The End of Evangelion
|The End of Evangelion|
Theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Hideaki Anno
|Produced by||Mitsuhisa Ishikawa|
|Written by||Hideaki Anno|
|Music by||Shiro Sagisu|
|Edited by||Sachiko Miki|
|Distributed by||Toei Company|
The End of Evangelion (新世紀エヴァンゲリオン劇場版 Air/まごころを、君に Shin Seiki Evangerion Gekijō-ban: Ea/Magokoro o, Kimi ni?) is a 1997 Japanese animated and live action science fiction film written and directed by Hideaki Anno, animated by Production I.G, released as a finale for the mecha-based television series Neon Genesis Evangelion.
The film is divided into two episodes: Episode 25': Air / Love is Destructive and Episode 26': My Purest Heart for You, Sincerely Yours / ONE MORE FINAL: I need you. They effectively replace or coincide with the series' controversial final two episodes with a more "real world" account of the story's apocalyptic climax. Gainax originally proposed titling the film Evangelion: Rebirth 2.
The End of Evangelion initially received polarizing reviews, with the film obtaining the Animage Anime Grand Prix in 1997 (among other awards) and reviews that ranged from glowing to antipathetic. A 2014 Time Out New York poll of filmmakers saw The End of Evangelion voted one of the 100 best animated films of all time.
Shinji Ikari, the teenage pilot of a giant Evangelion cyborg, is distraught over the death of his friend Kaworu Nagisa. He visits fellow pilot Asuka Langley Soryu in a hospital and masturbates to her comatose body.
The shadowy committee SEELE has discovered that commander Gendo Ikari intends to use NERV, the paramilitary organization that deploys the Evangelion units, for his own ends. SEELE dispatches the Japanese Strategic Self-Defense Force (JSSDF) to seize control of NERV, killing most of the staff. NERV major Misato Katsuragi has Asuka moved to the cockpit of Evangelion Unit 02 and placed at the bottom of a lake, then rescues the catatonic Shinji from JSSDF troops. Determined to have him pilot Unit 01, Misato brings Shinji to its bay doors, but is wounded by more soldiers. She convinces Shinji to pilot the unit, kisses him, and pushes him into the elevator before dying. However, Unit 01 is encased in JSSDF bakelite and is unable to launch.
Gendo concludes that NERV's defeat is inevitable. He retrieves the Evangelion pilot Rei Ayanami, whom he plans to use to initiate Third Impact, a cataclysmic event that will kill everyone on earth, and reunite with his dead wife. NERV scientist Ritsuko Akagi tries to destroy NERV to stop Gendo initiating Third Impact, but her computer command is overridden by Casper, a computer core modeled on Ritsuko's mother. Gendo kills her.
Inside Evangelion Unit 02, Asuka realizes her mother has "always been with her" and re-activates the unit. She destroys the JSSDF forces, but SEELE's new mass-produced Evangelion units dismember her and Unit 02. Unit 01 breaks free of the bakelite and ascends above NERV headquarters. From the cockpit, Shinji is mortified by the mass-produced Evangelion units carrying the mutilated remains of Unit 02 and screams.
Gendo attempts to merge with Rei, who has the soul of Lilith, an angel hidden beneath the NERV headquarters, to begin Third Impact. Gendo has already merged with another angel, Adam, and will become a god if he merges with Lilith. However, Rei rejects Gendo, absorbs Adam and reunites with Lilith; her body grows to gargantuan size. The mass-produced Evangelion units pull Unit 01 into the sky and crucify it, beginning the ritual to initiate Third Impact.
After several dreamlike contemplations, including a fight with Asuka, Shinji decides that he is alone and everyone in the world should die. In response, Rei/Lilith dissolves all of humanity back into primordial soup. The souls of humanity are absorbed and form a single existence. Shinji initially accepts this new state, believing there could never be happiness in the real world, but eventually realizes that to live is to experience joy as well as pain. He rejects Third Impact and Rei/Lilith dies. Asuka and Shinji rematerialize in an apocalyptic landscape.
The ambiguous meaning of the TV series' ending left many viewers and critics confused and unsatisfied. The final two episodes were possibly the most controversial segments of an already controversial series and were received as flawed and incomplete by many. However, Anno and assistant director Kazuya Tsurumaki defended the artistic integrity of the finale.
Gainax launched the project to create a film ending for the series in 1997, first releasing Death & Rebirth as a highly condensed character-based recap and re-edit of the TV series (Death) and the first half of the new ending (Rebirth, which was originally intended to be the full ending, but could not be finished due to budget and time constraints). The project was completed later in the year and released as The End of Evangelion. Episode 25': Air uses the original script intended for episode 25 of the original series and forms roughly 2/3 of the previous film, Rebirth.
Ritsuko's voice actress Yuriko Yamaguchi had considerable difficulty delivering her character Ritsuko's response to Gendo Ikari without knowing what Gendo had said (as Anno ensured that part of Gendo's line was inaudible). She successfully delivered the line after being shown a hint from Anno.
The soundtrack of The End of Evangelion was composed by Shiro Sagisu. The film prominently features selections of Johann Sebastian Bach's music throughout the movie. Episode 25' has the Japanese title Air, being named after the Air on the G String which is played during the episode. Among the other pieces included are Cello Suite No. 1 in G Major (I. Prélude), Jesu, Joy of Man's Desiring (transcribed for piano and later played again with string instruments in the end credits), and Pachelbel's Canon.
Among the other insert songs are "Komm, süsser Tod" (Come, Sweet Death), an upbeat song (which appears in the film at the beginning of Instrumentality), "THANATOS -If I Can't Be Yours", which is played in both the end credits and the credits to episode 25' (the song is based around "THANATOS", a background music piece used in the series). Another song, "Everything You've Ever Dreamed", was recorded for the film by the same vocalist (Arianne) as "Komm, süsser Tod", but was not used and was later included on the Refrain of Evangelion soundtrack.
Interpretation of the ending
In the final scene of The End of Evangelion, Shinji and Asuka have separated themselves from the collective human existence. Shinji tries to strangle Asuka, but eventually stops and breaks down in tears after she softly caresses his face. The 1998 Bandai Carddass card D-88 comments on the scene:
"Shinji renounced the world where all hearts had melted into one and accepted each other unconditionally. His desire... to live with 'others' — other hearts that would sometimes reject him, even deny him. That is why the first thing he did after coming to his senses was to place his hands around Asuka's neck. To feel the existence of an 'other'. To confirm rejection and denial."
The meaning of the final scene is obscure, and has been controversial. According to an episode of the Japanese anime show Anime Yawa aired March 31, 2005 on NHK's satellite TV, Asuka's final line was initially written as "I'd never want to be killed by you of all men, absolutely not!" or "I'll never let you kill me." ("Anta nankani korosareru nowa mappira yo!") but Anno was dissatisfied with Miyamura's renditions of this line. Eventually Anno asked her a question which described what he was going for with this scene:
"Concerning the final line we adopted, I'm not sure whether I should say about it in fact. At last Anno asked me 'Miyamura, just imagine you are sleeping in your bed and a stranger sneaks into your room. He can rape you anytime as you are asleep but he doesn't. Instead, he masturbates looking at you, when you wake up and know what he did to you. What do you think you would say?' I had been thinking he was a strange man, but at that moment I felt disgusting. So I told him that I thought 'Disgusting.' And then he sighed and said, 'I thought as much.'"
"The most widely circulated translation of the last line of EoE [End of Evangelion] is "I feel sick," but Amanda Winn Lee (Rei Ayanami's English voice actor and director of End of Evangelion) said she asked several translators, and she felt "disgusting" was the most accurate adaptation. You could say she is disgusted with/sick of the situation or with Shinji himself. My favorite explanation though, is this one: My husband, Matt Greenfield, directed the TV series and is very familiar with the whole Eva franchise. Matt has said that although (Eva creator) Hideaki Anno seems to change his mind frequently about what various things mean in Eva, Anno once said that Asuka's comment about feeling "sick" was a reference to morning sickness. Now THAT gives ya something to think about, doesn't it! Of course, Anno is quite passionate about the idea that every person should decide for him or herself what Eva means to them."
Some state that, despite the somber ending, the results of Instrumentality are not permanent. Both Rei and Yui comfort Shinji and tell him that people can restore themselves to physical existence if they want to, depending on the strength within their hearts. It is suggested that Asuka is one of the first persons to manifest herself back into reality. Another Evangelion trading card explains:
"In the sea of LCL, Shinji wished for a world with other people. He desired to meet them again, even if it meant he would be hurt and betrayed. And just as he had hoped / wanted, Asuka was present in the new world. Only Asuka was there beside him. The girl whom he had hurt, and who had been hurt by him. But even so, she was the one he had hoped/wished for...."
It has been debated whether The End of Evangelion is intended to enlarge and retell episodes 25 and 26 or to completely replace the TV ending with a different one; with certain sequences from the final television episodes being evocative of sequences of the film, such as a shot of Misato's bled-out corpse, Ritsuko floating in LCL, Asuka underwater in Eva-02 and another of Shinji huddled in despair. Some believe that The End of Evangelion is an alternate ending to the series, perhaps created to please those fans who were displeased with the TV series' ending. Tsurumaki said he felt the series was complete as it was.
The End of Evangelion was first released in Japanese theaters on July 19, 1997. Between its release and October 1997, the film grossed 1.45 billion yen. The film was later distributed on Laserdisc in Japan. It also included the first release of the video versions of Episodes 21–24. The film was split up into two 40-minute episodes with brief intros (similar to episode 22), edited credits (for each episode instead of credits for both between the two), redone eyecatcher-textboards (showing "Neon Genesis Evangelion Episode..." instead of "The End of Evangelion Episode...") and a next-episode-preview section in Episode 25'. The episodic version of the film was on the last two discs of the Laserdisc release of the series (Genesis 0:13 and 0:14 respectively), each containing 2 episodes (the original TV episodes and the new End of Evangelion episodes respectively), although the film was also released in its original cinematic form on VHS, Laserdisc, and later DVD. The script was serialized in 4 issues of Dragon Magazine from August 1997 to January 1998. The movie was released on Blu-ray along with Death and Rebirth and the TV series in a box set on August 26, 2015. 
Red Cross Book
The Red Cross Book (as it's unofficially known, for the large red St George's Cross on its cover) was an A-4-sized pamphlet sold in theaters during the release of The End of Evangelion. The book was written by Gainax and various production staff of the Evangelion TV series and films, with an interview with Tsurumaki, a listing of voice actors and brief essays written by them on their respective characters, short biographical sketches, commentary on the TV series and production of the films, a "Notes" section covering the setting of the films, and a glossary of terms used in the series, manga, and the two films. The Red Cross Book was left out in the Manga Entertainment release due to copyright issues. However, it was translated by fans of the series.
ADV Films, region 1 license holder and distributor for the Neon Genesis Evangelion TV series, declined to license The End of Evangelion and the associated films, with Manga Entertainment "reportedly [paying] around 2 million dollars" for the rights. Voice actress Amanda Winn Lee wrote the film's script for both the subtitled and dubbed versions (based on translations by Sachuchi Ushida and Mari Kamada), and produced and directed the dub. The cast was made up primarily of voice actors reprising their roles from ADV's dub of the TV series, with several supporting roles recast because the original actors were unavailable. To accommodate voice actors living in different parts of the country, the dub was recorded in three locations, Los Angeles, Houston and New York City.
The North American DVD release featured a 6.1 DTS, a 5.1 Dolby, and a new stereo track downmixed from the 6.1 in both languages (the DVD packaging claiming it was remixed no less than three times). Some creative changes were made to the English audio track of the film, including some added dialogue and sound effects.
In discussing the film's English dub, Mike Crandol of Anime News Network determined that "the remarkably strong performances of the main cast overshadow the weaker voice work present", though he criticized the script for being "slightly hammy" in parts. Crandol praised the final exchange between Spike Spencer (Shinji) and Allison Keith's (Misato) characters as "one of the most beautiful vocal performances to ever grace an anime".
The End of Evangelion: Renewal
A new version of The End of Evangelion was released on June 25, 2003 in Japan by Starchild and King Records as part of the Renewal of Evangelion box set (which compiled "new digitally remastered versions of the 26 TV show episodes, 4 remade-for-Laserdisc episodes, and 3 theatrical features" as well as "a bonus disc with never-before-seen material").
