Jump to content

The Great Mother

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Great Mother
An Analysis of the Archetype
AuthorErich Neumann
Original titleDie große Mutter. Der Archetyp des grossen Weiblichen
TranslatorRalph Manheim
SubjectMother goddesses,
Feminine archetypes
PublisherBollingen Foundation,
Princeton University Press
Publication date
1955, 2d ed. 1963, 2015
Publication placeSwitzerland, Israel
Media typePrint (Hardcover and Paperback)
Pages379 text + 185 plates
ISBN0-691-01780-8 (paperback)
0-691-09742-9 (hardcover)
LC Class55-10026
Sophia, a positive Anima figure of the Great Mother[1]

The Great Mother: An Analysis of the Archetype (German: Die große Mutter. Der Archetyp des grossen Weiblichen) is a book discussing mother goddesses by the psychologist Erich Neumann. The dedication reads, "To C. G. Jung friend and master in his eightieth year". Although Neumann completed the German manuscript in Israel in 1951,[2] The Great Mother was first published in English in 1955.[3] The work has been seen as an enduring contribution to the literature inspired by Jung, and was the first to analyze an archetype with such depth and scope.



Great Round of female archetypes


An abbreviated abstract of Neumann's diagram, identified as "Schema III",[4] will introduce the book's narrative and analysis. At the rim of the circle, or Great Round,[5][6][7] are situated several mother goddesses and related female entities drawn from the history of religions.[8][9][10] To represent a typology, Neumann selected six representatives.


                               Isis                 Sophia
                              Lilith                 Kali
                                      the witches

These figures are grouped in two polar opposites: the Mother axis (Isis-Kali); the Anima axis (Sophia-Lilith); the two axes intersect in the center of the circle, forming a large X (shown here reduced in size). The lower quadrant is considered negative, with both Lilith and Kali being half positive and half negative. A vertical connecting the 'archetypal Feminine' (Mary-the witches) is mentioned.[11]

Neumann in his Schema III drew upon the values of traditional cultures, with a strong caveat: the Round here is 'reductionist', a simplification for brevity and clarity; in analytically positioning these figures of the psyche, each is ambivalent.[12] In human nature of each individual, these symbolic figures possess great power, dynamic and polyvalent, in potential or as activated. Further, depending on the context, each archetypal figures may "shift" or "reverse" into its opposite.[13] The two dimensional diagram is, accordingly, actually three.[14] Schema III:[15]

These female figures are not of precise attributes, nor rigid, fixed characteristics, but are changeable,[31] as explained both objectively by religious history,[32][33][34] and subjectively by archetypal psychology.[35][36] Hence, there is overlap in the Great Round positions.

Archetypal articulation and consciousness


Following the theme of his The Origins and History of Consciousness (1949; 1954),[37] Neumann first tracks the evolution of feminine archetypes from the original uroboros (primordial unconsciousness). These archetypes become articulated from the "Great Round".[38] "The psychological development [of humankind]... begins with the 'matriarchal' stage in which the archetype of the Great Mother dominates and the unconscious directs the psychic process of the individual and the group." Eventually, from the symbolic Great Round, new psychic constellations are articulated, e.g., the Eleusinian Mysteries.[39]

Increasingly, opportunities opened in these ancient cultures for spiritual transformation which liberated the individual ego consciousness, the awareness of self. The "rise to consciousness" through a semi-unconscious social process affecting the group becomes institutionalized as ritual.[40][41] Later more individual paths may evolve to augment this process.[42][43]

Cultural, academic issues


Psychology of gender dichotomy


In Neumann's prior work The Origins and History of Consciousness, the Great Mother archetype is eventually transcended by the mythic Hero. His victory personifies the emergence of a well-established ego consciousness from the prior sway of unconscious or semi-conscious forces (characterized by female symbolism). The gender-dichotomy framework, however, favored a focus on the liberation of male consciousness.[44][45]

In his subsequent The Great Mother, Neumann directs most of his attention to the feminine archetypes, elaborating their nature and qualities. Its seldom-stated back story, by default, is the emergence of the ego consciousness of the male hero. Yet the book closes with a brief summary of the "primordial mysteries of the Feminine", including the Eleusinian of the mother and daughter Demeter and Persephone, and the transformative figure of wisdom, Sophia.[46] "Neumann was well aware that The Great Mother [emphasized] only one side of the story, and had plans to complement the study with a volume on the female psychology of the Great Mother." His early death foreclosed such a companion volume.[47]

Neumann did publish several articles, followed by an amplification of it, which outlined his multilateral understanding of the rise of a woman's ego consciousness and corresponding relationship to the Great Mother archetype.[48][49] Other Jungian studies, however, have addressed analogous paths of female consciousness.[50][51]

Archetype compared to archaeology


Neumann praised Johann Jakob Bachofen in a 1930s manuscript, latter published,[52] calling Bachofen "a treasure chest of psychological knowledge" if "interpreted symbolically and not historically".[53][54][55] His book, highly influential in its era: Das Mutterrecht (1861) [Mother Right: an investigation of the religious and juridical character of matriarchy in the Ancient World].[56][57][58] Yet Bachofen's theory of "female dominated epochs" did not survive scrutiny; it had been "criticised and rejected by most contemporary historians".[59][60][61] Neumann, following the subsequent scholarship, viewed Bachofen not as a cultural historian of an ancient matriarchy, but rather as a great modern researcher of the soul.[62][63][64]

While conceding the negative conclusions of cultural history and archaeology, in the 1930s there was an effort "to rescue Bachofen's concept of an age of gynaecocracy through a psychological revision."[65] Starting from a piece by Jung on the mother archetype,[66] Neumann slowly "expanded Jung's original research", broadening its range and adding depth. A large number of Eranos illustrations depicting historic Female Archetypes supplemented his text. He finished the manuscript in 1951, Die Grosse Mutter. Liebscher cautions that it is "important today to read Neumann's study not as a contribution to a failed ancient cult of the Goddess but as an exemplary study of archetypal psychology."[67][68]

Several decades later, Marija Gimbutas in her 1989 book presented ancient evidence to support a widespread cult of the Great Mother Goddess.[69] The book drew a strong popular response. It spawned renewed interest in this complex theory studied by multiple academic disciplines, and written about by generalists. Yet this theory was considered suspect by 'New Archeology'.[70] Admittedly, there were many specific goddesses in the ancient world, some with very large followings.[71][72] Yet Liebsher notes "most archaeological scholars today agree that there is no evidence for ancient worship of the Great Mother goddess... ."[73][74][75] Another opinion holds that Gimbutas has been recently "vindicated".[76][77]

Until his untimely death, Neumann continued to publish on feminine psychology.[78] Inclusive of new research and debate, many adherents persist in taking the view of a privileged cultural role for ancient women, and often favor a transformation in gender understanding.[79][80][81]



Psychologist James Hillman criticizes Neumann's reductionism in interpreting every kind of female figure and image as a symbol of the Great Mother. Hillman suggests that, "If one's research shows results of this kind, i.e., where all data indicate one dominant hypothesis, then it is time to ask a psychological question about the hypothesis."[82]

Jungian analyst Robert H. Hopcke, who calls The Great Mother "monumental in its breadth", considers it "Neumann's most enduring contribution to Jungian thought" alongside The Origins and History of Consciousness (1949).[83]

Archaeologist Marija Gimbutas "much appreciated" Neumann's book. His "psychological approach has opened new avenues in the interpretation... of the prehistoric Goddess." Yet Prof. Gimbutas felt that "the term mother devalues her importance and does not allow appreciation of her total character. Further, much of Neumann's archetype is based on post-Indo-European religious ideology, after the image of the Goddess had suffered a profound and largely debased transformation." Accordingly, for the prehistoric period, Gimbutas preferred "the term Great Goddess as best describing her absolute rule, her creative, destructive, and regenerative powers."[84]

Siegmund Hurwitz, among other references to Neumann, quotes approvingly from The Great Mother for Neumann's description and characterization of the "anima figure" as a distinct female archetype, to be distinguished from the originally more powerful mother type.[85]

Scholar Camille Paglia identifies The Great Mother as an influence on her work of literary criticism Sexual Personae (1990).[86] She has called it "a visual feast" and his "most renowned" work.[87]

Scholar Martin Liebscher writes, "Neumann's The Great Mother provided a watershed moment in the way archetypal studies would be conducted." The many previous monographs focused on a particular archetype could not compete "with the minute detail and careful structuring of Neumann's examination of the Great Mother archetype."[88]


  1. ^ Statue of Sophia (2000) in Sofia, Bulgaria.
  2. ^ Liebscher (2015) article, p. ix.
  3. ^ Neumann 1955, 1991. p. iv.
  4. ^ Neumann, TGM (1955, 2d ed. 1963), Schema III is between pp. 82 & 83, discussed at pp. 64-81.
  5. ^ Neumann (1955, 2d ed. 1963), p.18: The Great Round derives or evolves from the uroboros, a circling snake eating its tale. This round shape, as if it envelops us, acts as a symbol of the primordial unconscious. Our initial ego consciousness is surrounded by the uroboros, which is experienced only darkly at the shifting edge of our fragile first awareness. In its nascent formative stages the Great Round includes "positive and negative, male and female, elements of consciousness, elements hostile to consciousness, and uncosciousness elements" which are "intermingled" and undifferentiated" (p.18 quote). From this origin the feminine archetypes stationed on its rim are eventually seen or constructed, and articulated as consciousness develops. Cf., Ch. 12, pp. 211-239.
  6. ^ Neumann, Origins (1949, 1954), the mandala at maturity: "the Great Round of the uroboros arches over" the entire span of life, over its beginning and its end. In the second half of life, "the uroboros symbol will reappear as the mandala" (pp. 36-37).
  7. ^ Frey-Rohn (1969, 1974): the mandala, as symbol of a numinous nature, impresses beholders with the "transcendental order of the unconscious" and fosters "ritual circumambulation" (p.271).
  8. ^ Neumann presents a rich array of 185 photographic Plates at the end of his The Great Mother (1955, 1963). His source was the Eranos seminars. These often ancient artworks of Feminine archetypes includes sculptures, masks, ceramics, reliefs, paintings, drawings.
  9. ^ In Neumann's Origins (1949; 1954), the archetype is discussed from another perspective, following developmental stages, e.g., the uroboros, creation myth, dragon fights of the hero. Cf., specifically his chapter III, "The Great Mother" (pp. 39-101).
  10. ^ Cf., Jung, Types (1921, 1971), "The worship of the woman and the worship of the soul" pp. 221-240, at 235.
  11. ^ Neumann, TGM (1955, 2d ed. 1963), p.82/83: "Schema III". Analysis of axis M and axis A, pp. 64-81. Also addressed are the vertical F+ and F- (p.77), related to Schema I (p.18/19). As ego consciousness advances, for good or ill, it moves from Schema III's center (more detailed than shown here) to the periphery (p.78). The general chronology is the uroboros, the stage of the Great Mother, then the dragon fight (p.82).
  12. ^ Neumann (1955, 2d ed. 1963), pp. 65-66.
  13. ^ Neumann (1955, 2d ed. 1963), at pp. 74-79: the negative pole of the Anima axis "can shift into the positive" (p.74). As ego consciousness at the polar points may become unable to differentiate, a figure "may shift into its opposite" (p.76). Cf. p. 293 (magic of "priestess and witch"). Cf. p. 305 (the archetype may "guide" or "beguile").
  14. ^ Neumann (1955, 2d ed. 1963), p.77: Schema III can be viewed as a globe, with mother axis and anima axis continuing as meridians.
  15. ^ Articles on Ishtar, Isis, the Greek, the Canaanite-Hebrew, Mary, Sophia, Kali, Kuan-yin and other figures were edited by Olson (1993).
  16. ^ Jung, "Archetype" article (1938; 1969), p. 82 {¶158}, mentions that Kali, here being a symbol of her ferocious negative aspect, is more. "In India 'the loving and terrible mother' is the paradoxical Kali."
  17. ^ Neumann (1955, 2d ed. 1963), Gorgon: Schema III & pp. 166, 169-170.
  18. ^ Neumann (1955, 2d ed. 1963), re p.149 (death, distress, hunger; vampires, ghouls);
  19. ^ Jung, Symbols (1912, 1976), pp. 181-182, e.g., the Sphinx.
  20. ^ Cf., Neumann, "Stages" article (1953; 1994), p. 22. A fairy-tale witch "casts a spell over the daughter and imprisons her."
  21. ^ Neumann, TGM (1955, 2d ed. 1963), p.80.
  22. ^ Cf., Neumann, Roots ([1940]; 2019), "Lilith" at pp. 157-163, notes at 169-171. "Lilith's essential characteristic as a demon is not her devouring of children, however, but her profound hostility toward men" (p.160).
  23. ^ Hurwitz (1992), of two sections: historico-religious and psychological.
  24. ^ Neumann (1955, 1963 2d ed. 1963), pp. 80-81: analogous figures (e.g., Astarte and the Lorelei) as "alluring and seductive figures of fatal enchantment"; Circe in Schema III, e.g., Circe connived to drug men, turning them into beasts (pp. 273-274).
  25. ^ Neumann, (1955, 2d ed. 1963), p.80; Demeter, pp. 307-309.
  26. ^ Perera (1981): Inanna and Ereshkigal.
  27. ^ Neumann (1955, 2d ed. 1963), p. 80. Mary's maternity is likened to the "Jewish figure of the Shekinah"; Mary also shares attributes of the positive Anima, with the "virginal Athene". Kwan-Yin, the bodhisattva.
  28. ^ Jung, Types (1921, 1971),"The worship of the woman and the worship of the soul" pp. 221-240, at 221-223: Dante, in "the birth of modern individualism" elevates the woman, and his own anima, into the "mystical figure of the Mother of God" as "source of wisdom and renewal", and so works the transformation "of his own being"; at 235: Mary "in the heritage of the Magna Mater".
  29. ^ Neumann, "Moon" article (1950, 1994), pp. 116-117: "When the moon-spirit... in female form as Sophia" appears to matriarchal consciousness "the female Self has become visible to the woman's ego." Involved is "the transformation of the archetypal Feminine itself... its inherent spirit character [which] stands in opposition to the earth-unconsciousness of the archetypal Demeter" who refuses to surrender the daughter.
  30. ^ Neumann, TGM (1955, 2d ed. 1963), Schema III: the Muse, "the original seeress" and "the inspiring anima of the poets" (p.296). Maat, the Egyptian goddess of justice (p.80).
  31. ^ Cf., Jung, Symbols (1912; 1950, 1967), p. 236 {¶352}: the good mother in confusion might be seen by the child as a "most frightful danger" of the "Terrible Mother". Cf. Jung's 1938 article (1969), p.82 re Kali.
  32. ^ E. O. James, The Ancient Gods (NY: Putnam 1960), pp. 85-87, e.g., Isis "the Goddess of many names". A specific deity was often 'compromised' by the henotheistic assimilation of a wide range of other numinous powers. A local figure became goddess of a city, then a region, latter of an empire. Neumann used art of ancient goddesses in developing archetypes.
  33. ^ Mircea Eliade (1978; 1982), A History of Religious Ideas (Paris: Payot; Univ. of Chicago), syncretism: pp. 208-209, 277-298. Isis at 291, 294; Thoth and Hermes at 295-296.
  34. ^ Robert Wright, Evolution of God (Boston: Little, Brown 2009): Sargon fused Inanna of Sumer and Ishtar of Akkad as one goddess (pp. 84-85); Hammurabi favored Marduk, who then absorbed many gods (87-88).
  35. ^ Jung, "Archetype" article (1938; 1969, in CW, v.9i).
  36. ^ Neumann, TGM (1955, 2d ed. 1963), e.g., p.38: In Hansel and Gretal the witch appears in an attractive gingerbread house, "but who in reality eats little children". The Terrible Mother may prompt the transformative 'fight with the dragon': "Perseus must kill [her] before he can win Andromeda". Circe, "the enchantress who turns men into beasts, meets the superior Odysseus [and] invite him to share her bed" (p.35), as ambivalent (cf., pp. 73-74). Circe and Medea, each was "originally a goddess, but has become a 'witch' in the patriarchally colored myth" (quote at p.288, cf. p.81).
  37. ^ Neumann (1949; 1954), pp. 5-127 (Creation Myth: I. the Uroboros, II. the Great Mother, III. the Separation of the World Parents: Opposition).
  38. ^ Neumann (1955, 1963), p. 18 (uroboros), p. 211 (Great Round).
  39. ^ Neumann (1955, 1963), p. 91 (quote); pp. 305-306, 317-321, cf. 162.
  40. ^ Neumann (1955, 1963), p. 11 (individual), p. 268 (ego consciousness), p. 281 (ritual).
  41. ^ Cf., Jung (1950; 1967), transformation: p. 224 [¶332] (The "incest-tabo" stimulates "the creative imagination" which leads to "the self realization of the libido". It "becomes imperceptibly spiritualized"); pp. 363-364 [¶569] (Until the son becomes conscious of himself, the libido treasure "lies hidden in the mother-imago, i.e., the unconscious". It is "one of life's secrets" that "the total personality, the psychic totality... consists of both conscious and unconscious.")
  42. ^ Neumann (1955, 2d ed. 1963), p. 355 (self, tree of life).
  43. ^ Neumann (1952; 1956), p. 153. "The most fascinating aspect of [the story] is... the liberation of the individual from the primordial mythic world, the freeing of the psyche."
  44. ^ Neumann (1949; 1954), pp. 39-101 (the Great Mother), pp. 131-151 (the Birth of the Hero).
  45. ^ Cf., Monick (1987), pp. 57-62, challenged Neumann's development theory of consciousness based on myths, interpreted as a male ego's heroic fight with the maternal uroboros (the unconscious origin). Instead Monick suggests a masculine archetype, coequal partner to the feminine, both originally inhabiting the unconscious.
  46. ^ Neumann (1955), pp. 27-28, 268 (hero from uroboros); 305-325 (Eleusis), 325-336 (feminine wisdom).
  47. ^ Liebscher (2015) article, pp. x-xi (quote, discussion).
  48. ^ Neumann (1950) and Neumann (1953).
  49. ^ See also Neumann (1952, 1956).
  50. ^ E.g., Perera (1981). This work focuses on the Sumerian goddess Inanna, also known as Ishtar, but the author notes at p.9 similar myths of antiquity, "the Japanese Izanami, the Greek Kore-Persephone, Roman Psyche... " among others.
  51. ^ Harding (1936, rev'd 1955).
  52. ^ Neumann, Jacob and Esau (Asheville: Chiron 2015).
  53. ^ Liebscher (2015), pp. vii-xii, at vii (Neumann quote).
  54. ^ Neumann's TGM (2d ed. 1963) starts with a Bachofen motto (pp. x, 1). He cites Bachofen a score of times in each of his TGM and Origins.
  55. ^ Douglas (2008), p.26: Neumann's earlier Origins "loosely followed Bachofen". Jung saw his 'matriarchy' as a phase of culture only.
  56. ^ J. J. Bachofen, Das Mutterrecht: Eine Untersuchung über die Gynaikokratie der alten Welt nach ihrer religiösen und rechtlichen Natur (Stuttgart 1861), complete in several volumes.
  57. ^ Bachofen (1967), Mutterrecht selections pp. 67-207; intro by Joseph Campbell. Translation of Mutterrecht und Urreligion (1926), ed. by Marx.
  58. ^ Cf., James Frazer, whose The Golden Bough (London: Macmillan 1890, 2 vols.; 1915, 12 vols.) is comparable to Mutterrecht (1861). Neumann in his Origins (1949, 1954) cites Frazer a dozen times.
  59. ^ Liebscher (2015), pp. viii (quotes).
  60. ^ George Boas, Preface at xi-xxiv, to Bachofen (1967): his "theory of matriarchal society" was widely accepted until about 1900 (p.xviii).
  61. ^ Cf., Cynthia Eller, The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory. Why an invented past will not give women a future (Boston: Beacon Press 2000).
  62. ^ Neumann, Amor (1956), pp. 147-148, 154-155. "Here, as so often, Bachofen intuitively perceived and interpreted highly important relationships. [Yet] we agree with him only in certain points..." (p.154).
  63. ^ Neumann, TGM (1955, 2d ed. 1963): "if understood psychologically rather than sociologically, his discoveries have lasting value" (p.25).
