The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection
The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection is a book by Ronald Fisher first published in 1930 by Clarendon Press. It is one of the most important books of the modern evolutionary synthesis, and helped define population genetics. It is commonly cited in biology books, outlining many concepts that are still considered important such as Fisherian runaway, Fisher's principle, Reproductive value, Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection, Fisher's geometric model and the evolution of dominance.
A second, slightly revised edition was republished in 1958. In 1999, a third variorum edition (ISBN 0-19-850440-3), with the original 1930 text, annotated with the 1958 alterations, notes and alterations accidentally omitted from the second edition was published, edited by Henry Bennett.
It contains the following chapters:
- The Nature of Inheritance
- The Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection
- The Evolution of Dominance
- Variation as determined by Mutation and Selection
- Variation etc.
- Sexual Reproduction and Sexual Selection
- Man and Society
- The Inheritance of Human Fertility
- Reproduction in Relation to Social Class
- Social Selection of Fertility
- Conditions of Permanent Civilization
In the preface, Fisher considers some general points, including that there must be an understanding of natural selection distinct from that of evolution, and that the then-recent advances in the field of genetics (see history of genetics) now allowed this. In the first chapter, Fisher considers the nature of inheritance, rejecting blending inheritance in favour of particulate inheritance. The second chapter introduces Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection. The third considers the evolution of dominance, which Fisher believed was strongly influenced by modifiers. Other chapters discuss Fisher's geometric model, concerning how spontaneous mutations affect biological fitness, Fisher's principle which explains why the sex ratio between males and females is almost always 1:1, Reproductive value, examining the demography of having girl children. Using his knowledge of statistics, the Fisherian runaway, which explores how sexual selection can lead to a positive feedback runaway loop, producing features such as the peacock's plumage. He also wrote about the evolution of dominance, which explores genetic dominance. The last five chapters (8-12) include Fisher's more idiosyncratic views on eugenics.
The book is dedicated to Major Leonard Darwin, Fisher's friend, correspondent and son of Charles Darwin, "In gratitude for the encouragement, given to the author, during the last fifteen years, by discussing many of the problems dealt with in this book".
Sewall Wright, who had many disagreements with Fisher, reviewed the book and wrote that it was "certain to take rank as one of the major contributions to the theory of evolution". J.B.S. Haldane described it as "brilliant". Reginald Punnett was negative, however.'
The book was largely overlooked for 40 years, and in particular Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection was misunderstood. The work had a great effect on W.D. Hamilton, who discovered it as an undergraduate at the University of Cambridge and noted on the rear cover of the 1999 variorum edition:
- This is a book which, as a student, I weighed as of equal importance to the entire rest of my undergraduate Cambridge BA course and, through the time I spent on it, I think it notched down my degree. Most chapters took me weeks, some months.
- ...And little modified even by molecular genetics, Fisher's logic and ideas still underpin most of the ever broadening paths by which Darwinism continues its invasion of human thought.
- Unlike in 1958, natural selection has become part of the syllabus of our intellectual life and the topic is certainly included in every decent course in biology.
- For a book that I rate only second in importance in evolution theory to Darwin's Origin (this as joined with its supplement Of Man), and also rate as undoubtedly one of the greatest books of the twentieth century the appearance of a variorum edition is a major event...
- By the time of my ultimate graduation, will I have understood all that is true in this book and will I get a First? I doubt it. In some ways some of us have overtaken Fisher; in many, however, this brilliant, daring man is still far in front.
The publication of the variorum edition in 1999 led to renewed interest in the work and reviews by Laurence Cook ("This is perhaps the most important book on evolutionary genetics ever written"), Brian Charlesworth, Jim Crow and A.W.F. Edwards
- Grafen, Alan; Ridley, Mark (2006). Richard Dawkins: How A Scientist Changed the Way We Think. New York, New York: Oxford University Press. p. 69. ISBN 0-19-929116-0.
- Wright, S., 1930 The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection: a review. J. Hered. 21:340-356.
- Haldane, J.B.S., 1932 The Causes of Evolution. Longman Green, London.
- Punnett, R.C. 1930, A review of The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, Nature 126: 595-7
- Grafen, A. 2004. 'William Donald Hamilton’. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, 50, 109-132
- Cook, L. 2000 Book reviews. The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection — A Complete Variorum Edition. R. A. Fisher (edited by Henry Bennett). Heredity 84 (3) , 390–39
- Charlesworth, B. 2000 The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. A Complete Variorum Edition. By R. A. Fisher (edited with foreword and notes by J. H. Bennett). Oxford University Press. 1999. ISBN 0-19-850440-3. xxi+318 pages. Genetics Research 75: 369-373
- Crow, J.F. 2000 Second only to Darwin - The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection. A Complete Variorum Edition by R.A. Fisher Trends in Ecology and Evolution, Volume 15, Number 5, 1 May 2000 , pp. 213-214(2)
- Edwards, A.W.F. 2000 The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection Genetics, Vol. 154, 1419-1426, April 2000
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