|The Flowers of War|
|Literal meaning||Thirteen Hairpins of Jinling|
|Hanyu Pinyin||Jīnlíng shísān chāi|
|Directed by||Zhang Yimou|
|Written by||Liu Heng|
|Based on||13 Flowers of Nanjing|
by Geling Yan
|Produced by||William Kong |
|Starring||Christian Bale |
|Edited by||Peicong Meng|
|Music by||Qigang Chen|
Beijing New Picture Film
|Distributed by||EDKO Film |
Wrekin Hill Entertainment
Row 1 Productions
|Box office||$98.2 million|
|This article is part of the series on the|
|Japanese war crimes|
|Historiography of the Nanjing Massacre|
The Flowers of War (Chinese: 金陵十三钗, Pinyin: Jīnlíng Shísān Chāi ) is a 2011 Chinese-Hong Kong historical drama war film directed by Zhang Yimou, starring Christian Bale, Ni Ni, Zhang Xinyi, Tong Dawei, Atsuro Watabe, Shigeo Kobayashi and Cao Kefan. The film is based on a novella by Geling Yan, 13 Flowers of Nanjing, inspired by the diary of Minnie Vautrin. The story is set in Nanjing, China, during the 1937 Nanjing Massacre in the Second Sino-Japanese War. A group of escapees, finding sanctuary in a church compound, try to survive the Japanese atrocities.
It was selected as the Chinese entry for Best Foreign Language Film at the 84th Academy Awards, but did not make the final shortlist. It also received a nomination for the 69th Golden Globe Awards. The 6th Asian Film Awards presented The Flowers of War with several individual nominations, including Best Film. The film's North American distribution rights were acquired by Wrekin Hill Entertainment, in association with Row 1 Productions, leading to an Oscar-qualifying limited release in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco in late December 2011, with general release in January 2012.
In 1937, Japan invades China, beginning the Second Sino-Japanese War. The Imperial Japanese Army overruns China's capital city, Nanjing, in December and carries out the Nanjing massacre. As the Japanese overrun the Chinese army, desperate schoolgirls flee to the sanctuary of their convent at a Western-run Roman Catholic cathedral. John Miller, an American mortician on a job to bury the head priest, joins the group of innocent schoolgirls. He finds George, an orphan boy who was raised by the dead priest and taught English. Soon a group of flamboyant prostitutes arrive at the cathedral, seeking refuge by hiding in the cellar. Pretending to be a priest, Miller tries to keep everyone safe while repairing the convent's truck to escape.
After an incident when rogue Japanese forces assault the cathedral (who are then killed by the dying effort of a lone Chinese Major), Japanese Colonel Hasegawa promises to protect the convent by placing guards outside the gate and requests that the schoolgirls sing a chorale for him. Several days later, he hands Miller an official invitation for the schoolgirls to sing at the Japanese Army's victory celebration. Fearing for the safety of the virginal schoolgirls, Miller declines. Hasegawa informs him that it is an order and that the girls are going to be picked up the next day. Before they leave, the Japanese soldiers count the schoolgirls and erroneously include one of the prostitutes (who has strayed from the cellar), totalling 13.
When the de facto leader of the schoolgirls, Shu Juan, convinces them that they are better off committing suicide by jumping off the cathedral tower, they are saved at the last moment when the de facto leader of the prostitutes, Yu Mo, convinces her group to protect the schoolgirls by taking their place at the Japanese party. As there are only 12 prostitutes, George, the dead priest's adoptive son, volunteers as well. Miller initially opposes their self-sacrificial decision but relents and assists in disguising them, using his skills as a mortician to adjust their makeup and cut their hair to appear like schoolgirls. The prostitutes also create knives out of broken windows and hide them in their cloaks.
The next day, the "13 Flowers of Nanking" are led away by the unsuspecting Japanese soldiers. After they depart, Miller hides the schoolgirls on the truck he repaired and using a single-person permit provided by the father of a schoolgirl, drives out of Nanjing. In the last scene, the truck is seen driving on a deserted highway heading west, away from the Japanese army. The fate of the 13 Flowers remains unknown, apparently martyring themselves for the schoolgirls' freedom.