  64. ^ Neumann, Origins (1949, 1954): as a "phase of ego consciousness" (p.41); "Bachofen's matriarchate stands for the stage when..." (p.42).
  65. ^ Liebscher (2015), p. viii ("to rescue" quote).
  66. ^ Jung's article (1938).
  67. ^ Liebscher (2015), quotes at p. viii ("expanded"), p. x ("important"); 1938 Eranos conference, illustrations (p. viii); text finished in 1951 (p. ix).
  68. ^ Neumann (1955, 2d ed. 1963), 'Foreword' pp. vii-vii (Eranos).
  69. ^ Gimbutas (1989), The Language of the Goddess. Unearthing the hidden symbols of western civilization. Her earlier books include The Balts (1963) and The Slavs (1971), both T & H, London.
  70. ^ Goodison and Morris, article (1999), pp. 1-17, especially at p.8: Goddess theory based on flimsy evidence from digs and massive assumptions. New Archaeology, however, doubts its own ability or competence to adequately study of ancient religions.
  71. ^ Olson, editor (1992): 17 chapters, most to a specific goddesses.
  72. ^ Mircea Elide, A History of Religious Ideas, v.2 (1982), e.g., Isis of Egypt pp. 290-294, Cybele of Anatolia (then Rome) pp. 134-135, 284-290.
  73. ^ Liebscher (2015), pp. vii-x (Gimbutas, p. viii, p. x "scholars today" quote). Footnoted is Goodison and Morris, editors (1999).
  74. ^ Tringham and Conkey (1999) pointedly criticize Gimbutas (1989) not for being necessarily incorrect, but mostly for an unjustified preference for one interpretation of archaeological facts over several other worthy, competing views (pp. 22-24, 26, 37, 39, 42, 44-45).
  75. ^ Goodison and Morris, book and article (1999). Their academic collection of essays responds to publications by "non-specialists" associated with the "Goddess movement" (article, p.6), offering on occasion a direct challenge (e.g., pp. 52-55, 60-62; 151, 163; 167, 178-179).
  76. ^ Graeber and Wengrow (2021), pp. 216-220, 248. Au contraire, Gimbutas became unfairly "entangled" with "extravagant" popularist theories, and then vilified by the academy (217-218). As she died in 1994, "she was never able to respond" (218). The recent reemergence of her views is due to DNA analysis (218, 560-561), a more nuanced understanding of matriarchy and the role models of women (219-220), and the confessed lack of clarity about early cultural norms (218, 220, 247-248). Colin Renfrew: vindicated (560).
  77. ^ Cf., Spretnak (2011).
  78. ^ See bibliography.
  79. ^ Cf., Whitmont (1982). To further Nuemann's work (p.39), Whitmont describes an historic era of conscious evolution, before patriarchy, when women's influence was paramount, not through governing institutions but through myth and ritual (pp. 42-47, 49-60, 67-68). Whitmont also theorizes a post-patriarchal era, a synthesis of new roles and ethics (pp. 181-257).
  80. ^ Rowland (2002): criticism of Neumann's Origins (p.57), seemingly without her being familiar with his subsequent work; Whitmont's Return improves and augments Neumann, adding a post-patriarchal stage of gender reconciliation (pp. 59, 65), Whitmont seen as "a major progenitor of Jungian goddess feminism" (p.60 quote, pp. 65-66).
  81. ^ Cf., Neumann (1956, 1979), p.245: criticism of Freud, as his "psychology of the feminine [is] a patriarchal misconception" which left him unaware of "the creative psyche which, mythologically, is connected with the Mother-Goddess and the prepatriarchal level of the unconscious."
  82. ^ Hillman 1979. p. 216.
  83. ^ Hopcke 1989. p. 70.
  84. ^ Gimbutas (1989), p. 316.
  85. ^ Hurwitz (1992) p. 231, cf. p. 217.
  86. ^ Paglia 1993. p. 114.
  87. ^ Paglia (2006), p. 4.
  88. ^ Liebscher (2015) article, p. xi.


  • Bachofen, Johann Jakob ([1861], 1967), Myth, Religion, and Mother Right. Selected writings. Bollingen, Princeton University.
  • Frey-Rohn, Liliane ([1969], 1974), From Freud to Jung. A comparative study. Jung Foundation, Putnam, New York.
  • Gimbutas, Marija (1989), The Language of the Goddess. Harper and Row, New York.
  • Graeber, David, and Wengrow, David (2021), The Dawn of Everything. A new history of humanity. Farrar, Straus & Giroux, New York.
  • Harding, M. Esther (1936, 1955), Woman's Mysteries. Ancient and modern. Longmans, Green, London; rev'd ed., Pantheon, New York; several reprints.
  • Hillman, James (1979). The Dream and the Underworld. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-090682-0.
  • Hopcke, Robert H. (1989). Jung, Jungians and Homosexuality. Boston: Shambhala Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-87773-585-9.
  • Hurwitz, Siegmund (1992), Lilith the first Eve. Historical and psychological aspects of the dark feminine. Daimon Verlag, Einsiedeln.
  • Jung, Carl (1912, 4th rev'd 1950; 1956, 1967), Symbols of Transformation. Bollingen, Princeton University, CW, v.5.
  • Jung, Carl (1921; 1971), Psychological Types. Bollingen, Princeton University, CW, v.6.
  • Jung/Neumann (2015), Analytical Psychology in Exile. The correspondence of C. G. Jung and Erich Neumann. Princeton University. Edited by Martin Liebscher.
  • Monick, Eugene (1987), Phallos. Sacred image of the masculine. Inner City, Toronto.
  • Neumann, Erich ([1940]; 2019), The Roots of Jewish Consciousness. v.1, Revelation and apocalypse. Routeledge, London.
  • Neumann, Erich (1949; 1954), The Origins and History of Consciousness. Bollingen, Pantheon; foreword by Carl Jung.
  • Neumann, Erich ([1951], 1955, 2d ed. 1963; 1991, 2015), The Great Mother. Bollingen, Princeton University Press ISBN 0-691-01780-8
  • Neumann, Erich (1952; 1956), Amor and Psyche. The Psychic development of the Feminine: A commentary on the tale by Apuleius. Harper; Bollingen.
  • Neumann, Erich ([1950s]; 1994), The Fear of the Feminine, Princeton University (collection of essays).
  • Paglia, Camille (1993). Sex, Art, and American Culture: Essays. London: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-017209-2.
  • Perera, Sylvia Brinton (1981), Descent to the Goddess. A way of initiation for women. Inner City, Toronto.
  • Qualls-Corbett, Nancy (1988), The Sacred Prostitute. Eternal aspect of the feminine. Inner City, Toronto.
  • Rowland, Susan (2002), Jung. A Feminist Revision. Polity, Cambridge.
  • Whitmont, Edward C. (1982), Return of the Goddess. Crossroad, New York.
    • Goodison, Lucy, and Christine Morris, eds. (1999), Ancient Goddesses. The myths and the evidence. University of Wisconsin & British Museum.
    • Olson, Carl, editor (1992), The Book of the Goddess. Past and Present. Crossroad, New York.
  • Douglas, Claire (2008), "The historical context of analytical psychology" in The Cambridge Companion to Jung.
  • Goodison, Lucy, and Christine Morris (1999), "Introduction. Exploring Female Divinity: From modern myths to ancient evidence", in Goodison and Morris.
  • Jung, Carl (1938, 1954; 1959, 1969), "Psychological aspects of the Mother Archetype" in Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious. Bollingen, CW, v.9i.
  • Liebscher, Martin (2015), "Forward" to Neumann's The Great Mother, Princeton Classics Edition.
  • Neumann, Erich (1950), "Towards a Psychology of the Feminine in the Patriarchy" in Jahresbericht, Psychological Club, Zurich.
  • Neumann, Erich (1950; 1954; 1994), "The Moon and Matriarchal Consciousness" in Fear (1994); a different translation in Spring (1954).
  • Neumann, Erich (1953; 1959; 1994), "Psychological Stages of Woman's Development" in Fear (1994); a different translation in Spring (1959).
  • Neumann, Erich (1954; 1959), "Leonardo da Vinci and the Mother Archetype" in Art and the Creative Unconsciousness, Bollingen, Princeton University.
  • Neumann, Erich (1956; 1979), "Freud and the father image" in Creative Man. Five essays, Bollingen, Princeton.
  • Neumann, Erich (1959; 1986; 1994), "The Fear of the Feminine" in Fear (1994); a different translation in Quadrant (1986).
  • Paglia, Camille (Winter 2006), "Erich Neumann: Theorist of the Great Mother", in Arion 13/3, pp. 1–14.
  • Spretnak, Charlene (2011), "Anatomy of a backlash: concerning the work of Marija Gimbutas" in Journal of Archaeomythology 7: 25-51.
  • Tringham, Ruth, and Margaret Conkey (1999), "Rethinking the Figurines. A critical view from archaeology of Gimbutas, the 'Goddess' and popular culture", in Goodison and Morris, editors.