057-1) 9(3), July–September 2008: 11–25.
- An Obsession with Anne Frank: Meyer Levin and the Diary, Lawrence Graver, University of California Press, 1995.
- Roses from the Earth: The Biography of Anne Frank, Carol Ann Lee, Penguin 1999.
- The Hidden Life of Otto Frank, 2002.
- Anne Frank: The Biography, Melissa Muller, Bloomsbury 1999.
- My Name Is Anne, She Said, Anne Frank, Jaqueline van Maarsen, Arcadia Books 2007.
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- Anne Frank House website
- Anne Frank Trust UK website
- The Anne Frank Center United States website
- Anne's manuscripts
- Online exhibition of Anne Frank's manuscripts
- Voices on Antisemitism Interview with Sayana Ser from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum