The Eyes of Texas
"The Eyes of Texas" is the school spirit song of the University of Texas at Austin and the University of Texas at El Paso. It is set to the tune of "I've Been Working on the Railroad." Students, faculty, staff, and alumni of the University sing the song at Longhorn sports games and other events.
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The song was written in 1903 by John Sinclair, editor of the Cactus yearbook and a UT band member, per the request of band member Lewis Johnson. Johnson was also the program director of the Varsity Minstrel Show that raised funds for the university track team. He debuted the song at the minstrel show, also known as a blackface performance. 
The lyrics are said to be intended to poke fun at University President Colonel Prather. Prather had attended Washington College, now Washington and Lee University, whose president, Robert E. Lee, would frequently tell his students, "the eyes of the South are upon you." Prather was known for including in his speeches a similar admonition, "The Eyes of Texas are Upon You," meaning that the state of Texas was watching and expecting the students to go out and do great things. Prather enjoyed the song and promoted its usage. He died not long thereafter, and the song was played at his funeral.
An alternate source for the song's inspiration is offered in Hood's Texas Brigade: Lee's Grenadier Guard, a 1970 book by Col. Harold B. Simpson that tracked the history of the vaunted Texas Brigade during the Civil War. The brigade served under General Lee's Army of Northern Virginia and fought with distinction in nearly all of the Civil War's pivotal battles. But their finest hour occurred on May 6, 1864 at the Battle of the Wilderness.
General Grant's troops had broken the Confederate line and were driving the fleeing graycoats in disarray back into their reserves. The collapse of Lee's army - and the Confederate cause - seemed imminent when the Texas Brigade arrived with a resounding Rebel yell after an exhausting overnight march.
Moved by their fighting spirit, Lee himself rode to the front of the Texas line on his horse, Traveller, and remarked to his aides, "Texans always move them." The remark was passed down the cheering line, and the brigade formed into attack formation. Knowing that the charge would be deadly, the Brigade refused to move until General Lee moved behind them. ("General Lee to the rear.") Their commander, Col. John Gregg, then ordered them forward: "Attention Texas Brigade. The eyes of General Lee are upon you. Forward march!"
The 811-man brigade surged forward and stopped the federal advance before driving the bluecoats back through two of their defensive lines. Their frontal assault against superior numbers was brutal and costly with 565 casualties (dead and wounded). But it saved the day and prolonged the Confederacy for another year.
Simpson's history is exhaustively sourced and deserving of serious consideration as the primary inspiration for the song. After the war, Lee retired to Washington College (now Washington and Lee University), where he taught Prather and could easily have related both the story and the saying. Lee had an abiding respect for the courage, strength and character of his "Texian" fighters, who were arguably the South's finest troops. Prather was one of the pallbearers at Lee's funeral in 1870.
The song is sung at momentous occasions such as graduation and even solemn occasions such as funerals. Led by the Longhorn Marching Band, it was sung at the July 14, 2007 funeral of First Lady Lady Bird (Claudia Taylor) Johnson, an alumna of the University of Texas. When singing the song, participants generally raise their right arm with their hand making the Hook 'em Horns symbol of The University. A recording of "The Eyes of Texas" was played over the Rose Bowl public-address system when the Dallas Cowboys defeated the Buffalo Bills to win Super Bowl XXVII, while Madison Square Garden organist Ray Castoldi played it when the Houston Rockets defeated the New York Knicks in the seventh game of the 1994 NBA Finals to clinch Texas' first NBA championship.
Highway rest stops through the state feature road signs stating that "The Eyes of Texas are upon You!" These signs feature a silhouette of a Texas Ranger, encouraging motorists to call 9-1-1 to report criminal activity.
The Eyes of Texas is also the alma mater of the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP). At the time, UTEP was called Texas College of Mines and Metallurgy (TCM). It was adopted in 1920 by the student body after UT (Austin) had declared it their school anthem. UTEP is the second oldest academic component of the U.T. System, having been founded in 1914.
The wording of the song is as follows. 
"The Eyes of Texas are upon you,
All the livelong day.
The Eyes of Texas are upon you,
You cannot get away.
Do not think you can escape them
At night or early in the morn --
The Eyes of Texas are upon you
Til Gabriel blows his horn."
As stated, the lyrics are set to the tune of "I've Been Working on the Railroad." It is common practice that the last line, "Til Gabriel blows his horn," is sung and played to a slightly slower beat than the rest of the song. Students, faculty, staff, athletes, and alum punctuate each beat of the last line with a small chopping motion of their right raised arm and "Hook 'Em" hand sign.
Usage in popular culture
Appearances in film
- The song was sung by Capt. Oppo (Sergio Fantoni) and citizens of Valerno in 1966 movie What Did You Do in the War, Daddy?
- The song was sung by a group of soldiers in the 1944 movie Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo, based on the Doolittle Raid during World War II.
- Roy Rogers starred in a 1948 film titled Eyes of Texas.
- The song is sung in combat by pilot Cowboy Blithe (Don Taylor) in the 1951 movie Flying Leathernecks.
- The song is sung throughout by various infantrymen in the 1951 movie Go For Broke!.
- The song is played repeatedly in the 1956 movie Giant.
- The song is on the soundtrack of Dimitri Tiomkin version of The Alamo, which was nominated for the Academy Awards of Best Music (Original Song) and for Best Music (Scoring of a Dramatic or Comedy Picture) in 1961.
- Elvis Presley sings it as part of a medley with "The Yellow Rose of Texas" in Viva Las Vegas from 1963.
- In Steven Spielberg's 1974 movie The Sugarland Express, as the slow-speed police chase comes into a small town thronged with supporters of the fugitive couple, the marching band is playing "The Eyes of Texas." The score was conducted by John Williams.
- As background to an inaugural ball for newly elected president Lyndon Johnson in the opening scene in the movie Path to War.
- Sung by Roy Orbison and Hank Williams Jr. to calm a rowdy group at a country-western bar in the film Roadie. Travis Redfish, played by Meat Loaf sings along.
- Used as the theme song for both the radio and television versions of Tales of the Texas Rangers.
- Sung by a group of schoolchildren at President John F. Kennedy's breakfast speech in Fort Worth, Texas on the morning of his assassination on November 22, 1963. This clip can be seen in the film "The Men Who Killed Kennedy" and, more recently, in The History Channel's 2009 documentary JFK: 3 Shots That Changed America.
- Played in "The Right Stuff", as background when Project Mercury Astronauts arrive at the official party held in their honor in the Houston Astrodome.
Appearances in other songs
- The song forms the chorus portion of "VI. Chorale and Finale" from Oedipus Tex and Other Choral Calamities.
- The rock group Masters of Reality uses the title in the lyrics of their song "The Eyes of Texas", on their 1989 self-titled debut album.
- The Aggie War Hymn references the song with the lyrics "'The Eyes of Texas are upon you', that is the song they sing so well (sounds like hell)".
- The opening fanfare of "If You're Gonna Play in Texas (You Gotta Have a Fiddle in the Band)" features Alabama's vocalists – accompanied by just a piano – singing a few bars of "The Eyes of Texas." This introduction leads into the single's opening, which suddenly picks up the tempo to a quick duple-meter.
- The Christmas song "Santa Got Lost In Texas" is based on the melody, with lyrics rewritten by Ken Darby. It was introduced by Michael Landon in the LP "Bonanza - Christmas On The Ponderosa" in 1963. The Jeff Carson version became a national chart record in early 1996.
- Holley, Joe (July 15, 2007). "Lady Bird Johnson is remembered". Washington Post. Retrieved 2007-08-03.
- "Lady Bird Johnson Funeral - The Eyes of Texas". Retrieved 2007-08-03.
- "Texas Longhorns Athletics - Traditions: 'The Eyes of Texas'". www.texassports.com. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
- ^ "It’s a Century Later, and the Eyes of Texas are Still Upon You" Support UT news story from March 2003 concerning the centennial of The Eyes of Texas
- ^ Film review of "Giant" - Accessed 20 March 2006
- ^ The Alamo - Accessed 20 March 2006
- ^ "The Eyes of Texas Are Upon Excellence Award Winners"
- ^ P.D.Q. Bach. "VI. Chorus and Finale". Oedipus Tex and Other Choral Calamities. CD. Telarc CD-80239, 1990.
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eyes of Texas.|
- "The Eyes of Texas" performed by the Texas Longhorn Band
- Eyes of Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online
- Lyrics and history of "The Eyes of Texas" and other Texas traditionals
- Official Student Organization listing of "The Eyes of Texas"
- The Eyes of The Eyes of Texas Are Upon Us at the Wayback Machine (archived October 12, 2004)
- The Eyes of Texas Award