World economy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from The Global Economy)
Jump to: navigation, search
Economy of the world
Statistics
Population 7.095 billion (July 2013 est.)[1]
GDP Nominal: $77.609 trillion (2014 est.)[1]
PPP: $106.998 trillion (2014 est.)[1]
GDP growth
3.4% (2014)[2]
GDP per capita
Nominal: $10,857
PPP: $15,073 (2014 est.)
~10 million i.e. ~0.15% (2009)
Billionaires 1,594 (2014) [3]
People earn below $2 per day ~3.25 billion (~50%)
Unemployment 5.4% (Nov.2014)[4]
note: 30% combined unemployment and underemployment in many non-industrialized countries; developed countries typically 4%–12% unemployment (2007 est.)
Trailing-ten-years. Some numbers exclude certain countries for lack of information.

All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars.

The world economy or global economy is the economy of the world, considered as the international exchange of goods and services that is expressed in monetary units of account (money).[5] In some contexts, the two terms are distinguished: the "international" or "global economy" being measured separately and distinguished from national economies while the "world economy" is simply an aggregate of the separate countries' measurements. Beyond the minimum standard concerning value in production, use, and exchange the definitions, representations, models, and valuations of the world economy vary widely. It is inseparable from the geography and ecology of Earth.

It is common to limit questions of the world economy exclusively to human economic activity, and the world economy is typically judged in monetary terms, even in cases in which there is no efficient market to help valuate certain goods or services, or in cases in which a lack of independent research or government cooperation makes establishing figures difficult. Typical examples are illegal drugs and other black market goods, which by any standard are a part of the world economy, but for which there is by definition no legal market of any kind.

However, even in cases in which there is a clear and efficient market to establish a monetary value, economists do not typically use the current or official exchange rate to translate the monetary units of this market into a single unit for the world economy, since exchange rates typically do not closely reflect worldwide value, for example in cases where the volume or price of transactions is closely regulated by the government.

World share of GDP (PPP) (World Bank, 2011).[6]

Rather, market valuations in a local currency are typically translated to a single monetary unit using the idea of purchasing power. This is the method used below, which is used for estimating worldwide economic activity in terms of real US dollars or euros. However, the world economy can be evaluated and expressed in many more ways. It is unclear, for example, how many of the world's 7.13 billion people have most of their economic activity reflected in these valuations.

As of 2015, the following 13 countries or regions have reached an economy of at least US$2 trillion by GDP in nominal or PPP terms: Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the European Union.[7]


Economy – overview[edit]

World economy by Country Groups[edit]

The following two tables list the Country Groups with individual countries designated by the IMF.[8] Members of the G-20 major economies are in bold.

List of Country Groups by GDP (nominal) in 2014 in Billions US$[9] List of Country Groups by GDP (PPP) in 2015 in Billions US$[9]
Country Group GDP (Nominal) % of Global GDP Number of Countries Economies with at least 0.50% of Global GDP
Major advanced economies (G7) 35,542 46.0% 7  Canada
 France
 Germany
 Italy
 Japan
 United Kingdom
 United States
Emerging and Developing Asia 14,944 19.3% 29  China
 India
 Indonesia
 Thailand
Other Advanced Economies
(Advanced economies excluding G7)
11,431 14.8% 30  Australia
 Austria
 Belgium
 South Korea
 Netherlands
 Norway
 Spain
 Sweden
  Switzerland
 Taiwan
Latin America and the Caribbean 5,799 7.5% 32  Argentina
 Brazil
 Mexico
Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan 3,458 4.5% 22  Iran
 Saudi Arabia
 United Arab Emirates
Commonwealth of Independent States and Georgia 2,521 3.3% 12  Russia
Emerging and developing Europe 1,894 2.5% 12  Poland
 Turkey
Sub-Saharan Africa 1,680 2.2% 45  Nigeria
World 77,269 100.0% 189
Country Group GDP (PPP) % of Global GDP Number of Countries Economies with at least 0.50% of Global GDP
Major advanced economies (G7) 35,746 31.5% 7  Canada
 France
 Germany
 Italy
 Japan
 United Kingdom
 United States
Emerging and Developing Asia 34,781 30.6% 29  China
 India
 Indonesia
 Malaysia
 Philippines
 Thailand
Other Advanced Economies
(Advanced economies excluding G7)
7,539 6.6% 30  Australia
 South Korea
 Netherlands
 Spain
 Taiwan
Latin America and the Caribbean 9,470 8.3% 32  Argentina
 Brazil
 Colombia
 Mexico
 Venezuela
Middle East, North Africa, Afghanistan, and Pakistan 8,631 7.6% 22  Algeria
 Egypt
 Iran
 Pakistan
 Saudi Arabia
 United Arab Emirates
Commonwealth of Independent States and Georgia 5,222 4.6% 12  Russia
Emerging and developing Europe 3,722 3.3% 12  Poland
 Turkey
Sub-Saharan Africa 3,513 3.1% 45  Nigeria
 South Africa
World 113,523 100.0% 189

Current world economic league table of largest economies in the world by GDP and share of global economic growth[edit]

The following two tables list the twenty largest economies by GDP (Nominal), twenty largest economies by GDP (PPP), and the twenty economies with the largest shares of global economic growth from 2014 to 2015. Members of the G-20 major economies are in bold.

List of the 25 largest economies
by GDP (nominal) at their peak level of GDP in Billions US$
[9][10]
List of the 25 largest economies
by GDP (PPP) at their peak level of GDP in Billions US$
[9][11]
List of the 10 largest economies
by contribution to global economic
growth by GDP (nominal) over 2014-15
[12]
Rank Country Value
(USD$)
Peak Year
World 73,171 2015
1  United States 17,947 2015
 European Union 16,220 2015
2  China 10,983 2015
3  Japan 4,123 2015
4  Germany 3,358 2015
5  United Kingdom 2,849 2015
6  France 2,422 2015
7  India 2,091 2015
8  Italy 1,816 2015
9  Brazil 1,773 2015
10  Canada 1,552 2015
11  South Korea 1,377 2015
12  Russia 1,325 2015
13  Australia 1,224 2015
14  Spain 1,200 2015
15  Mexico 1,144 2015
16  Indonesia 859 2015
17  Netherlands 738 2015
18  Turkey 734 2015
19  Iran 665 2013
20  Saudi Arabia 653 2015
Rank Country Value
(USD$)
Peak Year
World 113,162 2015
1  China 19,510 2015
 European Union 19,176 2015
2  United States 17,968 2015
3  India 8,027 2015
4  Japan 4,842 2015
5  Germany 3,842 2015
6  Russia 3,745 2014
7  Brazil 3,276 2014
8  Indonesia 2,839 2015
9  United Kingdom 2,660 2015
10  France 2,647 2015
11  Mexico 2,220 2015
12  Italy 2,174 2015
13  South Korea 1,849 2015
14  Saudi Arabia 1,681 2015
15  Spain 1,636 2015
16  Canada 1,628 2015
17  Turkey 1,576 2015
18  Iran 1,382 2015
19  Australia 1,137 2015
20  Taiwan 1,114 2015
Rank Country Percentage
(%)
World 100.0
1  China 51.3
2  United States 30.9
3  India 6.6
4  Egypt 1.9
5  Argentina 1.8
6  Pakistan 1.2
7  Bangladesh 0.9
8  Hong Kong 0.8
9  Philippines 0.7
10  Vietnam 0.6
Remaining Countries 3.2

Twenty Largest Economies in the World by Nominal GDP[edit]

The following is a list of the twenty largest economies by nominal GDP at a specific year according to International Monetary Fund.[13]