This version of the film joins the "recap" film Evangelion: Death with End and omits the Rebirth segment from the first film. Also, on the aforementioned bonus disc is a previously unreleased deleted scene shot in live-action with voice actors Megumi Hayashibara, Yūko Miyamura, and Kotono Mitsuishi portraying their characters, 10 years after the events of Evangelion. In this continuity, Shinji does not exist and Asuka has a sexual relationship with Toji Suzuhara. The sequence concludes with a male voice (implied to be Shinji's) saying, "This isn't it, I am not here," proving it is a false reality seen through his eyes. Manga Entertainment announced in 2006 that it was "ironing out the contracts" to release the Renewal versions of Death & Rebirth and The End of Evangelion the next year, though their rights to the film have since expired.
End of Evangelion won the Animage Anime Grand Prix prize for 1997 and the Japan Academy Prize for "Biggest Public Sensation of the Year" and was given the "Special Audience Choice Award" by the 1997 Animation Kobe. EX.org ranked the film in 1999 as the fifth best 'All-Time Show' (with the TV series at #2).
|“||A little while ago, I finally saw the theatrical version of Evangelion (I'm writing this in August). It was obvious that the people who created it didn't love the story or the characters, so I'm a little disappointed. But the dramatization, the movement, and the editing were superb. When the story led into the self-improvement seminar, I was nearly fooled for an instant. I don't know if most people enjoyed it, but as a writer, I was able to take home something from it.||”|
Newtype USA reviewed the film as a "saga of bamboozlement". It also criticized the film's "more biblical overtones, teen melo-drama and bad parenting" and that "for some frustrated viewers, these DVDs might bring on the '4th impact' hurling these DVDs against the wall." Manga Entertainment CEO Marvin Gleicher criticized the Newtype review as "biased and disrespectful" and a "facile and vapid" product of "ignorance and lack of research".
Many reviews focused on the audio-visual production; Sight and Sound editorialized that "narrative coherence seems a lesser concern to the film-makers than the launching of a sustained audio-visual assault. The kaleidoscopic imagery momentarily topples into live action for the baffling climax...", an assessment echoed by critic Mark Schilling. Mike Crandol of Anime News Network gave the film an overall passing grade and described it as "a visual marvel". He described the DVD release as "a mixed bag", expressing displeasure over the "unremarkable" video presentation and overall lack of extra material. David Uzumeri of ComicsAlliance summarized the film as "a dark, brutal, psychedelic orgy of sex and violence that culminated in the mass extinction of humanity set to an optimistic J-pop song with lyrics about suicide." Uzumeri also stated that the "themes of [Neon Genesis Evangelion] criticizing the audience for being spineless and lost in a fantasy world were cranked up to eleven, as the protagonist Shinji basically watches everybody die around him due to his refusal to make any effort whatsoever to engage with other people."
In a 2008 article for Slant Magazine, writer Michael Peterson wrote that "it was not until the End of Evangelion film that Anno's visual strengths as a director really stood out". He observed that "Anno, like David Lynch, possesses a skill at framing his shots, and using the attendant color, to create visual compositions that stand out not only as beautiful in the story's context, but also as individual images, a painterly quality that he then applies back to the work. When Anno frames an image, the power of that specific image becomes a tool that he can later refer back to for an instantaneous emotional and intellectual response."
Carlos Ross of Them Anime Reviews compared the tone of the film to The Blair Witch Project in that it deconstructed the series while "cashing in" on it. He was especially critical of the film's entire second half by saying:
|“||The second half of the movie is so incoherent and obtuse that it completely loses the mainstream audience (and in fact, virtually any audience) this series has attracted before. It goes beyond art film and beyond anime. And in doing so, it goes beyond the audience's capability to understand and be entertained, which defeats the purpose of something labeled as art."||”|
Schilling reviewed the film as more than a deconstruction, but an attempt at unification of mediums:
"Despite the large cast of characters, decades-spanning story, and a profusion of twenty-first-century jargon, much of it borrowed from early Christian sources, the film is essentially a Power Rangers episode writ large: i.e., super-teens piloting big, powerful machines and saving the world from monsters. We've seen it all before. What we haven't seen, however, is the way the film zaps back and forth through time, slams through narrative shifts and flashes explanatory text, in billboard-sized Chinese characters, at mind-bending speed. It's a hyper-charged phantasmagoria that defies easy comprehension, while exerting a hypnotic fascination. Watching, one becomes part of the film's multimedia data stream.
Shinseiki Evangelion is looking forward, toward an integration of all popular media - television, manga, movies, and video games - into new forms in which distinctions between real and virtual, viewer and viewed, man and machine, become blurred and finally cease to matter. O Brave New World, that has such animation in it."
Chris Beveridge of Mania.com described the film as "work[ing] on so many levels", but cautions that it is not meant to be watched without having seen the rest of the series.
The End of Evangelion is frequently ranked among the greatest anime films. Patrick Macias of TokyoScope ranked it one of his 10 greatest films, and the best anime movie of the 1990s; CUT film magazine ranked it third on its list of the top 30 best anime films.
In 2014, Time Out New York ranked the film at #65 on its list of the top 100 animated movies as voted for by filmmakers. Critic Keith Uhlich described the film as an "immensely satisfying" conclusion to the TV series, the climax as "an end-times free-for-all that mixes Christian symbology, Jewish mysticism, sexual paranoia and teenage angst into a searing apocalyptic stew," filled with "sights and sounds you'll never forget," and Shinji's line, "I'm so fucked up," as the most memorable quote.
- "The End of Evangelion: Production". EvaOtaku.com. February 20, 1998. Retrieved September 3, 2006.
- "News Briefs - The End Evangelion is nigh on 19 July". EX media. March 31, 2005. Archived from the original on December 2, 1998.
- Rothkopf, Joshua (15 April 2014). "The 100 best animated movies: Full list". Time Out. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- Anime News Network. "Neon Genesis Evangelion: The End of Evangelion (movie)". Retrieved October 12, 2014.
- "The kaleidoscopic imagery momentarily topples into live action for the baffling climax, which alternates Disneyesque bromides ("Truth lies in your heart") with metaphysical blather ("So long as the earth, sun and moon exist, everything will be alright.")." Sight and Sound (2003)
- "The stunning originality of these final episodes cannot be overstated … the series deals with these elements in breathtakingly creative ways to create a unique and memorable vision of inner and outer collapse, and, perhaps, renewal. It should be noted that many viewers were outraged by the two final episodes. Expecting a more conventional end-of-the-world scenario, fans were baffled and indignant that, instead of outward explosions and satisfying combat, the cataclysmic struggle occurred wholly in the character's mind." "In these last two episodes the machines have literally stopped, and both characters and viewers are left with no recourse but to confront their/our own flawed humanity in all its desperation and insecurities without the technological armor of the typical sf text." pg 427 and pg 428 respectively of Napier 2002
- "The End of Evangelion: Commentary". EvaOtaku.com. February 20, 1998.
- "Lately due to the ending of episodes #25 and #26, some people started watching Evangelion. They were not anime fans. In fact many of them are females and they tell me that they really enjoyed episode #25, objectively. Most anime fans are furious. I understand their anger. I can't help laughing when hard-core anime fans say that we did a very lousy job, with intentional negligence. No we didn't. No staff members did a lousy job. In fact, every member at Gainax gave more energy than anybody can imagine. I feel sad that those fans couldn't see our efforts. Personally I think the original TV ending we showed ended up beautifully." Hideaki Anno, Protoculture Addicts 43
- "My opinion was, 'Why don't we show them the entire process including our breakdown." You know — make it a work that shows everything including our inability to create a satisfactory product. I figured that, "In 10 years or so, if we look back on something that we made while we were drunk out of our minds, we wouldn't feel bad even if the quality wasn't so good.'
Q: Really?" "KT – So, no matter what the final form, I feel it was great just being able to make it to the end of the TV series. " Tsurumaki interview, RCB
- "Neon Genesis Evangelion Frequently Asked Questions (and common misconceptions)". Evaotaku.com.
- "Death Threats Transcribed" - (Detailed transcription of the letters appearing in The End of Evangelion)
- "Anno Hideaki allegedly created the two episodes contained here in response to death threats from fans dissatisfied with the original conclusion to his anime sci-fi saga." Neon Genesis Evangelion: The End of Evangelion, M.L., Sight and Sound, vol 13, issue 4, April 2003; pg 59
- "Ask John: What Does Asuka's Final Line Mean?". AnimeNation.
- "Understanding Evangelion". Anime News Network. Retrieved August 29, 2011.
By opening their hearts to one another Shinji and Asuka at last have a chance at happiness. Unfortunately the brutality of this scene obscures its tender meaning, and the Evangelion saga ends on a dour note despite reprising the positive message from its television conclusion.
- "Thoughts on Stuff - Neon Genesis Evangelion: The End of Evangelion". Patrick Meaney. March 19, 2008. Retrieved August 29, 2011.
- "Review - The End of Evangelion". Anime News Network. Retrieved August 29, 2011.
- "Virtually everyone that’s ever seen even a portion of the Evangelion animation has a personal opinion and interpretation of the story, and the final line of the End of Evangelion animation has been the source of extensive debate among fans." Ask John 2003
- "Asuka's final line in the Evangelion movie was Miyamura's idea". Animania blog. March 31, 2005. Archived from the original on March 27, 2008.
- "Current Info" - (a personal FAQ page by Tiffany Grant)
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- December 1997 NewType, p.90
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- "Exclusive Screening Report: Shin Seiki Evangelion Movies Death (True)2 / Air / Magokoro Wo, Kimi Ni (The End Of Evangelion) At animecs T!FF In Akihabara 2006"
- Moure, Dani (March 21, 2001). "Neon Genesis Evangelion: Special Edition Movies Box Set". Mania. Retrieved January 1, 2011.
...the data here is translated from the "Red Cross Book", a source of oodles of information made for sale as the programme book for the movie in Japanese cinemas. It's extremely comprehensive and it's a good way of presenting the data
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- The End of Evangelion (DVD). Los Angeles, California: Manga Entertainment. 2002.
- Lee, Amanda Winn; Lee, Jason C. (2002). Neon Genesis Evangelion: Death & Rebirth DVD commentary (DVD). Manga Entertainment.
- Crandol, Mike (September 24, 2002). "Neon Genesis Evangelion: The End of Evangelion". Anime News Network. Retrieved September 11, 2009.
- "Neon Genesis Evangelion: Renewal of Evangelion DVD-BOX". Mania. June 25, 2003. Retrieved May 10, 2009.
- on YouTube
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- Sargento Soma - ANNCast. Anime News Network (November 6, 2009). Retrieved on 2010-12-28.
- "MY EMPIRE OF DIRT: The End of Evangelion". J-pop.com. Archived from the original on January 29, 1999.
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- December 1997 Newtype, p.90[title missing]
- Act 147, Rurouni Kenshin volume 17, ISBN 1-59116-876-7
- Newtype USA issue 1 pg 157[title missing]
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- Light and Sound 2003
- "[EoE] throws so much visual and narrative data at its audience, including titles zapping by at almost subliminal speed, that total comprehension is all but impossible. The experience is similar to watching a kid play a Final Fantasy video game at warp speed or flipping through a Shonen Jump comic in a blur". Contemporary Japanese Film review, Mark Schilling, ISBN 0-8348-0415-8, pg 334
- "Alan Moore x Hideaki Anno: Their Failed Assassinations of Their Genres". Comicsalliance.com. January 17, 2011. Retrieved March 4, 2011.
- "The Economy of Visual Language: Neon Genesis Evangelion". Slantmagazine.com. August 28, 2008. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
- Ross, Carlos. "Neon Genesis Evangelion: The End of Evangelion". THEM Anime Reviews. Retrieved September 11, 2009.
- Contemporary Japanese Film 1999
- Beveridge, Chris (September 30, 2002). "Neon Genesis Evangelion: The End of Evangelion". Mania.com. Archived from the original on 2013-11-01. Retrieved September 11, 2009.
- Top Tens - Archive of Lists (2003) - Senses of Cinema. Archive.sensesofcinema.com. Retrieved on December 28, 2010.
- "TokyoScope's Patrick Macias found them magnificent bastards, actually, judging The End of Evangelion the most important anime film of the past decade and a considerably more progressive work than that year's other cel-phenom, Princess Mononoke." http://web.archive.org/web/20060822225929/www.pulp-mag.com/archives/6.03/flcl.shtml
- "An Eternal Thought in the Mind of Godzilla". Patrick Macias. November 18, 2006. Retrieved September 11, 2009.
The new issue of Japanese film magazine CUT is about to street....Anyways, here is CUT's list of the 30 Greatest Anime Films of all-time, forever, always, never changing, no arguments. And for the record, I agree with about 5 of them....3. End of Evangelion
- Napier, Susan J. (November 2002). "When the Machines Stop: Fantasy, Reality, and Terminal Identity in Neon Genesis Evangelion and Serial Experiments Lain". Science Fiction Studies 29 (88): 418–435. ISSN 0091-7729. Retrieved May 4, 2007.
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