The Great Gama
|Birth name||Ghulam Mohammad Baksh Butt|
|Born||22 May 1878|
Jabbowal, Amritsar, Punjab Province, British Raj
|Died||23 May 1960 (aged 82)|
Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
|Family||Imam Baksh Pahalwan (brother)|
Kalsoom Nawaz Sharif (granddaughter)
|Professional wrestling career|
|Ring name(s)||Gama Pahalwan|
|Billed height||5 ft 8 in (173 cm)|
|Billed weight||250 lb (110 kg)|
Ghulam Mohammad Baksh Butt (22 May 1878 – 23 May 1960), commonly known as Rustam-e-Hind (Hindi-Urdu for Rustam of India) and by the ring name The Great Gama, was an Indian pehlwani wrestler and strongman. In the early 20th century, he was an undefeated wrestling champion of the world.
Born in village Jabbowal, Amritsar in the Punjab Province of colonial British India in 1878, and was awarded a version of the World Heavyweight Championship on 15 October 1910. Undefeated in a career spanning more than 52 years, he is considered one of the greatest wrestlers of all time. During the partition of India, the Great Gama saved the lives of many Hindus and then spent the rest of his days until his death on May 23, 1960 in Lahore, which became a part of the newly created Islamic Republic of Pakistan.
Ghulam Mohammad Baksh was born in Amritsar into a Muslim Bhatt family of wrestlers in the Punjab region. He came from a wrestling family which was known to produce world-class wrestlers. The Baksh family is believed by historians to originally have been Kashmiri Brahmins (Butta) who converted to Islam during Muslim rule in Kashmir. Gama had two wives: one in Punjab and the other in Baroda, Gujarat, India.
After the death of his father Muhammad Aziz Baksh when he was six, Gama was put under the care of his maternal grandfather Nun Pahalwan. Following his death, Gama was taken care of by his uncle Ida, another wrestler, who also began training Gama in wrestling. He was first noticed at the age of ten, in 1888, when he entered a strongman competition held in Jodhpur, which included many grueling exercises such as squats. The contest was attended by more than four hundred wrestlers and Gama was among the last fifteen and was named the winner by the Maharaja of Jodhpur due to his young age. Gama was subsequently taken into training by the Maharaja of Datia.
Training and diet
Gama's daily training consisted of grappling with forty of his fellow wrestlers in the akhada (court). He did a minimum of five thousand baithaks (Indian word for squats) (avg. speed 100-200 squats per minute) and three thousand dands (Indian word for pushups) (avg. speed 50-100 pushups per minute) in a day and even sometimes more within 30 to 45 minutes each by wearing a doughnut-shaped wrestling apparatus called a Hasli of 1 Quintal (approx. 100 kilos). Gama's everyday diet included
- 2 desi mutton
- 6 desi Chicken
- 10 litres of milk
- 1.5 pounds of crushed almond paste
- Half litre of ghee
- six pounds of butter
- three buckets of seasonal fruits
- along with fruit juices
First encounter with Raheem Bakhsh Sultaniwala
Fame came to Gama in 1895, at the age of 17 when he challenged then-Indian Wrestling Champion, middle-aged Raheem Bakhsh Sultaniwala, another ethnic Kashmiri wrestler from Gujranwala, now in Punjab, Pakistan. At about 7 feet tall, with a very impressive win-loss record, Raheem was expected to easily defeat the 5'7" Gama. Raheem's only drawback was his age as he was much older than Gama, and near the end of his career. The bout continued for hours and eventually ended in a draw. The contest with Raheem was the turning point in Gama's career. After that, he was looked upon as the next contender for the title of Rustam-e-Hind or the Indian Wrestling Championship. In the first bout Gama remained defensive, but in the second bout, Gama went on the offensive. Despite severe bleeding from his nose and ears, he managed to deal out a great deal of damage to Raheem Bakhsh.
By 1910, Gama had defeated all the prominent Indian wrestlers who faced him except the champion, Raheem Bakhsh Sultani Wala (the Rustam-e-Hind or the lineal champion of India). At this time, he focused his attention on the rest of the world. Accompanied by his younger brother Imam Bakhsh, Gama sailed to England to compete with the Western wrestlers but could not gain instant entry, because of his lower height.
Tournament in London
In London, Gama issued a challenge that he could throw any three wrestlers in thirty minutes of any weight class. This announcement however was seen as a bluff by the wrestlers and their wrestling promoter R. B. Benjamin. For a long time no one came forward to accept the challenge. To break the ice, Gama presented another challenge to specific heavy weight wrestlers. He challenged Stanislaus Zbyszko and Frank Gotch, either he would beat them or pay them the prize money and go home. The first professional wrestler to take his challenge was the American Benjamin Roller. In the bout, Gama pinned Roller in 1 minute 40 seconds the first time, and in 9 minutes 10 seconds the other. On the second day, he defeated 12 wrestlers and thus gained entry to official tournament.