Rank 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
1  United States  United States  United States  United States  United States  United States  United States  United States  United States
2  Soviet Union  Soviet Union  Japan  Japan  Japan  Japan  China  China  China
3  Japan  Japan  Soviet Union  Germany  Germany  Germany  Japan  Japan  Japan
4  West Germany  West Germany  West Germany  France  United Kingdom  United Kingdom  Germany  Germany  Germany
5  France  France  France  United Kingdom  France  China  France  United Kingdom  United Kingdom
6  United Kingdom  United Kingdom  Italy  Italy  China  France  United Kingdom  France  India
7  Italy  Italy  United Kingdom  Brazil  Italy  Italy  Brazil  India  France
8  China  Canada  Canada  China  Canada  Canada  Italy  Italy  Italy
9  Canada  China  Iran  Spain  Mexico  Spain  India  Brazil  Brazil
10  Argentina  India  Spain  Canada  Brazil  South Korea  Canada  Canada  Canada
Rank 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
11  Mexico  Brazil  Brazil  South Korea  Spain  Brazil  Russia  South Korea  South Korea
12  Spain  Mexico  China  Netherlands  South Korea  Mexico  Spain  Australia  Russia
13  Netherlands  Spain  India  Australia  India  India  Australia  Russia  Australia
14  India  Australia  Australia  India  Netherlands  Russia  South Korea  Spain  Spain
15  Saudi Arabia  Netherlands  Netherlands  Mexico  Australia  Australia  Mexico  Mexico  Mexico
16  Australia  Sweden  Mexico   Switzerland  Iran  Netherlands  Netherlands  Indonesia  Indonesia
17  Brazil   Switzerland  South Korea  Russia  Argentina  Turkey  Indonesia  Netherlands  Netherlands
18  Sweden  Indonesia   Switzerland  Argentina  Taiwan   Switzerland  Turkey  Turkey  Turkey
19  Belgium  Argentina  Sweden  Belgium   Switzerland  Sweden   Switzerland   Switzerland  Saudi Arabia
20   Switzerland  Saudi Arabia  Turkey  Taiwan  Turkey  Belgium  Saudi Arabia  Saudi Arabia   Switzerland

Twenty Largest Economies in the World by PPP GDP (IMF and CIA World Factbook)[edit]

The following is a list of twenty largest economies by GDP (PPP) at a specific year according to the CIA World Factbook and the International Monetary Fund.[14][15]

Rank 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
1  United States  United States  United States  United States  United States  United States  United States  China  China
2  Soviet Union  Soviet Union  Soviet Union  Japan  China  China  China  United States  United States
3  Japan  Japan  Japan  China  Japan  Japan  India  India  India
4  West Germany  West Germany  West Germany  Germany  Germany  India  Japan  Japan  Japan
5  Italy  Italy  Italy  India  India  Germany  Germany  Germany  Germany
6  France  France  China  Italy  France  Russia  Russia  Russia  Indonesia
7  Brazil  Brazil  France  France  Italy  Brazil  Brazil  Brazil  Russia
8  United Kingdom  United Kingdom  Brazil  Brazil  Brazil  France  France  Indonesia  Brazil
9  Mexico  China  India  Russia  Russia  United Kingdom  United Kingdom  United Kingdom  United Kingdom
10  India  India  United Kingdom  United Kingdom  United Kingdom  Italy  Italy  France  France
Rank 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
11  China  Mexico  Mexico  Mexico  Mexico  Mexico  Indonesia  Mexico  Mexico
12  Spain  Canada  Spain  Indonesia  Spain  Indonesia  Mexico  Italy  Italy
13  Canada  Spain  Canada  Spain  Indonesia  Spain  Spain  South Korea  South Korea
14  Saudi Arabia  Iran  Indonesia  Canada  Canada  Canada  South Korea  Saudi Arabia  Saudi Arabia
15  Indonesia  Indonesia  Saudi Arabia  South Korea  South Korea  South Korea  Canada  Spain  Turkey
16  Argentina  Saudi Arabia  Turkey  Turkey  Turkey  Turkey  Iran  Canada  Spain
17  Iran  Turkey  Iran  Saudi Arabia  Iran  Iran  Saudi Arabia  Turkey  Canada
18  Poland  Australia  South Korea  Iran  Saudi Arabia  Saudi Arabia  Turkey  Iran  Iran
19  Netherlands  Netherlands  Australia  Australia  Australia  Australia  Australia  Australia  Nigeria
20  Australia  Argentina  Netherlands  Thailand  Netherlands  Thailand  Taiwan  Taiwan  Australia

2010 – 2020 – China, the United States, India and the European Union lead economic growth (estimates by IMF)[edit]

At exchange rates, the economic output of the world is expected to expand by US$31.5 trillion from 2010 to 2020.[16] The following two tables are predictive lists of the 50 countries with the largest contribution to global economic growth from 2010 to 2020 by International Monetary Fund.

Predictive List of the 50 Economies with the
Greatest Contribution to Global Economic Growth
in GDP (nominal) from 2010 to 2020
[16]
Predictive List of the 50 Economies with the
Greatest Contribution to Global Economic Growth
in GDP (PPP) from 2010 to 2020
[16]
Rank Country Incremental GDP
(billions of US$)
Share of Global
GDP Growth
  World 31,456.062 100.0%
1  China 11,060.516 35.2%
2  United States 7,329.705 23.3%
 European Union 3,216.416 10.2%
3  India 1,735.136 5.5%
4  United Kingdom 1,444.632 4.6%
5  South Korea 804.264 2.6%
6  Germany 581.470 1.8%
7  Mexico 444.530 1.4%
8  Indonesia 438.653 1.4%
9  Egypt 373.354 1.2%
10  Canada 344.081 1.1%
11  Saudi Arabia 321.746 1.0%
12  Philippines 307.660 1.0%
13  Malaysia 289.394 0.9%
14  France 288.422 0.9%
15  Australia 270.723 0.9%
16  Russia 266.877 0.8%
17  Pakistan 228.144 0.7%
18  Nigeria 221.153 0.7%
19  Taiwan 204.761 0.7%
20   Switzerland 190.163 0.6%
21  Bangladesh 188.819 0.6%
22  Poland 186.995 0.6%
23  United Arab Emirates 182.853 0.6%
24  Hong Kong 177.144 0.6%
25  Vietnam 174.486 0.6%
26  Turkey 174.305 0.6%
27  Argentina 172.237 0.5%
28  Singapore 158.557 0.5%
29  Qatar 142.393 0.5%
30  Colombia 134.292 0.4%
31  Thailand 133.073 0.4%
32  Iraq 130.263 0.4%
33  Kazakhstan 120.610 0.4%
34  Israel 104.742 0.3%
35  Netherlands 102.800 0.3%
36  Sweden 97.365 0.3%
37  Iran 90.936 0.3%
38  Peru 86.529 0.3%
39  Ireland 75.913 0.2%
40  Romania 74.903 0.2%
41  Chile 74.736 0.2%
42  Sri Lanka 72.998 0.2%
43  Belgium 70.890 0.2%
44  Ethiopia 70.407 0.2%
45  Kenya 64.043 0.2%
46  Spain 63.417 0.2%
47  Kuwait 63.116 0.2%
48  Turkmenistan 61.845 0.2%
49  Austria 61.718 0.2%
50  Algeria 57.953 0.2%
Remaining Countries 940.340 3.0%
Rank Country Incremental GDP
(billions of US$)
Share of Global
GDP Growth
  World 61,043.340 100.0%
1  China 16,563.954 27.1%
2  India 7,335.389 12.0%
3  United States 7,329.705 12.0%
 European Union 6,257.424 10.3%
4  Indonesia 2,099.339 3.4%
5  Germany 1,234.409 2.0%
6  Japan 1,192.716 2.0%
7  Mexico 1,058.692 1.7%
8  Brazil 1,023.737 1.7%
9  United Kingdom 1,017.112 1.7%
10  Russia 967.141 1.6%
11  South Korea 934.650 1.5%
12  Saudi Arabia 906.747 1.5%
13  Turkey 859.320 1.4%
14  France 819.643 1.3%
15  Nigeria 725.723 1.2%
16  Canada 626.845 1.0%
17  Philippines 599.584 1.0%
18  Iran 591.892 1.0%
19  Pakistan 587.967 1.0%
20  Egypt 560.544 0.9%
21  Malaysia 551.831 0.9%
22  Thailand 542.776 0.9%
23  Australia 522.779 0.9%
24  Taiwan 519.305 0.9%
25  Poland 514.046 0.8%
26  Bangladesh 491.578 0.8%
27  Spain 487.548 0.8%
28  Iraq 452.811 0.7%
29  Italy 442.347 0.7%
30  Vietnam 429.943 0.7%
31  Colombia 374.710 0.6%
32  United Arab Emirates 365.963 0.6%
33  Algeria 297.409 0.5%
34  South Africa 285.067 0.5%
35  Argentina 271.562 0.4%
36  Myanmar 260.908 0.4%
37  Netherlands 259.138 0.4%
38  Kazakhstan 254.600 0.4%
39  Singapore 242.280 0.4%
40  Peru 241.615 0.4%
41  Chile 218.259 0.4%
42  Qatar 206.774 0.3%
43  Sri Lanka 199.429 0.3%
44  Hong Kong 194.463 0.3%
45  Romania 193.278 0.3%
46  Sweden 184.605 0.3%
47  Morocco 173.370 0.3%
48  Uzbekistan 163.740 0.3%
49   Switzerland 163.274 0.3%
50  Ethiopia 160.377 0.3%
Remaining Countries 4,342.446 7.1%

