The Heroes of Telemark
|The Heroes of Telemark|
|Directed by||Anthony Mann|
|Written by||Ben Barzman|
|Based on||Skis Against the Atom|
by Knut Haukelid
But for These Men
1962 novel by John Drummond
|Produced by||Benjamin Fisz|
|Edited by||Bert Bates|
|Music by||Malcolm Arnold|
Benton Film Productions
|Distributed by||The Rank Organisation (UK)|
Columbia Pictures (US)
|Box office||$1,650,000 (est. US/ Canada rentals)|
The Heroes of Telemark is a 1965 British war film directed by Anthony Mann based on the true story of the Norwegian heavy water sabotage during the Second World War from Skis Against the Atom, the memoirs of Norwegian resistance soldier Knut Haukelid. The film stars Kirk Douglas as Dr. Rolf Pedersen ("it's Petersen not Peterson")
The Norwegian resistance sabotage the Vemork Norsk Hydro plant in the town of Rjukan in the county of Telemark, Norway, which the Nazis are using to produce heavy water, which could be used in the manufacture of an atomic bomb.
Kirk Douglas plays Rolf Pedersen, a Norwegian physics professor, who, though originally content to wait out the war, is soon pulled into the struggle by local resistance leader Knut Straud (based on Knut Haukelid, portrayed by Richard Harris).
They both sneak out of Norway on a passenger steamship to Britain that they hijack so they can deliver microfilmed plans of the hydroelectric plant to the British. Then they return to Norway by parachute to plan a commando raid against the plant. When a British plane carrying a force of Royal Engineers to undertake the raid is shot down over Norway by the Germans, Pedersen and Straud lead a small force of Norwegian saboteurs into the plant. The raid is successful, but the Germans quickly repair the equipment.
The Germans then plan to ship steel drums of heavy water to Germany. Pedersen and Straud sabotage a ferry carrying the drums, and it sinks in the deepest part of a fjord.
Besides this sequence, the raids (Operations Grouse, Freshman and Gunnerside) and the final attack are filmed on-site, with mountainous and snowy Norwegian locations serving as a backdrop for the plot.
- Kirk Douglas as Dr Rolf Pedersen
- Richard Harris as Knut Straud
- Ulla Jacobsson as Anna Pedersen
- Michael Redgrave as Uncle
- David Weston as Arne
- Sebastian Breaks as Gunnar
- John Golightly as Freddy
- Alan Howard as Oli
- Patrick Jordan as Henrik
- William Marlowe as Claus
- Brook Williams as Einar
- Roy Dotrice as Jensen
- Anton Diffring as Major Frick
- Ralph Michael as Nilssen
- Eric Porter as Josef Terboven
- Wolf Frees as Sturmbannführer Knippelberg
- Karel Stepanek as Professor Hartmüller
- Gerard Heinz as Professor Erhardt
- Victor Beaumont as German Sergeant
- George Murcell as SS Oberscharführer
- Mervyn Johns as Col. Wilkinson
- Barry Jones as Professor Roderick Logan
- Geoffrey Keen as Gen. Bolt
- Robert Ayres as General Courts
- Jennifer Hilary as Sigrid
- Maurice Denham as Doctor
- David Davies as Captain of Galtesund
- Philo Hauser as Businessman
- Faith Brook as Woman on Bus
- Elvi Hale as Mrs. Sandersen
- Russell Waters as Mr. Sandersen
- Paul Hansard as German Officer (uncredited)
- George Roubicek as German Radio Operator (uncredited)
- Joe Dunne as Norwegian Quisling's Nazi (uncredited)
Knut Haukelid wrote a memoir of the attack called Skis Against the Atom published in 1954. John Drummond wrote a novel based on the same story called But for These Men. Both books formed the basis of the screenplay.
The film was originally announced in 1963. It was made by Benton Film Productions, a company of director Anthony Mann and producer S. Benjamin Fisz. Financing came from America's Allied Artists and Britain's J Arthur Rank Productions.
Scenes early in the film when the main characters escape from occupied Norway were filmed around Poole and Hamworthy in Dorset with the former Channel Islands ship TSS Roebuck playing the role of the hijacked steamer. SF Ammonia was used to represent the train ferry SF Hydro in the final fjord scenes.
The movie was originally titled The Unknown Battle and was to have starred Stephen Boyd and Elke Sommer and be written by Ben Barzman. Later, Anthony Perkins was announced as a star, though he withdrew. Eventually Kirk Douglas signed as the lead. Cliff Robertson was mentioned as a possible co-star before Richard Harris came on board.
"I hear they are spending five million dollars, so it's got to be spectacular and that means more fiction and less fact", said Haukelid during filming.
Stephen Boyd later sued Mann for half a million dollars when funding for the initial project fell apart in early 1964. "I missed out on four good roles and plenty of money when he signed me without financial backing and then dropped the project", said Boyd later. "He asked me again later but I'd made other commitments, so Kirk Douglas and Richard Harris made it under another title."
Ray Mears made a documentary called The Real Heroes of Telemark. Despite mainly sticking to the factual evidence, some scenes in the documentary, like the film, were partly dramatised, focusing more on the survival skills involved in the operation.
The same story was also covered in the 1948 Franco-Norwegian film Kampen om tungtvannet (La bataille de l'eau lourde — "The battle for heavy water"). Quite faithful to the real events, it even had many of the original Norwegian commandos starring as themselves.
- Bjornsen, Bjorn (31 January 1965). "How a Few Norse Beat Nazis: One from U. S. Is Hero of Movie". Chicago Tribune. p. a3.
- "Big Rental Pictures of 1966", Variety, 4 January 1967 p 8
- Sykes, Christopher (28 February 1954). "Sabotaging the Atom". The Observer. London (UK). p. 9.
- Scheuer, Philip K. (18 March 1963). "Ice Age Reverses Black, White Roles: Nazis' A-Bomb Plot Bared; Palance, Montgomery Travel". 'Los Angeles Times.
- A.H. Weiler (9 February 1964). "PICTURES AND PEOPLE: Debuts for Warner LeRoy, 'Atrox' – War in Norway – Local Producers". New York Times. p. X9.
- Scheuer, Philip K. (27 February 1964). "Warners Will Film New Mailer Novel: Perkins in 'Unknown Battle'; 'Cleopazza' an Italian Spoof". Los Angeles Times. p. C9.
- "'Unknown Battle' to Star Douglas". Los Angeles Times. 13 July 1964. p. C18.
- "Sicily Seeks to Save 'Bible' Set of Sodom". Los Angeles Times. 29 September 1964. p. C10.
- Hopper, Hedda (29 December 1964). "Looking at Hollywood: Steve Boyd Is Back After Stint Abroad". Chicago Tribune. p. b11.
- "Most popular star for third time". The Times. London. 31 December 1966. p. 5 – via The Times Digital Archive.
- The Heroes of Telemark, Rotten Tomatoes