The Great Replacement

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The Great Replacement (French: grand remplacement), also known as replacement theory,[1] is a nationalist right-wing conspiracy theory which states, that the white French Catholic population as well as white Christian European population in Europe at large is being progressively replaced with non-European people, specifically Arab, Berber, and Sub-Saharan African Muslim populations from North Africa and the Middle East through mass migration and demographic growth.

The theory was the basis of Renaud Camus's 2012 book The Great Replacement (French: Le Grand Remplacement). It specifically associated the presence of Muslims in France with potential danger and destruction of French culture and civilisation. By 2019, in attempting to distance his works from the theory, Camus himself labelled the Great Replacement, and the white nationalist and supremacist movements globally adopting its doctrine, as a direct ideological descendant of Nazism.[2] Conspiracy theorists attribute this to intentional policies advanced by global and liberal elites from within the Government of France and the European Union.

Origins[edit]

The theory of the great replacement can be traced back to the novel Le Camp des Saints (1973) by Jean Raspail which depicts the collapse of Western culture from an overwhelming "tidal wave" of immigration from the Third World. The novel, along with the theory of Eurabia developed by the Swiss-Israeli writer Bat Ye'or in 2005, set the ground then for Renaud Camus to develop and present his book entitled The Great Replacement in 2012.[3] The idea of replacement, or of white genocide, has used as part of the rhetoric of many far-right movements in the West.[4]

Journalist Marc Weitzmann credits René Binet, a Trotskyite militant who abandoned communism in the 1940s to join the Waffen SS, and who later became active in French far-right politics, as an important influence on the theory. According to Weitzmann, "it was Binet, not Camus, who first came up with 'the great replacement' formula in the early 1960s."[5] Historian Nicolas Lebourg argues that Camus's theory parallels older antisemitic conspiracy theories which posited the existence of a Jewish plot to destroy Europe through miscegenation. Lebourg suggest that Camus's contribution was to replace the antisemitic elements with themes of a clash of civilizations between Muslims and Europeans.[6][7]

Work of Renaud Camus[edit]

Renaud Camus has stated that "the great replacement is very simple. You have one people, and in the space of a generation you have a different people".[8] Camus has argued that European culture, civilization and identity are in danger of being overrun by mass migration, especially from Muslim migrants, who are aided by a trans-national group of globalist elites.[9] The theory has since become influential in far-right and white nationalist circles outside of France.[10] The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) described Camus as the "progenitor of the Great Replacement doctrine".[11]

Scholars have generally dismissed the claims of a "great replacement" as being rooted in a misreading of immigration statistics and unscientific and racially prejudiced views.[12][13] Demographer Landis MacKellar has said that, as of 2016, around 5-10% of French residents were Muslims, making a "replacement" unlikely, and criticized Camus's thesis for assuming "that third- and fourth- generation 'immigrants' are somehow not French".[14]

Influence on conservative, right wing and far right groups[edit]

Among the theory's main promoters are not only right-wing populist parties but also a wide-ranging network of protest movements (e.g., PEGIDA in Germany),[15] (e.g., Bloc Identitaire in France and the Identitarian movement in Europe/North America/Australia/New Zealand),[16] bloggers (e.g., Fjordman in Norway[17] and Lauren Southern in Canada),[18] and pundits.

According to conspiracy theorists, this replacement of European peoples by Arab/Berber Middle Eastern, North African, and Sub-Saharan African immigrants is a deliberate goal being advanced by the policies of the government of France, the European Union, and other political elites.[19][20][21][22] Prominent right-wing websites such as Gates of Vienna, Politically Incorrect, and Fdesouche have provided a platform for bloggers to diffuse and popularize the conspiracy theory.[23]

Europe[edit]

Austria[edit]

Identitäre Bewegung Österreich (IBÖ) the Austria branch of Generation Identity (GI) promote this theory, citing a "great exchange" or replacement of the population that supposedly needs to be reversed.[24] In April 2019, Heinz-Christian Strache campaigning for his FPÖ party ahead of the 2019 European Parliament election endorsed the conspiracy theory.[25] Claiming that "population replacement" in Austria was a real threat, he stated that "We don’t want to become a minority in our own country".[26] Compatriot Martin Sellner, who also supports the theory, celebrated Strache's political use of the Great Replacement.[27][28]

Belgium[edit]

In September 2018, Schild & Vrienden, an extremist Flemish youth organization, were reported to be endorsing the conspiracy theory. The group, claiming that "native" populations of North America and Europe (meaning white people) were being displaced by migrants; they proposed an end to all immigration, the remigration of non-whites, and the founding of ethnostates.[29] The following month, VRT detailed how the organization was discussing the Great Replacement on secretive chat channels, and using the consiracy theory to promote Flemish ethnic identity.[30]

In March 2019, Flemish nationalist Dries Van Langenhove of the Vlaams Belang party, repeatedly stated that the Flemish people were "being replaced" in Belgium, posting claims on social media which endorsed the Great Replacement theory.[31][32]

Denmark[edit]

Use of the Great Replacement (Danish: Store Udskiftning) conspiracy theory has become common in right-wing Danish political rhetoric. In April 2019, Rasmus Paludan, leader of the Hard Line party, which is widely associated with the Great Replacement,[33] claimed that by the year 2040 ethnic Danish people would be a minority in Denmark, having been outnumbered by Muslims and their descendents.[34] During a debate for the 2019 European Parliament elections, Rasmus used the concept to justify a proposal to ban Muslim immigration and deport all Islamic residents from the country, in what Le Monde described as Rasmus "preaching the 'great replacement theory'".[35]

In June 2019, Pia Kjærsgaard invoked the conspiracy theory while serving as Speaker of the Danish Parliament. After the alleged encouragement of Muslim communities to "vote red", for the Social Democrats; Kjærsgaard asked "What will happen? A replacement of the Danish people?".[34]

France[edit]

Much of the European spread of the Great Replacement (French: Grand Remplacement) conspiracy theory rhetoric is due to its prevelance in French national discourse and media. Nationalist right-wing groups in France have asserted that there is an ongoing "Islamo-substitution" of the indigenous French population, associating the presence of Muslims in France with potential danger and destruction of French culture and civilization.[36][37][38]

In 2011, Marine Le Pen evoked the theory, claiming that France's "adversaries" were waging a moral and economic war on the country, apparently "to deliver it to submersion by an organized replacement of our population".[39] In 2013, Dominique Venner's suicide in Notre-Dame de Paris, in which he left a note outlining the "crime of the replacement of our people" is reported to have inspired the far-right Iliade Institute's main ideological tenet of the Great Replacement.[40] Referring to the conspiracy theory, Marine Le Pen publicly praised Venner, claiming that his "last gesture, eminently political, was to try to awaken the French people".[39]

In 2015, Guillaume Faye gave a speech at the Swedish Army Museum in Stockholm, in which he claimed there were three societal things being used against Europeans to carry out a supposed Great Replacement; abortion, homosexuality and immigration. He asserted that Muslims were replacing white people by using birthrates as a demographic weapon.[41]

In June 2017, a BuzzFeed investigation revealed three National Front candidates subscribing to the conspiracy theory ahead of the legislative elections.[42] These included Senator Stéphane Ravier's personal assistant, who claimed the Great Replacement had already started in France.[43] Publishing an image of blonde girl next to the caption "Say no to white genocide", Ravier's aide politically charged the concept further, writing "the National Front or the invasion".[44]

By September 2018, in a meeting at Fréjus, Marine Le Pen closely echoed Great Replacement rhetoric. Speaking of France, she declared that "never in the history of mankind, have we seen a society that organizes an irreversible submersion" that would eventually cause French society to "disappear by dilution or substitution, its culture and way of life".[39] Former National Assembly delegate Marion Maréchal, who is a junior member of the political Le Pen family, is also a proponent of the theory.[45] In March 2019, in a trip to the U.S., Maréchal evoked the theory, stating "I don’t want France to become a land of Islam".[46] Insisting that the Great Replacement was "not absurd", she declared the "indigenous French" people, apparently in danger of being a minority by 2040, now wanted their "country back".[18]

National Rally's serving president Marine Le Pen, who is the aunt of Maréchal, has been heavily influenced by the Great Replacement. FAZ newspaper have described the conspiracy theory creator Renaud Camus as Le Pen's "whisperer".[47] In May 2019, National Rally spokesman Jordan Bardella was reported to use the conspiracy theory during a televised debate with Nathalie Loiseau, after he argued that France must "turn off the tap" from the demographic bomb of African immigration into the country.[48]

In June 2019, Éric Zemmour pushed the concept in comparison to the Kosovo War, claiming "In 1900, there were 90% Serbs and 10% Muslims in Kosovo, in 1990 there were 90% Muslims and 10% Serbs, then there was war and the independence of Kosovo".[49] Zemmour, author of The French Suicide, has repeatedly described "the progressive replacement, over a few decades, of the historic population of our country by immigrants, the vast majority of them non-European".[50] Later that month, Marion Maréchal joined Zemmour in invoking the Great Replacement in relation to the Balkan region, stating "I do not want my France to become Kosovo" and declared that the changing demographics of France "threatens us" ("nous menace") and that this threat was becoming increasingly clear.[49]

Germany[edit]

SPD politician Thilo Sarrazin is reported to be one of the most influential promoters of the Great Replacement, having published several books on the subject, some of which, such as Germany Abolishes Itself, are in high circulation.[33] Sarrazin has proposed that there are too many immigrants in Germany, and that they supposedly have lower IQs than Germans. Regarding the demographics of Germany, he has claimed that in a century ethnic Germans will drop in number to 25 million, in 200 years to eight million and in 300 years: three million.[33]

In May 2016, Alternative for Germany deputy leader Beatrix von Storch co-opted and distorted the meaning of a 2001 United Nations report titled "Replacement migration", which focused on how to manage the replenishment of the population of eight low-fertility countries (France, Germany, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Russia, U.K. and U.S.), in order to push the racist conspiracy theory.[51] Storch claimed that a mass population exchange ("Massenaustausch der Bevolkerung") had been planned by the UN since the publication of the report.[52]

In April 2017, a few months before he assumed the leadership of the AfD, Alexander Gauland released a press statement regarding the issue of family reuinifcation for refugees, in which he claimed that "Population exchange in Germany is running at full speed".[47][52] In October 2018, following Beatrix von Storch's lead, Bundestag member Petr Bystron said the Global Compact for Migration was part of the conspiracy to bring about systemic population change in Geramny.[52]

In March 2019, Vice Germany reported how AfD MP Harald Laatsch attempted to justify and assign blame for the Christchurch mosque shootings, in relation to his "The Great Exchange" ("Der Große Austausch") theory, by asserting that the shooter's actions were driven by "overpopulation" from immigrants and "climate protection" against them. Laatsch also claimed that the climate movement, who he labelled "climate panic propagators", had a "shared responsibility" for the massacre, and singled out child activist Greta Thunberg.[51]

Similarly, right-wing publicist Martin Lichtmesz denied that either Anders Breivik's 2011 manifesto, which referred to the Eurabia variant of the "white genocide" narrative, or Brenton Tarrant's 2019 The Great Replacement manifesto, had any connection to the theory. Claiming that it was, in fact, not a conspiracy theory at all, Lichtmesz said both Breivik and Tarrant were reacting to a real phenomena; a "historically unique experiment" of a "Great Exchange" of people.[51]

Hungary[edit]

Prime Minister Viktor Orbán and his political party Fidesz in Hungary have been associated with the conspiracy theory over the course of several years.[53][54] The Sydney Morning Herald have detailed Orbán's belief in and promotion of the Great Replacement as being central to the modern right-wing politics of Europe. In December 2018, he claimed the "Christian identity of Europe" needed saving, and labelled refugees travelling to Europe as "Muslim invaders".[18]

He has stated; "In all of Europe there are fewer and fewer children, and the answer of the West is migration," concluding that "We Hungarians have a different way of thinking. Instead of just numbers, we want Hungarian children." ThinkProgress described the comments as pushing a version of the theory.[55] In April 2019, Radio New Zealand published insight that Orban's plans to cut taxes for large Hungarian families could be linked with fears of the Great Replacement.[56]

Italy[edit]

Deputy Prime Minister Matteo Salvini of Italy has repeatedly adopted the theme of the Great Replacement.[53] In May 2016, two years before his election to office, he claimed "ethnic replacement is underway" in Italy in an interview with Sky TG24. Accusing nameless, well-funded organizations for importing workers that he named "farm slaves", he stated that there was a "lucrative attempt at genocide" of Italians.[57][58]

The Netherlands[edit]

In April 2015, writing on the publishing website GeenStijl, scholar of Islam Hans Jansen used Great Replacement rhetoric, suggesting that it was an "undisputed" fact that among the European Union's governing elite there was a common consensus that Europeans were "no good and can be better replaced".[59] In May 2015, Martin Bosma a Dutch parliament Representative for the Party for Freedom (PVV), released his book Minority in their own land. Invoking the conspiracy theory, Bosma wrote about a growing 'a new population' of immigrants which lent itself to an apparently 'post-racial Multicultural State of Salvation'.[59]

By September 2015, it was reported that the two right-wing political parties Christian Democratic Appeal and the Reformed Political Party had aligned with the ideology of the Great Replacement.[60] In March 2017, Thierry Baudet, founder and leader of the right wing Forum for Democracy (FvD) party, was said to promote the theory after he claimed that the country's so-called elite were deliberately "homeopathically diluting" the Dutch population, in a speech about "national self-hated". He said there was a plot to racially mix the ethnic Dutch with "all the people of the world", so that there would "never be a Dutchman again".[59]

In January 2018, PVV Representative Martin Bosma endorsed the Great Replacement theory, and one of its key propagators, after meeting with Renaud Camus at a PVV demonstration in Rotterdam and tweeting his support. Filip Dewinter, a leading member of the Flemish secessionist Vlaams Belang party, who had travelled to the Netherlands on the day of the protest to meet with Camus, named him as a "visionary man" to the media.[61]

Party for Freedom politician Geert Wilders of the Netherlands strongly supports the notion of a Great Replacement occurring in Europe.[62][63] In October 2018, Wilders invoked the conspiracy theory, claiming the Netherlands was "being replaced with mass immigration from non-western Islamic countries". He claimed 77 million, mainly Islamic immigrants would attempt to enter Europe over the course of half a century, and that white Europeans would cease to exist unless they were stopped.[18] In 2019, The New York Times reported how Camus' demographic-based alarmist theories help fuel Wilders and his Party for Freedom's nativist campaigning.[1]

North America[edit]

Canada[edit]

YouTuber Lauren Southern of Canada is an advocate of the conspiracy theory.[18][64] In 2017, Southern dedicated a video to the Great Replacement, gaining over half a million views on her channel.[65][66][67] 2018 mayoral candidate for Toronto Faith Goldy has publicly embraced the replacement theory.[68][69] In 2019, in the aftermath of the Christchurch mosque shootings in Christchurch, New Zealand, Vice accused Goldy of routinely pushing the same ideas of birthrate declines and the population replacement of whites, found in the gunman's The Great Replacement manifesto.[70] Long-time white nationalist Paul Fromm when he co-opted the pre-1967 Red Ensign flag of Canada referred to it as "the flag of the true Canada, the European Canada before the treasonous European replacement schemes brought in by the 1965 immigration policies".[71]

In August 2018, People's Party of Canada leader Maxime Bernier was reported to have invoked the Great Replacement after he claimed that the nation's immigration policy "should not aim to forcibly change the cultural character and social fabric of Canada, as radical proponents of multiculturalism want."[72]

In June 2019, columnist Lindsay Shepherd claimed that "whites are becoming a minority" in the West, describing her assertion as "population replacement".[73] She was criticized by Canadian MP Colin Fraser at a House of Commons justice committee for not denouncing the concept,[74] while Nathaniel Erskine-Smith accused Shepherd of openly embracing the conspiracy theory.[75]

United States[edit]

In 2017, white supremacist protesters at the Unite The Right Rally in Charlottesville, Virginia were heard chanting “You will not replace us,” and, “Jews will not replace us.”, slogans which commentators believed were inspired by the conspiracy theory.[5][10]