Match with Stanislaus Zbyszko
He was pitted against world champion Stanislaus Zbyszko and the date of bout was set as 10 September 1910. Zbyszko was then regarded among the premier wrestlers in the world; and he would then take on the mammoth challenge of India's feared Great Gama, an undefeated champion who had been unsuccessful in his attempts to lure Frank Gotch into a match. And so, on September 10, 1910, Zbyszko faced the Great Gama in the finals of the John Bull World Championships in London. The match was £250 in prize money and the John Bull Belt. Within a minute, Zbyszko was taken down and remained in that position for the remaining 2 hours and 35 minutes of the match. There were a few brief moments when Zbyszko would get up, but he just ended back down in his previous position. Crafting a defensive strategy of hugging the mat in order to nullify Great Gama's greatest strengths, Zbyszko wrestled the Indian legend to a draw after nearly three hours of grappling, though Zbyszko's lack of tenacity angered many of the fans in attendance. Nevertheless, Zbyszko still became one of the few wrestlers to ever meet the Great Gama without going down in defeat; The two men were set to face each other again on September 17, 1910. On that date, Zbyszko failed to show up and Gama was announced the winner by default. He was awarded the prize and the John Bull Belt. Receiving this belt entitled Gama to be called Rustam-e-Zamana or World Champion but not the lineal champion of the world as he hadn't defeated Zbyszko in the ring.
Bouts against American and European champions
During this tour Gama defeated some of the most respected grapplers in the world, "Doc" Benjamin Roller of the United States, Maurice Deriaz of Switzerland, Johann Lemm (the European Champion) of Switzerland, and Jesse Peterson (World Champion) from Sweden. In the match against Roller, Gama threw "Doc" 13 times in the 15-minute match. Gama now issued a challenge to the rest of those who laid claim to the World Champion's Title, including Japanese Judo champion Taro Miyake, George Hackenschmidt of Russia and Frank Gotch of the United States – each declined his invitation to enter the ring to face him. At one point, to face some type of competition, Gama offered to fight twenty English wrestlers, one after another. He announced that he would defeat all of them or pay out prize money, but still no one would take up his challenge.
Final encounter with Raheem Bakhsh Sultani Wala
Shortly after his return from England, Gama faced Raheem Bakhsh Sultani Wala in Allahabad. This bout eventually ended the long struggle between the two pillars of Indian wrestling of that time in favour of Gama and he won the title of Rustam-e-Hind or the lineal Champion of India. Later in his life when asked about who was his strongest opponent, Gama replied, "Raheem Bakhsh Sultani Wala".
Rematch with Zbyszko
Gama did not have any opponents until 1927, when it was announced that Gama and Zbyszko would face each other again. They met in Patiala in January 1928. Entering the bout, Zbyszko "showed a strong build of body and muscle" and Gama, it was reported "looked much thinner than usual". However, he managed to overpower the former easily and won the bout inside a minute, winning the Indian version of the lineal World Wrestling Championship. Following the bout, Zbyszko praised him, calling him a "tiger".
At forty-eight years old he was now known as the "Great wrestler" of India.
Fight with Balram Heeraman Singh
After defeating Zbyszko, Gama beat Jesse Petersen in February 1929. The bout lasted only one and a half minutes. This was the last bout that Gama fought during his career. In the 1940s he was invited by the Nizam of Hyderabad and defeated all his fighters. The Nizam then sent him to face the wrestler Balram Heeraman Singh, who was never defeated in his life. The fight was very long. Gama was unable to defeat Heeraman and eventually neither wrestler won. Heeraman was one of the toughest wrestlers for Gama to face.
After the independence and partition of India in 1947, Gama moved to Pakistan. During the Hindu-Muslim riots that broke out at the time of partition, the Muslim Gama saved hundreds of Hindus from mobs in Lahore. Although Gama did not retire until 1952, he failed to find any other opponents. Some other sources say he wrestled until 1955. After his retirement, he trained his nephew Bholu Pahalwan, who held the Pakistani wrestling championship for almost 20 years.
Gama fought and defeated over two hundred opponents in his time. His final days were difficult; he had five sons and four daughters and all the sons died young. When his youngest son Jalaluddin died in 1945 at the age of just thirteen, Gama was heartbroken and lost the power of speech for some days. He migrated to Pakistan at partition and tried his hand at different unsuccessful ventures including a bus service in Karachi called the “Gama Transport Service.” Gama was given land and monthly pension by the government and supported his medical expenses until his death. He died in Lahore, Pakistan on 23 May 1960 after a period of illness.
Bruce Lee was an avid follower of Gama's training routine. Lee read articles about Gama and how he employed his exercises to build his legendary strength for wrestling, and Lee quickly incorporated them into his own routine. The training routines Lee used included "the cat stretch", and "the squat" (known as "baithak", and also known as the "deep-knee bend.").
Championships and accomplishments
- International Professional Wrestling Hall of Fame
- Class of 2021
- George Tragos/Lou Thesz Professional Wrestling Hall of Fame
- Class of 2007
- Professional Wrestling Hall of Fame and Museum
- Class of 2015
- Harris M. Lentz III (21 October 2003). Biographical Dictionary of Professional Wrestling, 2d ed. McFarland. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-7864-1754-4.
