The Great God Pan
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"The Great God Pan" is a novella by Welsh writer Arthur Machen. A version of the story was published in the magazine The Whirlwind in 1890, and Machen revised and extended it for its book publication (together with another story, "The Inmost Light") in 1894. On publication it was widely denounced by the press as degenerate and horrific because of its decadent style and sexual content, although it has since garnered a reputation as a classic of horror. Machen’s story was only one of many at the time to focus on the Greek God Pan as a useful symbol for the power of nature and paganism. The title was possibly inspired by the poem "A Musical Instrument" published in 1862 by Elizabeth Barrett Browning, in which the first line of every stanza ends "... the great god Pan."
Clarke agrees, somewhat unwillingly, to bear witness to a strange experiment performed by his friend, Dr. Raymond. The ultimate goal of the doctor is to open the mind of man so that he may experience the spiritual world, an experience he calls "seeing the great god Pan". He performs the experiment, which involves minor brain surgery, on a young woman named Mary. She awakens from the operation awed and terrified but quickly becomes "a hopeless idiot".
Years later, Clarke learns of a beautiful but sinister girl named Helen Vaughan, who is reported to have caused a series of mysterious happenings in her town. She spends much of her time in the woods near her house, where a young boy stumbles across her talking to a strange man one day; the boy becomes hysterical and later, after seeing a Roman statue of a satyr's head, becomes permanently feeble-minded. Helen also befriends a neighbour girl, Rachel, whom she leads several times into the woods. On one occasion Rachel returns home distraught; afterward, she returns to the woods and disappears forever.
Years later, Villiers happens across his old friend Herbert, who has become a vagrant since they last met. When asked how he has fallen so low, Herbert replies that he has been "corrupted body and soul" by his wife, who is later revealed to be Helen. Soon after, Herbert is found dead.
Helen disappears for some time, supposedly taking part in disturbing orgies somewhere in the Americas. She eventually returns to London under the pseudonym Mrs. Beaumont, her appearance followed by a series of suicides. Villiers and Clarke, each learning of Mrs. Beaumont's true identity, band together and confront Helen in her house. They persuade her to hang herself, and Helen has a very abnormal death, transforming between human and beast before finally dying.
It is finally revealed that Helen is the child of Mary and the great god Pan, who was let in when Dr. Raymond opened her mind up to him.
Reviewing "The Great God Pan" for the magazine Literary News, Richard Henry Stoddard criticised the story as "Too morbid to be the production of a healthy mind". The art critic Harry Quilter's review in The Contemporary Review was even more harsh. Quilter said ""The Great God Pan" is, I have no hesitation in saying, a perfectly abominable story". Quilter went on to attack the story's publisher, John Lane, as well as Machen himself: "Why should he be allowed, for the sake of a few miserable pounds, to cast into our midst these monstrous creations of his diseased brain?"  Quilter added that works of fiction like Machen's should be unanimously condemned by literary critics and newspapers: "If the Press was so disposed it could stamp out such art and fiction in a few months: And that disposition must be acquired, must even be enforced." Later reception of the story was more positive. In Supernatural Horror in Literature (1926; revised 1933), H. P. Lovecraft praised the story, saying: "No one could begin to describe the cumulative suspense and ultimate horror with which every paragraph abounds"; he added that "the sensitive reader" reaches the end with "an appreciative shudder." Lovecraft also noted, however, that "melodrama is undeniably present, and coincidence is stretched to a length which appears absurd upon analysis." Bennett Cerf described the story as a "masterpiece". The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction (1993) notes "The story begins with an sf rationale (brain surgery) which remains one of the most dramatically horrible and misogynistic in fiction." Brian Stableford states that "The Great God Pan" is "the archetypal Decadent horror story" and described the story as "highly original".
Stephen King wrote in the endnotes for his story collection Just After Sunset (2008) that his newly published novella "N." was "strongly influenced" by Machen's piece, which he noted, "surmounts its rather clumsy prose and works its way relentlessly into the reader's terror-zone. How many sleepless nights has it caused? God knows, but a few of them were mine. I think 'Pan' is as close as the horror genre comes to a great white whale." In another interview he stated: "Not Lovecraft; it’s a riff on Arthur Machen’s The Great God Pan, which is one of the best horror stories ever written. Maybe the best in the English language. Mine isn’t anywhere near that good, but I loved the chance to put neurotic behavior—obsessive/compulsive disorder—together with the idea of a monster-filled macroverse." King has also cited Machen's piece as an influence for many of his other works, such as his novel Revival (2014).
This story is quoted sporadically throughout Rachel Klein's The Moth Diaries (2002), as the main character reads the novel during her school year and takes great interest in its meaning in relevance to vampirism and her own experiences.
"The Great God Pan" was highly influential on the circle of writers around H. P. Lovecraft. The story's depiction of a monstrous half-human hybrid inspired the plot of Lovecraft’s The Dunwich Horror (1928), which refers by name to Machen’s story. According to Lovecraft scholar Robert M. Price, "The Dunwich Horror is in every sense an homage to Machen and even a pastiche. There is little in Lovecraft's wonderful story that does not come directly out of Machen's fiction."
- Stableford, Brian, (1998) "Machen, Arthur (Llewellyn)", in David Pringle (ed), St. James Guide to Horror, Ghost and Gothic Writers. London : St. James Press, 1998, ISBN 1558622063 (pp. 382–84).
- Richard Henry Stoddard, "Review of "The Great God Pan"", in: Colavito, Jason, ed. A Hideous Bit of Morbidity: An Anthology of Horror Criticism from the Enlightenment to World War I. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2008. p. 228-230) ISBN 978-0-7864-3968-3
- Harry Quilter, "The Gospel of Intensity", in Colavito, ed. A Hideous Bit of Morbidity: An Anthology of Horror Criticism from the Enlightenment to World War I. Jefferson,NC: McFarland, 2008. (p. 230-254). ISBN 978-0-7864-3968-3
- "Arthur Machen, celebrated English author of such masterpieces as "The Great God Pan" and "The Hill of Dreams"..." Bennett Cerf, "Trade Winds", The Saturday Review of Literature, March 20, 1943, (p. 26).
- The Great God Pan. WildClaw Theatre. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- "Hell! Said the Duchess...was probably conceived as a parodic version of Arthur Machen's classic Decadent fantasy "The Great God Pan"...."Stableford, Brian (1998), "Arlen, Michael". St. James Guide to Horror, Ghost and Gothic Writers, ed. David Pringle. Detroit: St. James Press, 1998. ISBN 1558622063
- Wilson, Neil (2000). Shadows in the Attic: A Guide to British Supernatural Fiction, 1820–1950. London: British Library. pp. 35–6. ISBN 0712310746.
- "SELF-INTERVIEW By Stephen King 10:50am September 4th, 2008
- Price, Robert M. (1996). The Dunwich Cycle: Where the Old Gods Wait. Hayward, CA: Chaosium. pp. ix–x.
- "Pan"...has suggested to me an idea so hellish that I am almost afraid to work it out in story form...[a woman] gives birth to a child and dies. The child is so monstrous that no one is permitted to see it." Clark Ashton Smith, Letter to H.P. Lovecraft, c. 27th January 1931. In Selected Letters of Clark Ashton Smith, edited by Scott Connors and David E. Schultz.Sauk City, Wis.: Arkham House, 2003. ISBN 9780870541827 (pp. 145-6).
- Bosky, Bernadette (1988). "Peter Straub: From Academe to Shadowland". In Schweitzer, Darrell. Discovering Modern Horror Fiction II. San Bernardino: Borgo Press. p. 8. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
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