In October 2018, Republican congressman Steve King endorsed the conspiracy theory,[76][77] stating; "Great replacement, yes," referring to the European migrant crisis that "these people walking into Europe by ethnic migration, 80 percent are young men."[78] King presents the Great Replacement as a shared concern of Europe and the United States, claiming that "if we continue to abort our babies and import a replacement for them in the form of young violent men, we are supplanting our culture, our civilization."[79] He has blamed George Soros as an alleged perpetrator behind the conspiracy.[80]

In December 2018, Media Matters reported how Tucker Carlson had begun promoting the conspiracy theory.[81] Within this context, he's discussed his perception of a collapse of family birthrates in the U.S.[1] By 2019, Paste magazine claimed Tucker Carlson Tonight regularly featured content based on the Great Replacement,[82] and ThinkProgress accused Carlson of using his prominence to promote the idea of demographic change through immigration and feminism causing the replacement and genocide of American white men.[83]

In May 2019, Senator Dennis Baxley was reported to use the replacement theory in relation to the abortion debate in the United States.[84][85] Speaking of Western European birthrates as a warning to Americans, he said; "When you get a birth rate less than 2 percent, that society is disappearing, and it’s being replaced by folks that come behind them and immigrate, don’t wish to assimilate into that society and they do believe in having children."[86] The following month, Nick Isgro, deputy leader of the Maine Republican Party endorsed the conspiracy theory after claiming financial subsidies were promoted for abortions in the U.S. to "kill our own people", and at the same time “global elites” were encouraging immigration “to be used for our own destruction.” Right Wing Watch reported that the current Mayor of Waterville's speech displayed the sentiment of the Great Replacement,[87] while AlterNet reported how Isgro "echoed alt-right “replacement” theory rhetoric".[88]

By July 2019, media covered how US president Donald Trump had become one of the most influential proponents of the conspiracy theory. Reporting the Institute for Strategic Dialogue's findings that Trump consistently referenced the Great Replacement, the president's Twitter account was identified as one of the top ten promoters of the ideology.[89] His history of describing Muslims and migrants as "invaders", according to SBS News, closely mirrors the language of explicit supporters of the theory.[53]

Oceania[edit]

Australia[edit]

The media in Australia have covered both Senator Fraser Anning of Queensland and his One Nation Party's endorsement of the Great Replacement.[90] In April 2019, Reuters reported how Anning was amplifying replacement theory by suggesting that Muslims would "outbreed us very quickly".[91] In May 2019, Anning announced that White Australians would "fast become a minority" if they did not defend their "ethno-cultural identity".[92]

Influence on violent attacks[edit]

Brenton Harrison Tarrant, the Australia-born terrorist responsible for the Christchurch mosque shootings at Al Noor Mosque and Linwood Islamic Centre in Christchurch, New Zealand that killed 51 people and injured 50 more, was primarily influenced by the Great Replacement conspiracy theory, naming his manifesto after it. In response, Camus condemned violence while reaffirming his desire for a "counterrevolt" against an increase in nonwhite populations.[93]

In 2019, research by the Institute for Strategic Dialogue showed over 24,000 social media mentions of the Great Replacement in the month before the Christchurch mosque shootings in Christchurch, New Zealand at Al Noor Mosque and Linwood Islamic Centre, which shootings killed 51 people and injured 50 more on March 15, 2019 — in comparison to just 3,431 mentions in April 2012. The use of the term spiked in April 2019, after the Christchurch mosque shootings perpetrator, Australia-born Brenton Harrison Tarrant, was heavily influenced by the theory and named his manifesto The Great Replacement after it.[94]

Criticism[edit]

In January 2014, French demographer Hervé Le Bras described the theory as a "sinister farce". Sceptical of Camus' description of second or third generation immigrants as being itself a contradiction in terms ("They do not migrate anymore, they are French."), Le Bras was critical of their designation as a fifth column in France or an "internal enemy".[95]

In September 2018, Dutch author Paul Scheffer analyzed the Great Replacement and its political developments, suggesting that Forum for Democracy and Party for Freedom were forming policy regarding the demography of the Netherlands through the lense of the conspiracy theory.[96]

In May 2019, Nick Cohen argued that the Great Replacement is a form of racism and propaganda, alongside a fear European men are not virile enough.[97] The same month, Anne Applebaum wrote that the conspiracy theory was used as a gateway from discussing the effects of immigration and Islam's compatibility with the Western world to forms of extremism, such as advocating for the remigration or the murder of migrants.[98]

In German discourse, Austrian political scientist Rainer Bauböck questioned the conspiracy theorists' use of the terms population replacement or exchange ("Bevölkerungsaustausch"). Using Ruth Wodak's analysis that the slogan needs to be viewed in its historical context, Bauböck has concluded that the conspiracy theory is a reemergence of the Nazi ideology of Umvolkung.[99]

In July 2019, English musician Billy Bragg criticized the Great Replacement, calling it a "racist creed" that was "being promoted so effectively by the far right that it is entering mainstream political discourse".[100] Releasing a public statement which accused fellow singer-songwriter Morrissey of endorsing the theory, he drew attention to an Institute for Strategic Dialogue report on far-right extremism. Bragg suggested; "that Morrissey is helping to spread this idea — which inspired the Christchurch mosque murderer — is beyond doubt". He proposed that fans of Morrissey, attempting to separate his music from his political views, were potentially "helping propogate" the conspiracy theory further. Bragg included American musician Brandon Flowers in his assertions, who had days before said Morrissey was "still a king" in spite of his public support for the far right For Britain Movement.[101]

Later that month, Keith Ellison, the Attorney General of Minnesota, stated how increasing and varied hate crime, exacerabated by the 2016 Brexit vote and election of Donald Trump, was "united by so-called “replacement” theory", and that communities needed to "vigilantly and consistently counter each of these acts of violence and expressions of hate".[102] At the same time, Mick Davis, the Chief Executive and Treasurer of the Conservative Party, published a damning critique of the concept. Writing in The Jewish Chronicle, Davis named the Great Replacement, "a driving force behind far right terror", as worse than merely a conspiracy theory, in that it was "profoundly antisemitic".[103]

French journalist Laurent Joffrin has questioned the integrity behind of the theory. Proposing that although the "fertility rate of immigrant women is higher than that of 'native' women", he detailed how mothers born outside France accounted for only 10% of the population. He argued that while "this difference in fertility will ultimately increase the percentage of children of immigrant origin in the population"; it was nonsense to discuss this as a "Great Replacement".[104]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "'Replacement Theory,' a Racist, Sexist Doctrine, Spreads in Far-Right Circles". New York Times. 30 April 2019. Behind the idea is a racist conspiracy theory known as “the replacement theory,” which was popularized by a right-wing French philosopher.
  2. ^ "Founder of Racist 'Great Replacement' Theory That Inspires White Supremacists Withdraws From E.U. Elections After Fellow Candidate Prays to Swastika". Newsweek. 23 May 2019. Camus then claimed the “great replacement” is the “nephew” of Nazism: “They share the same genealogy of horror. We can not be associated with that.”
  3. ^ Ait Abdeslam, Abderrahim (28 August 2018). "The vilification of Muslim diaspora in French fictional novels: 'Soumission' (2015) and 'Petit Frère' (2008) as case studies". Journal of Multicultural Discourses. 13 (3): 232–242. doi:10.1080/17447143.2018.1511717.
  4. ^ Bergmann, Eirikur (2018). "6. The Eurabia Doctrin". Conspiracy & Populism : The Politics of Misinformation. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 127. ISBN 978-3-319-90359-0. LCCN 2018939717 – via Google Books. This notion of replacement, or of white genocide, has echoed throughout the rhetoric of many far right movements in the west
  5. ^ a b Weitzmann, Marc (1 April 2019). "The Global Language of Hatred Is French". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  6. ^ Courbet, Claire (24 March 2015). "Immigration Museum: "The far right has reached a plateau"". Le Figaro. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  7. ^ Jean-Yves Camus; Nicolas Lebourg (20 March 2017). Far-Right Politics in Europe. Harvard University Press. pp. 206–207. ISBN 978-0-674-97153-0. The success of that umpteenth incarnation of a theme launched immediately after World War II (Camus has personally declared his indebtedness to Enoch Powell) can be explained by the fact that he subtracted anti-Semitism from the argument
  8. ^ Williams, Thomas Chatterton (4 December 2017). "The French Origins of 'You Will Not Replace Us'". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 27 September 2018. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  9. ^ Wilson, Andrew (27 March 2019). "Fear-Filled Apocalypses: The Far-Right's Use of Conspiracy Theories". Oxford Research Group. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  10. ^ a b Wildman, Sarah (15 August 2017). ""You will not replace us": a French philosopher explains the Charlottesville chant". Vox. Archived from the original on 9 August 2018. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  11. ^ "Hate in Europe: June 2018". Hatewatch. Southern Poverty Law Center. 5 July 2018. Archived from the original on 20 September 2018. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  12. ^ Vinocur, Nicholas (15 March 2019). "How European ideas motivated Christchurch killer". Politico. Retrieved 8 April 2019.
  13. ^ Cecil Jenkins (13 July 2017). A Brief History of France. Little, Brown Book Group. p. 342. ISBN 978-1-4721-4027-2. As for the grand replacement, this has been widely seen as a paranoid fantasy, which plays fast and loose with the statistics, is racist in that it classes as immigrants people actually born in France, glosses over the fact that around half of immigrants are from other European countries, and suggests that declining indigenous France will be outbred by Muslim newcomers when in fact it has the highest fertility rate in Western Europe, and not because of immigration.
  14. ^ MacKellar, Landis (June 2016). "Review: La République islamique de France? A Review Essay". Population and Development Review. 42 (2): 368–375. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2016.00130.x. JSTOR 44015644.
  15. ^ Meaker, Morgan (28 August 2018). "How dangerous are Austria's far-right hipsters?". dw.com. Vienna: Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 24 September 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2018. ...and spread the 'great replacement' conspiracy theory – the idea that white Europeans will be replaced by people from the Middle East and Africa through immigration. The theory is based on inflated statistics and un-substantiated demographic projections. Right now, only 4 percent of the European Union is made up of non-EU nationals.
  16. ^ Dearden, Lizzie (9 November 2017). "Generation Identity: Far-right group sending UK recruits to military-style training camps in Europe". The Independent. Archived from the original on 25 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018. ...claims it represents "indigenous Europeans" and propagates the far-right conspiracy theory that white people are becoming a minority in what it calls the "Great Replacement"
  17. ^ Ahmed, Nafeez (25 March 2019). "'White genocide' theorists worm their way into the West's mainstream". Le Monde Diplomatique. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  18. ^ a b c d e Miller, Nick (19 March 2019). "'The Great Replacement': an idea now at the heart of Europe's politics". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 4 April 2019.
  19. ^ Plenel, Edwy (28 June 2016). "1". For the Muslims: Islamophobia in France. Translated by Fernbach, David. Verso. ISBN 978-1-78478-488-1. LCCN 2016005821 – via Google Books.
  20. ^ Serhan, Yasmeen (15 May 2017). "Pivotal Elections Loom Over Europe". The Atlantic. Retrieved 24 September 2018. ...the 'great replacement' conspiracy theory that contends immigrants are replacing the traditional French population.
  21. ^ Baldauf, Johannes (2017). Toxische Narrative : Monitoring rechts-alternativer Akteure (PDF) (in Dutch). Berlin: Amadeu Antonio Stiftung. p. 11. ISBN 978-3-940878-29-8. OCLC 1042949000. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 September 2018. Retrieved 24 September 2018. ...this narrative is highly compatible with concrete conspiracy narratives about how this replacement is desired and planned, either by 'the politicians' or 'the elite,' which-ever connotes Jewishness more effectively.
  22. ^ Castro, Ernesto Córdoba (12 October 2017). "The philosophical sources of Marine Le Pen". Eurozine. Archived from the original on 25 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018. ...a conspiracy theory which claims that the global elite has staged a plot to replace the indigenous European population with immigrants from other continents
  23. ^ Betz, Hans-Georg (5 February 2018). "5. The Radical Right and Populism". In Rydgren, Jens (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of the Radical Right. 1. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190274559.013.5. ISBN 9780190644185. LCCN 2017025436.
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  30. ^ "Van "redpill" tot "normies: dit zijn de basisbegrippen van Schild & Vrienden" [From "redpill" to "normies": these are the basic concepts of Schild & Vrienden] (in Dutch). Vlaamse Radio- en Televisieomroeporganisatie. 5 September 2018.
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Further reading[edit]