Statistical indicators[edit]

Economy[edit]

  • GDP (GWP) (gross world product): (purchasing power parity exchange rates) – $59.38 trillion (2005 est.), $51.48 trillion (2004), $23 trillion (2002)
  • GDP (GWP) (gross world product):[17] (market exchange rates) – $60.69 trillion (2008)
  • GDP – real growth rate: 3.2% (2008), 3.1% p.a. (2000–07), 2.4% p.a. (1990–99), 3.1% p.a. (1980–89)
  • GDP – per capita: purchasing power parity – $9,300, €7,500 (2005 est.), $8,200, €6,800 (92) (2003), $7,900, €5,000 (2002)
  • World median income: purchasing power parity $1,041, €950 (1993)[18]
  • GDP – composition by sector: agriculture: 4%; industry: 32%; services: 64% (2004 est.)
  • Inflation rate (consumer prices): developed countries 1% to 4% typically; developing countries 5% to 60% typically; national inflation rates vary widely in individual cases, from declining prices in Japan to hyperinflation in several Third World countries (2003)
  • Derivatives OTC outstanding notional amount: $601 trillion (Dec 2010) ([5])
  • Derivatives exchange traded outstanding notional amount: $82 trillion (June 2011) ([6])
  • Global debt issuance: $5.187 trillion, €3 trillion (2004), $4.938 trillion, €3.98 trillion (2003), $3.938 trillion (2002) (Thomson Financial League Tables)
  • Global equity issuance: $505 billion, €450 billion (2004), $388 billion. €320 billion (2003), $319 billion, €250 trillion (2002) (Thomson Financial League Tables)

Employment[edit]

World GDP per capita between 1500–2000 (log scale)
World GDP per capita between 1500–2003
GDP increase, 1990–1998 and 1990–2006, in major countries.
  • Unemployment rate: 8.7% (2009 est.). 30% (2007 est.) combined unemployment and underemployment in many non-industrialized countries; developed countries typically 4%–12% unemployment.

Industries[edit]

  • Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2002 est.)

Energy[edit]

  • Yearly electricity – production: 21,080,878 GWh (2011 est.),[19] 15,850,000 GWh (2003 est.), 14,850,000 GWh (2001 est.)
  • Yearly electricity – consumption: 14,280,000 GWh (2003 est.), 13,930,000 GWh (2001 est.)
  • Oil – production: 79,650,000 bbl/d (12,663,000 m3/d) (2003 est.), 75,460,000 barrels per day (11,997,000 m3/d) (2001)
  • Oil – consumption: 80,100,000 bbl/d (12,730,000 m3/d) (2003 est.), 76,210,000 barrels per day (12,116,000 m3/d) (2001)
  • Oil – proved reserves: 1.025 trillion barrel (163 km³) (2001 est.)
  • Natural gas – production: 3,366 km³ (2012 est.),[20] 2,569 km³ (2001 est.)
  • Natural gas – consumption: 2,556 km³ (2001 est.)
  • Natural gas – proved reserves: 161,200 km³ (1 January 2002)

Cross-border[edit]

  • Yearly exports: $12.4 trillion, €11.05 trillion (2009 est.)
  • Exports – commodities: the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and services
  • Exports – partners: US 12.7%, Germany 7.1%, China 6.2%, France 4.4%, Japan 4.2%, UK 4.1% (2008)
  • Yearly imports: $12.29 trillion, €10.95 trillion (2009 est.)
  • Imports – commodities: the whole range of industrial and agricultural goods and services
  • Imports – partners: China 10.3%, Germany 8.6%, US 8.1%, Japan 5% (2008)
  • Debt – external: $56.9 trillion, €40 trillion (31 December 2009 est.)