- Christian Bale as John Miller
- Ni Ni as Yu Mo
- Zhang Xinyi as Shu
- Tong Dawei as Major Li
- Atsuro Watabe as Colonel Hasegawa
- Shigeo Kobayashi as Lieutenant Kato
- Cao Kefan as Mr. Meng
- Huang Tianyuan as George Chen
- Han Xiting as Yi
- Zhang Doudou as Ling
- Yuan Yangchunzi as Mosquito
- Sun Jia as Hua
- Li Yuemin as Dou
- Bai Xue as Lan
- Takashi Yamanaka as Lieutenant Asakura
- Hirofumi Yasunaga as Japanese Soldier
- Paul Schneider as Terry
In December 2010, it was announced that the film would be made, and pre-production started the same month. They began shooting on location in Nanjing, China, on January 10, 2011. The dialogue of the film was shot about 40% in English and the rest in Mandarin Chinese (particularly in the Nanjing dialect, distinct from Standard Chinese) and Japanese, with an estimated production budget of $94 million, which makes it the most expensive film in Chinese history.
No matter what wars or disasters happen in history, what surrounds these times is life, love, salvation and humanity. I hope those things are felt in this story. The human side of the story was more important to me than the background of the Nanjing massacre. Human nature, love and sacrifice – these are the things that are truly eternal. For me, the event is the historical background of the film. But the enduring question of the story is how the human spirit is expressed in wartime.
Zhang Yimou on the film's message.
To distinguish the film from previous depictions of the same subject, Zhang said that he tried to portray the Japanese invaders with multiple layers. Regarding Colonel Hasegawa's sympathetic features, he explained that "in 1937, the militaristic notion among Japanese armies was very prevalent, and officers were not allowed to sing a homesick folk song, but we still wanted to endow this character with something special." The director articulated that his biggest, though challenging, accomplishment in the film was the creation of John Miller, saying that "this kind of character, a foreigner, a drifter, a thug almost, becomes a hero and saves the lives of Chinese people. That has never ever happened in Chinese film making, and I think it will never happen again in the future." Filming completed within 6 months. One challenging aspect was what Zhang called the "very slow pace" of negotiation with the Chinese censorship authorities during the editing process.
On September 9, 2011, the film was retitled The Flowers of War, after a 20-minute screening for prominent U.S. film distributors and the media at the Toronto International Film Festival. Zhang stated that the story in The Flowers of War differs from many other Chinese films on this subject as it is told from the perspectives of women. In October 2011, the first trailer was released, making way for an American trailer to be revealed.
On November 22, 2011, New Pictures Film requested an inflation in the minimum ticket price within China. When in negotiations with the eight cinema circuits in question, it resulted in a threat to boycott the movie over the distributors' share. Wu Hehu, the general manager of Shanghai United Cinema Circuit, made a statement, saying “this is a simple business situation. Without the agreement, we cannot screen the film." Zhang Weiping, producer of The Flowers of War and head of New Pictures Film, also refused to make any concessions. A letter was sent to the Film Bureau of SARFT, hoping it would mediate the dispute. At the order of SARFT, both sides were to reach a compromise, which was achieved after four hours of negotiation.
The Flowers of War was released in China just days after the 74th anniversary of the Nanking Massacre. In its first four days of release, it took in $24 million at the box office. It was the top-grossing Chinese film of 2011, having earned $70 million after two weeks. After 17 days, the movie had grossed nearly $83 million, making it the sixth-highest-grossing film in China, following American exports such as Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen ($145.5 million) and Avatar ($204 million). After five weeks of release the movie earned $93 million. The film reportedly earned $95 million in China.
The movie received mixed reviews. Rotten Tomatoes reported a 42% critical approval rating based on 59 reviews, with an average of 5.6/10. The site's consensus reads, "Zhang Yimou's stylistic flair is in full bloom during The Flowers of War, but his colorful treatment of a historical genocide ultimately does a disservice to the horrifying events' inherent drama." Metacritic, another review aggregator, assigned the film an average score of 46 (out of 100) based on 22 reviews from mainstream critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews.
Twitch Film called it "arguably the most eagerly-anticipated Chinese movie of the year", saying that "The Flowers of War is a big movie in every sense of the word, from its kinetic battle scenes to the beautiful photography and impressive performances from a mostly young and inexperienced cast." Pete Hammond from Boxoffice Magazine gave it 4 stars out of 5, and said "The Flowers of War is ultimately an inspiring, stirring and unforgettable human drama in the face of a horrifying war. It is highly recommended." Variety gave a generally positive review, describing the film as "a uniquely harrowing account of the rape of Nanjing," and defined it as "a work of often garish dramatic flourishes yet undeniable emotional power, finding humor and heartbreak in a tale of unlikely heroism in close quarters." Andrew Pulver describes it as "a new dawn in China-Hollywood co-operation", arguing that "this ambitious war film from Zhang Yimou is an attempt to turn the revolting aftermath of the 1937 Japanese assault on Nanjing into a globally friendly, putatively inspiring epic that also aims to underscore the US and China's geopolitical mutual respect."
Most negative feedback from critics were similar to that from Toronto Star, which gave the film 2.5/4, and said that "the drama is often weakened by the penchant for creating spectacles." Roger Ebert, who gave the film 2 out of 4 stars, took issue with making the story about a white American, "Can you think of any reason the character John Miller is needed to tell his story? Was any consideration given to the possibility of a Chinese priest? Would that be asking for too much?"
|Award||Category||Recipients and nominees||Result|
|Asian Film Awards||Best Composer||Qigang Chen||Nominated|
|Best Costume Designer||William Chang||Nominated|
|Best Director||Zhang Yimou||Nominated|
|Best Film||The Flowers of War||Nominated|
|Best Newcomer||Ni Ni||Won|
|Best Screenwriter||Geling Yan and Liu Heng||Nominated|
|Golden Globe Awards||Best Foreign Language Film||The Flowers of War||Nominated|
|Hong Kong Film Award||Best Film of Mainland and Taiwan||Nominated|
|The Golden Reel Awards||Best Sound Editing – Foreign Feature||Row 1 Entertainment||Won|
The Flowers of War was released on Blu-ray Disc and DVD on June 10, 2012. In the United States, the DVD and Blu-ray releases grossed $2,418,217 in physical sales. In the United Kingdom, it was 2012's seventh best-selling foreign-language film on physical home video formats, and the year's second best-selling Asian-language film (below The Raid).
- List of submissions to the 84th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film
- List of Chinese submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film
- Golden Globe Award for Best Foreign Language Film
- "Chinese filmmaker taps Christian Bale". Telegram.com. Retrieved August 8, 2011.
- "Reminder List of Productions Eligible for the 84th Academy Awards". Oscars.org. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
- "Reel China: Christian Bale's 'Flowers' picked as Oscar submission". LosAngelesTimes.com. Retrieved October 2, 2011.
- BBC News 24 January 2012 "The story behind Chinese war epic The Flowers of War"
- "13 Flowers of Nanjing Set Photos of Christian Bale". Collider.com. Archived from the original on August 19, 2011. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- "Toronto 2011: Christian Bale's China movie previewed for buyers". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 28, 2011.
- "Hong Kong chooses A Simple Life for Oscar race, China selects The Flowers of War". ScreenDaily.com. Retrieved September 23, 2011.
- Kilday, Gregg (September 23, 2011). "China to Submit 'The Flowers of War' in Foreign-Language Oscar Race". HollywoodReporter.com. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
- "63 Countries Vie for 2011 Foreign Language Film Oscar". Oscars.org. Retrieved 2011-10-14.
- "9 Foreign Language Films Vie for Oscar". Retrieved 2012-01-19.
- "Zhang, Bale blossom together on 'Flowers of War'". GMANetwork.com. Archived from the original on January 24, 2013. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
- "Flying Swords leads nominations for Asian Film Awards". ScreenDaily.com. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
- Napolitano, Dean (January 17, 2012). "'Flowers,' 'Flying Swords' Lead Asian Film Award Nominations". WSJ.com. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
- "The Flowers of War Acquired by Wrekin Hill Entertainment". MovieWeb.com. Archived from the original on November 9, 2013. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "Poster for THE FLOWERS OF WAR is beautiful!". GeekTyrant.com. 11 November 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "Win advance screening passes to see The Flowers of War". WashingtonCityPaper.com. 28 February 2008. Retrieved January 30, 2012.
- "Biggest movie flops: The 42 biggest box-office bombs". CBS News. 17 November 2021. Retrieved July 21, 2022.
- "13 Flowers of Nanjing (TBA) – Running Time, Budget, Production Details". MovieInsider.com. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- "13 Flowers of Nanjing (TBA) Movie". MovieInsider.com. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- "First Look: Christian Bale in "The 13 Flowers of Nanjing"". WorstPreviews.com. Archived from the original on October 11, 2012. Retrieved August 8, 2011.
- "Trailer For WWII Epic The Flowers Of War Starring Christian Bale". TheDailyRotation.com. 21 October 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-10-23. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "OSCARS: Controversy Emerges As Deadline For Foreign-Language Film Entries Looms". Deadline.com. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
- "The Journey To The Screen". TheFlowersOfWarTheMovie.com. Retrieved January 5, 2012.
- "'The Flowers of War': A special case for China's film industry". China.org.cn. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "Filming 'The Flowers of War,' World Class Team Recreate Nanjing". ToonariPost.com. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- Rohter, Larry (December 21, 2011). "Zhang Yimou and the Challenges of Filming in China". Nytimes.com. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
- "Zhang Yimou's WWII Film With Christian Bale Retitled 'The Flowers of War'". SlashFilm.com. 9 September 2011. Retrieved September 28, 2011.
- McClintock, Pamela (November 30, 2011). "An Auteur + This Actor = Game Change". HollywoodReporter.com. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "Flowers Of War trailer 2". DailyMotion.com. Retrieved January 6, 2012.
- "The Flowers of War – Trailer 2". TheFilmInformant.com. Retrieved January 6, 2012.
- "The Flowers Of War Trailer Online". EmpireOnline.com. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "'Flowers of War' to receive late-December Oscar-qualifying release". Ew.com. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "Chinese exhibitors to boycott Zhang Yimou's Flowers of War". AllBusiness.com. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "Exhibitors make peace with War". FilmBiz.asia. Archived from the original on November 30, 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- Coonan, Clifford (November 28, 2011). "'Flowers of War' dispute defused". Variety.com. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
- "Jin líng shí san chai (2012) - Financial Information". The Numbers. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
- "Chinese Blockbuster 'Flowers of War' Leaves U.S. Audiences Cold". TheWrap.com. 26 January 2012. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
- "Domestic Total Gross". BoxOfficeMojo.com. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
- Watts, Jonathan; McCurry, Justin (December 15, 2011). "China banks on bloody blockbuster to win friends … and Oscars". London: Guardian.co.uk. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
- "Zhang Yimou's The Flowers Of War triumps at China's box office". FMovieMag.com. Archived from the original on April 26, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
- "Christian Bale-Led The Flowers of War Takes Top Spot at Chinese Box Office". Reelz.com. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
- McClintock, Pamela (December 30, 2011). "Box Office Report: Christian Bale's 'Flowers of War' Already Top-Grossing Chinese Film of 2011". HollywoodReporter.com. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
- "'Flowers of War' Top Grossing Film of 2011". ChineseFilms.cn. Archived from the original on April 25, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
- McClintock, Pamela. "Christian Bale's 'Flowers of War' Grosses $83 Mil in 17 Days in China". HollywoodReporter.com. Retrieved January 6, 2012.
- "Christian Bale's 'Flowers of War' is a box-office smash in China". Ew.com. Retrieved January 6, 2012.
- "Mainland Box Office Performance in Second Week 2012". chinesefilms.cn. Archived from the original on January 20, 2012. Retrieved January 20, 2012.
- "The Flowers of War (2011)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved May 22, 2020.
- "The Flowers of War". Metacritic. Retrieved May 22, 2020.
- "THE FLOWERS OF WAR Review". TwitchFilm.com. Archived from the original on December 23, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2012.
- "The Flowers of War – Inside Movies Since 1920". BoxOfficeMagazine.com. Retrieved January 10, 2012.
- "The Flowers of War". Variety.com. Retrieved February 18, 2012.
- Pulver, Andrew (2012-02-14). "The Flowers of War – review". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-03-15.
- "The Flowers of War: the price of innocence in a world gone mad". Toronto.com. Archived from the original on November 17, 2012. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
- "Flowers of War". RogerEbert.com. Archived from the original on January 22, 2012. Retrieved January 23, 2012.
- "6th AFA Nominees and Winners". AsianFilmAwards.asia. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
- "The 69th Annual Golden Globe Awards NOMINATIONS". GoldenGlobes.org. Archived from the original on October 29, 2012. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
- "The 31st Hong Kong Film Awards winners list" (in Chinese). Hong Kong Film Awards Association. Retrieved 14 October 2012.
- "MPSE Golden Reel Award Winners Announced". AWN.com. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
- "The Flowers of War Blu-ray". Blu-ray.com. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
- "DVD Release Date". Moviefone.com. Retrieved September 14, 2012.
- "BFI Statistical Yearbook 2013" (PDF). British Film Institute (BFI). 2013. p. 138. Retrieved 23 April 2022.