The Fundamentals

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The Fundamentals: A Testimony To The Truth (generally referred to simply as The Fundamentals) is a set of 90 essays published from 1910 to 1915 by the Bible Institute of Los Angeles. The Fundamentals were edited by A. C. Dixon and later by Reuben Archer Torrey. The Fundamentals was first published as a 12-volume set, and later as a four-volume set retaining all 90 essays. Baker Books reprinted all four volumes under two covers in 2003. The 90 essays were written by 64 different authors, representing most of the major Protestant Christian denominations.

The essays were written to affirm conservative Protestant beliefs, especially those of the Reformed tradition, and defend against ideas deemed inimical to them. They are widely considered to be the foundation of modern Christian fundamentalism.

The project was initially conceived in 1909 by California businessman Lyman Stewart and his brother Milton.[1] They anonymously provided funds for collecting essays to set out what they believed to be the fundamentals of Christian faith, and for printing and distributing copies of the collected essays.[2] The Fundamentals was sent free to ministers, missionaries, professors of theology, YMCA and YWCA secretaries, Sunday School superintendents, and other Protestant religious workers in every English-speaking country. Over three million volumes (250,000 sets) were sent out.[3]

The volumes defended orthodox Protestant beliefs and attacked higher criticism, liberal theology, Roman Catholicism (also called Romanism by them), socialism, Modernism, atheism, Christian Science, Mormonism, Millennial Dawn, Spiritualism, and evolutionism.

Contents of The Fundamentals (and authors)[edit]

NOTE: The arrangement shown below is from the original 12-volume set.