Gama the Great (Ghulum Mohammed; b. 1888, d. 1953; Amritsar, Punjab, India; 5'8, 250 lbs.) was from a prominent wrestling family in India.
- "Here's The Story Of Gama 'The Undefeated' Pehalwan And How He Saved Hindus During 1947 Riots". India Times. 16 May 2017.
Gama Pehalwan was born as Ghulam Mohammed in 1878 in Amritsar.
- "The Great Gama and Lahore". Pakistan Today. 5 January 2018.
Ghulam Muhammad later known as the Gama Pehalwan was born in a Gujjar Kashmiri family in Amritsar on May 22 1878.
- Nidaay-e-Millat, Urdu Weekly Magazine 21–27 July 2016. Lahore
- Lentz III, Harris M. (2003). Biographical Dictionary of Professional Wrestling (2 ed.). McFarland. p. 118. ISBN 9780786417544. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
Gama the Great (Ghulum Mohammed; b. 1888, d. 1953; Amritsar, Punjab, India; 5'8, 250 lbs.) was from a prominent wrestling family in India.
- Garg, Chitra (2010). Indian Champions: Profiles of Famous Indian Sportspersons. Rajpal & Sons. p. 352. ISBN 978-81-7028-852-7.
He managed to get the Indian wrestling style introduced in the international games. He is solely responsible for earning international fame for this form of wrestling and was given the title of 'Rustam-e-Hind.'
- Green, Thomas A. (2001). Martial Arts of the World: A-Q. ABC-CLIO. p. 721. ISBN 978-1-57607-150-2.
An early-twentieth century studio photo of the famous Indian wrestler The Great Gama (Ghulam Mohammed, 1878-1960).
- Tadié, Alexis; Mangan, J. A.; Chaudhuri, Supriya (2016). Sport, Literature, Society: Cultural Historical Studies. Routledge. p. 41. ISBN 978-1-134-92024-2.
In recent years, the history of modern Indian wrestling - or kushti - has begun to receive scholarly attention. Most accounts agree that the last decades of the nineteenth century saw the coming of the modern form of this ancient Indian sport, with Indian wrestlers emerging from the confines of their akhadas and fighting with their Western counterparts. Between 1910 and 1913, a wave of Indian wrestlers visited England and took the wrestling world by storm. The most iconic of them was the great Gama - the 'lion of Punjab' - arguably the greatest wrestler India has ever produced.
- "The culture and crisis of kushti". The Hindu. 31 October 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2016.
- Banerjee, Sarnath (10 March 2012). "Gamanamah: The story of a strongman". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
- Hornbaker, Tim (2017). Legends of Pro Wrestling: 150 Years of Headlocks, Body Slams, and Piledrivers. Skyhorse Publishing. ISBN 9781613218754. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
- Kaw, K.; Kashmir Education, Culture, and Science Society (2004). Kashmir and Its People: Studies in the Evolution of Kashmiri Society. A.P.H. Publishing Corporation. ISBN 9788176485371. Retrieved 7 July 2015.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Sen, Ronojoy (2015). Nation at Play: A History of Sport in India. Columbia University Press. p. 167. ISBN 9780231539937. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
- Prasher, Shantanu. "The Great Gama: Story Of The Greatest 'Buffer' To Ever Walk On Indian Soil". www.mensxp.com. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
- "The Great Gama -". Legendary Strength. 8 December 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2016.
- Alter, Joseph S. (1992). The wrestler's body identity and ideology in North India. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 76. ISBN 9780520912175.
- "The "John Bull" Wrestling belt won by an Indian". The Derby Daily Telegraph. 17 September 1910.
- "World Wrestling Championship: Indian's Victory Over Pole". The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertise. 14 February 1928. p. 4. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
- Kundu, Sagnik (23 December 2016). "The Great Gama – The pehelwan who refused to lose". Sportskeeda. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
- "World Wrestling Championship: Gama Beats Zbyszko". The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser. 3 March 1928. p. 6. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
- "Here's the Story of Gama 'The Undefeated' Pehalwan and How He Saved Hindus During 1947 Riots". 16 May 2017.
- Little, John, Bruce Lee – The Art of Expressing The Human Body (Tuttle Publishing, 1998), p. 58
- A rare museum The Tribune, Published 24 November 2001, Retrieved 2 July 2016
- "Induction Weekend 2021 | Pro Wrestling Hall of Fame".
- Johnson, Steve (14 July 2007). "Emotions run high at Tragos/Thesz induction". Slam! Wrestling. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 6 November 2018.
- Oliver, Greg (26 November 2014). "Professional Wrestling Hall of Fame Class of 2015 announced". Slam! Sports. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2 July 2016.
- The Lion of the Punjab – Gama in England, 1910 by Graham Noble
- Subaltern Bodies and Nationalist Physiques: Gama the Great and the Heroics of Indian Wrestling by Joseph Alter, Department of Anthropology at the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA