The Great Silkie of Sule Skerry
|"The Great Silkie of Sule Skerry"|
"The Great Silkie of Sule Skerry" or "The Grey Selkie of Sule Skerry" is a traditional folk song from Shetland and Orkney. A woman has her child taken away by its father, the great selkie of Sule Skerry which can transform from a seal into a human. The woman is fated to marry a gunner who will harpoon the selkie and their son.
"The Great Silkie of Sule Skerry" is a short version from the Sheltands published in the 1850s and later listed as Child ballad number 113. "The Grey Selkie of Sule Skerry" is the title of the Orcadian texts, about twice in length. There is also a greatly embellished and expanded version of the ballad called "The Lady Odivere".
"The Great Silkie of Sule Skerry" was collected from a lady from Snarra Voe, Shetland, and 7 verses from its transcription was published by Capt. F. W. L. Thomas in the 1850s. It was later included in Francis James Child's anthology, and catalogued as Child ballad number 113.
The ballad begins:
A synopsis is as follows: A woman, nursing a baby, laments that she does not know the child's father or where he lives. A man rises up to tell her that he is the father, and that he is a silkie — a changeling that takes the form of a man on the land and a seal in the sea, and that he lives on a remote rocky island called Sule Skerry. He gives her a purse full of gold, takes his son, and predicts that she will marry a gunner (the man who fires the harpoon on a whaling ship) who will shoot both him and their son.
There are Orkney versions which place the heroine's setting in Scandinavia, opening with the line: "In Norway land there lived a maid".
"The Grey Selchie of Shool Skerry" was published by R. Menzies Fergusson in Rambling Sketches in the Far North (1883), changing its title to "The Grey Selchie of Sule Skerrie" in the second edition, Rambles in the Far North (1884).
The same 14-stanza version with some spelling differences, entitled "The Grey Selchie of Sule Skerry" was printed in the January 11, 1934 issue of The Orcadian newspaper. It was later reprinted by Finnish folklorist Otto Andersson, who also collected a traditional ballad tune for it.
This version contains an exchange in which the seal-groom's marriage proposal is declined by the Norwegian nurse. The selkie makes the same fateful prediction as in the Shetland version, that the woman will marry a gunner, who will shoot both the selkie and their son. It further supplies the grim conclusion that the gunner brings back a gold chain which she recognizes as the one that was given to her son to wear.
A cognate to the "Grey Selkie of Suleskerry" includes "The Play of Lady Odivere" ("The Play of de Lathie Odivere"). This piece is a dramatic ballad in style, over 90 stanzas long. And it may be in large part a piece of contrived fiction by Walter Traill Dennison, mish-mashed into a kernel of a traditional ballad, in the estimation of modern folklorist Alan Bruford.
The original tune was preserved by Otto Andersson, who heard it sung by John Sinclair on the island of Flotta, Orkney. Andersson said, “I had no idea at the time that I was the first person to write down the tune. The pure pentatonic form of it and the beautiful melodic line showed me that it was a very ancient melody that I had set on paper.”
The best known tune today is non-traditional, having been written by Jim Waters in 1954. Child was interested only in the texts of the ballads he collected, and Jim explains that the tune was "just the best I could do as a way to get a fine ballad sung". Over the next two years, he introduced the ballad to the Boston area at a time when "hootenannies" filled the Great Court of MIT on a weekly basis (before recorded folk songs were widely available). Jim Butler added the song to his repertoire, according to his notes, in October 1954, on a page labelled "MITOC Supp.", being the MIT Outing Club addition to his typewritten Child Ballads. Butler taught the song to several people, including Bonnie Dobson. This is the tune that Joan Baez popularized as "Silkie" in the early 1960s.
Although Jean Redpath disparaged Water's tune as "phony", preferring a longer version of Child 113 to another tune, by 1965, Jim Butler had heard Waters' tune sung by a Scottish student at the University of British Columbia, unaccompanied in the traditional style, and under the impression that he had learned it from his grandfather. "This has to be one of the most flattering things that has ever happened to me", added Waters, who eventually copyrighted his version and assigned it to Folk Legacy Records. Folk Legacy reassigned all copyright interest to James Waters in August, 2012.
- The American rock band The Byrds sang it on their third album, Fifth Dimension (1966).
- The song was later covered by This Mortal Coil.
- Roger McGuinn of the Byrds later recorded the song with its original lyrics as part of his Folk Den project.
- The English folk rock band Trees included one variant, as "The Great Silkie", in The Garden of Jane Delawney, their debut album.
- Glasgow-born folk singer Ray Fisher (1940-2011) included the song on her album "The Bonny Birdy" (1972). Her brother Archie Fisher has a version on his "Orfeo" (1970).
- Judy Collins included her version, "Great Selchie of Shule Skerry", on her 1962 album Golden Apples of the Sun.
- The Breton folk band Tri Yann also penned an adaptation in French called "Le Dauphin" (the dolphin) on their 1972 album Tri Yann an Naoned.
- In 1981 Angelo Branduardi recorded this tune in his album Branduardi '81, with a lyrics by Esenin. The song is titled "La cagna". In 2013 re-recorded this tune (titled: "Silkie") with original lyrics adapted in Italian language, in his album Il Rovo E La Rosa.
- The Philadelphia folk band Broadside Electric included a version of the ballad on their 1996 album More Bad News ...
- The Scottish band MacCumba, who mix Brazilian and Celtic traditions with pipes and samba, recorded a version on their 1996 album "Don't Hold Your Breath".
- The Irish band Solas included one variant, "Grey Selchie", in their 1998 album The Words That Remain.
- A version appears on Maddy Prior's 1999 album Ravenchild.
- Alasdair Roberts included his version of "The Grey Silkie of Sule Skerry" on his CD You Need Not Braid Your Hair for Me: I Have Not Come A-Wooing, released in 2005.
- The Breton singer Cécile Corbel recorded it in her album Songbook Vol.2 (2008).
- Steeleye Span recorded it as a hidden track on their 2009 album Cogs, Wheels and Lovers.
- In 2011 June Tabor recorded it in her album Ashore.
- The duo Estrange Waters recorded a version of the song in their 2016 EP Songs of the Water.
- Chope, Richard (1912). Ballads Weird and Wonderful. New York: John Lane Company. p. 8.
- Thomas, Capt. F. W. L. (1855), "The Great Silkie of Sule Skerry" Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 1, pp. 86–89. Reprinted in Child (1886), II, p. 494 and Black (1901), County Folk-lore III, pp. 183–184.
- Bruford (1974), p. 63.
- Douglas, Sheila (2004). "Ballads and the Supernatural: Spells, Channs, Curses and Enchantments". Studies in Scottish Literature. 33 (1): 363.
- Fergusson (1883), pp. 140–141; Fergusson (1884), pp. 242–244; latter cited in Gilchrist (1921), p. 266
- McEntire (2007), p. 124.
- Bronson, Bertrand Harris (1962). "The Great Silkie of Sule Skerry". The Traditional Tunes of the Child Ballads. 2. Princeton University Press. pp. 564–565).
- Bold, Alan (2017) , The Ballad, Routledge, pp. 44–45, ISBN 978-1-3153-8974-5
- Gilchrist, A. G. (January 1921). Freeman, A. Martin. "Extra Note on Song No. 48, verse 7". Journal of the Folk-Song Society. 6 (2): 266 (263–266). JSTOR 4434091
- McEntire (2007), p. 128.
- Bruford, Alan (1997), Narvez, Peter, ed., "Trolls, Hillfolks, Finns and Picts", The Good People: New Fairylore Essays, University Press of Kentucky, pp. 121–123, ISBN 978-0-8131-0939-8
- Dennison (1894), "The Play of de Lathie Odivere", pp. 54–58. Reprinted in Black (1901), County Folk-lore III, pp. 183–184.
- Thomson, David (2010) . The People of the Sea, Edinburgh: Canongate Books., p. 212. ISBN 1847674593
- Elektra Records Catalogue No EKS 7222
- "Songs of the Water, by Estrange Waters".
- Lexicographial citations
- "nuris". Dictionary of Scots Language. Scottish Language Dictionaries. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- "ba". Scottish National Dictionary (1700–). Scottish Language Dictionaries. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- "lillie". Scottish National Dictionary (1700–). Scottish Language Dictionaries. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- "wean". Scottish National Dictionary (1700–). Scottish Language Dictionaries. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- "ken". A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700). Scottish Language Dictionaries. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- "stap". A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (up to 1700). Scottish Language Dictionaries. p. Definition 16. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- "ane". The free dictionary. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- "fit". Dictionary of Scots Language. Scottish Language Dictionaries. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- "grumly". Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- Black, G. F. (1901), Thomas, Northcote W., ed., County Folk-lore, Publications of the Folk-Lore Society 49, III, pp. 183–184, 235–248
- Bruford, Alan (1974). "The Grey Selkie". Scottish Studies. 18: 63–81.
- Child, Francis James, ed. (1886). "113 The Great Silkie of Sule Skerry". The English and Scottish Popular Ballads. II. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin. p. 494.
- Dennison, W. Traill (1894). "The Play of de Lathie Odivere". The Scottish Antiquary, or, Northern Notes and Queries. 8: 54–58.
- Fergusson, Robert Menzies (1883). "The Grey Selchie of Shool Skerry". Rambles in the Far North. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co. pp. 140–141.
- Fergusson, Robert Menzies (1884). "The Grey Selchie of Sule Skerrie". Rambles in the Far North (2nd ed.). London: Alex. Gardner. pp. 242–244.
- McEntire, Nancy Cassell (2007). "Supernatural Beings in the Far North: Folklore, Folk Belief, and the Selkie". Scottish Studies. 35: 120–143.