  • Volume I:
  • Volume II:
    • The Testimony of the Monuments to the Truth of the Scriptures - George Frederick Wright
    • The Recent Testimony of Archaeology to the Scriptures - Melvin Grove Kyle
    • Fallacies of the Higher Criticism - Franklin Johnson
    • Christ and Criticism - Robert Anderson
    • Modern Philosophy - Philip Mauro
    • Justification by Faith - Handley Carr Glyn Moule
    • Tributes to Christ and the Bible by Brainy Men not Known as Active Christians
  • Volume III:
    • Inspiration of the Bible—Definition, Extent, and Proof - James M. Gray
    • The Moral Glory of Jesus Christ a Proof of Inspiration - William G. Moorehead
    • God in Christ the Only Revelation of the Fatherhood of God - Robert E. Speer
    • The Testimony of Christian Experience - E. Y. Mullins
    • Christianity No Fable - Thomas Whitelaw
    • My Personal Experience with the Higher Criticism - James J. Reeve
    • The Personal Testimony of Charles T. Studd
  • Volume IV:
    • The Tabernacle in the Wilderness: Did it Exist? - David Heagle
    • The Testimony of Christ to the Old Testament - William Caven
    • The Bible and Modern Criticism - F. Bettex
    • Science and Christian Faith - James Orr
    • A Personal Testimony - Philip Mauro
  • Volume V:
    • Life in the Word - Philip Mauro
    • The Scriptures - A. C. Dixon
    • The Certainty and Importance of the Bodily Resurrection of Jesus Christ from the Dead - R. A. Torrey
    • Observations of the Conversion and Apostleship of St. Paul - Lord Lyttleton (analyzed and condensed by J. L. Campbell)
    • A Personal Testimony - H. W. Webb-Peploe
  • Volume VI:
    • The Testimony of Foreign Missions to the Superintending Providence of God - Arthur T. Pierson.
    • Is There a God? - Thomas Whitelaw
    • Sin and Judgment to Come - Robert Anderson
    • The Atonement - Franklin Johnson
    • The God-Man - John Stock
    • The Early Narratives of Genesis - James Orr
    • The Person and Work of Jesus Christ - John L. Nuelsen
    • The Hope of the Church - John McNicol
  • Volume VII:
    • The Passing of Evolution - George Frederick Wright
    • Inspiration - L. W. Munhall
    • The Testimony of the Scriptures to Themselves - George S. Bishop
    • Testimony of the Organic Unity of the Bible to its Inspiration - Arthur T. Pierson
    • One Isaiah - George L. Robinson
    • The Book of Daniel - Joseph D. Wilson
    • Three Peculiarities of the Pentateuch - Andrew Craig Robinson
    • Millennial Dawn: A Counterfeit of Christianity - William G. Moorehead
  • Volume VIII:
    • Old Testament Criticism and New Testament Christianity - W. H. Griffith Thomas
    • Evolutionism in the Pulpit - Anonymous
    • Decadence of Darwinism - Henry H. Beach
    • Paul's Testimony to the Doctrine of Sin - Charles B. Williams
    • The Science of Conversion - H. M. Sydenstricker
    • The Doctrinal Value of the First Chapters of Genesis - Dyson Hague
    • The Knowledge of God - James Burrell
    • "Preach the Word" - Howard Crosby
    • Mormonism: Its Origin, Characteristics, and Doctrines - R. G. McNiece
  • Volume IX:
    • The True Church - Bishop Ryle
    • The Mosaic Authorship of the Pentateuch - George Frederick Wright
    • The Wisdom of this World - A. W. Pitzer
    • Holy Scripture and Modern Negations - James Orr
    • Salvation by Grace - Thomas Spurgeon
    • Divine Efficacy of Prayer - Arthur T. Pierson
    • What Christ Teaches Concerning Future Retribution - William C. Procter
    • A Message from Missions - Charles A. Bowen
    • Eddyism: Commonly Called Christian Science - Maurice E. Wilson
  • Volume X:
    • Why Save the Lord's Day? - Daniel Hoffman Martin
    • The Internal Evidence of the Fourth Gospel - Canon G. Osborne Troop
    • The Nature of Regeneration - Thomas Boston
    • Regeneration—Conversion—Reformation - George W. Lasher
    • Our Lord's Teachings About Money - Arthur T. Pierson
    • Satan and His Kingdom - Mrs. Jessie Penn-Lewis
    • The Holy Spirit and the Sons of God - W. J. Erdman
    • Consecration - Henry W. Frost
    • The Apologetic Value of Paul's Epistles - E.J. Stobo
    • What the Bible Contains for the Believer - George F. Pentecost
    • Modern Spiritualism Briefly Tested by Scripture - Algernon J. Pollock
  • Volume XI:
    • The Biblical Conception of Sin - Thomas Whitelaw
    • At-One-Ment by Propitiation - Dyson Hague
    • The Grace of God - C. I. Scofield
    • Fulfilled Prophecy A Potent Argument for the Bible - Arno C. Gaebelein
    • The Coming of Christ - Charles R. Erdman
    • Is Romanism Christianity? - T. W. Medhurst
    • Rome, The Antagonist of the Nation - J. M. Foster
  • Volume XII:
    • Doctrines that Must be Emphasized in Successful Evangelism - L. W. Munhall
    • Pastoral and Personal Evangelism, or Winning Men to Christ One-by-One - John Timothy Stone
    • The Sunday School's True Evangelism - Charles Gallaudet Trumbull
    • Foreign Missions or World-Wide Evangelism - Robert E. Speer
    • What Missionary Motives Should Prevail? - Henry W. Frost
    • The Place of Prayer in Evangelism - R. A. Torrey
    • The Church and Socialism - Charles R. Erdman
    • The Fifteen Books Most Indispensable for the Minister or the Christian Worker


  1. ^ Marsden, George M. (2006). Fundamentalism and American Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 118. ISBN 0-19-530047-5. OCLC 61445933. 
  2. ^ Malone, David (May 29, 2009). "Fundamentals". Wheaton College Archives & Special Collections. Retrieved 2009-07-18. 
  3. ^ Marsden, George M. (2006). Fundamentalism and American Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 119. ISBN 0-19-530047-5. OCLC 61445933. 

Online texts[edit]

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