Gift economy[edit]

Communications[edit]

Telephones – main lines in use: 843,923,500 (2007)
4,263,367,600 (2008)

Transport[edit]

Transportation infrastructure worldwide includes:

  • Airports
    • Total: 41,821 (2013)[24]
  • Roadways (in kilometres)
    • Total: 32,345,165 km
    • Paved: 19,403,061 km
    • Unpaved: 12,942,104 km (2002)
  • Railways

Military[edit]

  • World military expenditure in 2012: estimated to $1.756 trillion [25]
  • Military expenditures – percent of GDP: roughly 2% of gross world product (1999).

Economic Studies[edit]

To promote exports, many government agencies publish on the web economic studies by sector and country. Among these agencies include the USCS (US DoC) and FAS (USDA) in the United States, EDC and AAFC in Canada, Ubifrance in France, UKTI in the UK, HKTDC and JETRO in Asia, Austrade and NZTE in Oceania. Through Partnership Agreements, The Federation of International Trade Associations publishes studies from several of these agencies (USCS, FAS, AAFC, UKTI, HKTDC), as well as other non-governmental organizations on its website GlobalTrade.net.

See also[edit]

Regional economies:

Events:

Lists:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "IMF". imf.org. Retrieved 2014-10-10. 
  2. ^ "World Economic Outlook (WEO), April 2015, Chapter 1" (PDF). IMF. April 2015. Retrieved 2015-06-15. 
  3. ^ "Forbes". http://www.forbes.com/billionaires/list. Forbes.  External link in |website= (help);
  4. ^ "BLS". http://www.bls.gov/bls/newsrels.htm#major. BLS.  External link in |website= (help);
  5. ^ "World Economy." - Definition. American English Definition of with Pronunciation by Macmillan Dictionary. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Jan. 2015.
  6. ^ http://siteresources.worldbank.org/ICPEXT/Resources/ICP_2011.html
  7. ^ "Gross domestic product, current prices & Gross domestic product based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) valuation of country GDP". World Economic Outlook Database, October 2015. International Monetary Fund. October 2015. Retrieved 2015-10-15. 
  8. ^ [1] IMF GDP 2014 Data (October 2015)
  9. ^ a b c d "Gross domestic product". IMF World Economic Outlook. April 2016. Retrieved 14 April 2016. 
  10. ^ [2] IMF GDP (Nominal) Data (October 2015)
  11. ^ [3] IMF GDP (PPP) Data (October 2015)
  12. ^ [4] IMF GDP (nominal) 2014 and 2015 Data (October 2015)
  13. ^ "Gross domestic product, current prices". International Monetary Fund. International Monetary Fund. October 2015. Retrieved 11 October 2015. 
  14. ^ "Gross domestic product based on purchasing-power-parity (PPP) valuation of country GDP; Current international dollar". International Monetary Fund. October 2015. Retrieved 11 October 2015. 
  15. ^ "GDP (PURCHASING POWER PARITY)". CIA World Factbook. CIA World Factbook. 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2014. 
  16. ^ a b c "Gross domestic product". IMF World Economic Outlook. October 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2015. 
  17. ^ "IMF World Economic Outlook, Crisis and Recovery, April 2009". Imf.org. 2009-04-16. Retrieved 2012-07-17. 
  18. ^ B. Milanovic (January 2002). "True World Income Distribution, 1988 and 1993: First Calculation Based on Household Surveys Alone" (PDF). Retrieved 13 May 2011. 
  19. ^ http://www.eia.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/IEDIndex3.cfm?tid=2&pid=2&aid=12
  20. ^ http://www.eia.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/iedindex3.cfm?tid=3&pid=3&aid=1&cid=regions&syid=2008&eyid=2012&unit=BCF
  21. ^ "Development aid stable in 2014 but flows to poorest countries still falling". OECD. 2015-04-08. Retrieved 2015-07-23. 
  22. ^ global cellphone penetration reaches 50 percent
  23. ^ "World Internet Usage Statistics News and World Population Stats". Internetworldstats.com. Retrieved 2015-06-08. 
  24. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2053.html
  25. ^ http://www.sipri.org/yearbook/2013/03

External links[edit]