The Highwaymen (artists)

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The Highwaymen, also referred to as the Florida Highwaymen, are a group of 26 African American landscape artists in Florida. Self-taught and Self-Mentoring, they created a body of work of over 200,000 paintings, despite facing many racial and cultural barriers.[1] Mostly from the Fort Pierce area, they painted landscapes and made a living selling them door-to-door to businesses and individuals throughout Florida from the mid-1950s through the 1980s. They also peddled their work from the trunks of their cars along the eastern coastal roads (A1A and US 1).

For over 50 years The Highwaymen created large numbers of relatively inexpensive landscape paintings using construction materials rather than traditional art supplies. As no galleries would accept their work, they sold them in towns and cities and along roadsides throughout Florida, often still wet, out of the trunks of their cars. Their success and longevity is remarkable considering they began their career in the racially unsettled and violent times of the 50s in Florida [2][3] and amid the social conditions of the Jim Crow South where the stirrings of the civil rights movement were only just beginning.[4] They have been called "The Last Great American Art Movement of the 20th century".[5]


In the 50's and 60's, it was impossible to find galleries interested in selling artworks by unknown individuals, let alone self-taught African Americans. Individual artists, (who decades later became known as the Florida Highwaymen) sold their art directly to the public rather than through galleries and art agents. Today they are recognized world-wide as an important part of American folk history.

In 1970, one of the original painters of this unconnected group of artists, Alfred Hair, self-proclaimed as a leader or main catalyst and soul of the group, was killed. While a few claim some of the group's creative energy and direction were lost, and the remaining members created fewer paintings causing productivity to wane. However, the remaining 25 artists and the vast quantity of paintings produced after 1970 further confirm the invaildity of the claim. In October 2017, 12 of the 13 living original Highwaymen painters (including one woman), are still actively painting.[6]

In the mid-1990's Jim Fitch, a Florida art historian, and Jeff Klinkenberg, of the St. Petersburg Times wrote several newspaper articles about the Florida Highwaymen. The attention created new interest for their idyllic landscapes of natural settings in Florida igniting sales of the paintings. This activity increased the value significantly of the artwork and a created an unprecedented demand. All 26 Florida Highwaymen were inducted into the Florida Artists Hall of Fame in 2004.[7]

Their renown grew internationally during the early 2000's and they have been rightfully recognized for their extensive contribution and vivid documentation of mid-twentieth century Florida culture and history. Of the remaining artists in the original group (13 deceased) all but one artist continue to paint to this day, more than 50 years since they first started to paint, even though most artists are now in their 70's and some nearing their 80's. Over time their style has evolved into more carefully created works and away from the original "fast painting" techniques that enabled them to produce large quantities of paintings in their early years.

Analogies compare the Hudson River School of the mid 19th Century and Group of Seven (artists) from Canada in the early 20th century to The Florida Highwaymen Artists. In their respective times these groups mentored and created works collaboratively. Painting en plein air style, these groups of artists created expansive landscapes, of untouched and pristine lands, creating scenes of timelessness and raw natural beauty. In many ways the Florida Highwaymen's story is even more compelling and romantic than the other groups, as The Highwaymen had no backing or support and were much more resourceful and creative in both production and sales of their works.

The Florida Highwaymen were influenced by the natural Florida landscape, they painted what they saw around them. (Alfred Hair was a formal student of A. Backus.) His influence extended through Hair and Harold Newton (Newton claims this influence went to the other twenty-four artists in the group, however the other 25 original artists deny any connection as a formal group and any intention of similarity in their work.) Some in the formal art world have given this group and its followers the name "Indian River School," but they are most well known as The Highwaymen. Not known as "highwaymen" in their heyday, the name was bestowed by Florida art collector and museum curator, Jim Fitch, in a 1995 article in Antiques and Art Around Florida.[8]


The Highwaymen were mostly self-taught painters, who mentored each other. Excluded from the traditional world of art shows and galleries, the Highwaymen painted on inexpensive gypsum board or masonite and framed their paintings with crown molding (brushed with gold or silver paint to "antique" them). They packed these paintings into the trunks of their cars and sold them door-to-door throughout the south-eastern coast of Florida. Sometimes the paintings were stacked before the oil paint was dry.[9] Paintings by the Florida Highwaymen are prized by collectors today, but their story is about much more than art.[10][11]

Today their 200,000 plus paintings have gathered significant interest and have become quite collectible. At auction some of these particular painters' works have been recognized with high prices, notably important older works by original members.


It was not a formal movement and represented no "official" group, yet The Highwaymen thrived as artists and entrepreneurs through their sheer determination to succeed as painters and not as laborers in citrus groves, their expected social role.[12] The works are also classified as "Outsider Art", or "Folk Art". They honed techniques to rapidly produce their paintings and developed strategies to sell and market their artwork outside of the formal world of art galleries and exhibitions. Their story is one of African Americans who carved out unique economic opportunities despite the social conditions of the Jim Crow South.

In 2000, twenty-six artists were identified as Highwaymen.[13] These artists were inducted into the Florida Artists Hall of Fame in 2004 as the Highwaymen and include: Curtis Arnett, Hezekiah Baker, Al "Blood" Black, brothers Ellis and George Buckner, Robert Butler, Mary Ann Carroll (the only woman in the group), brothers Johnny and Willie Daniels, Rodney Demps, James Gibson, Alfred Hair, Isaac Knight, Robert Lewis, John Maynor, Roy McLendon, Alfonso "Pancho" Moran, brothers Sam, Lemuel and Harold Newton, Willie Reagan, Livingston "Castro" Roberts, Cornell "Pete" Smith, Charles Walker, Sylvester Wells, and Charles "Chico" Wheeler.[14]

The lone "Highwaywoman" Mary Ann Carroll (b. 1940) lived in obscurity for many years. Carroll was the guest of honor at First Lady Michelle Obama's First Lady's Luncheon on May 18, 2011. Carroll presented a poinciana tree painting to Mrs. Obama.[15]

For the complete list, including birth and death years for all 26, visit the website.[16]

Of these twenty six, nine are considered "original" (or the earliest) Highwaymen: Harold Newton, Alfred Hair, Roy McLendon, James Gibson, Livingston Roberts, Mary Ann Carroll, Sam Newton, Willie Daniels, and Al Black.[17]

In 2008, a second hour-long PBS-TV documentary film was released called "The Highwaymen: Legends of the Road". It was produced by father and son team Jack and John Hambrick (both veteran TV news journalists). The original, titled "The Highwaymen: Florida's Outsider Artists" premiered at the Appleton Museum in Ocala in 2003 and was picked up by PBS. It generally airs during Black History month. Narrated by Spencer Christian, the Hambrick team was responsible for this one as well and the second, more commercial oriented documentary.

In February 2016, a full-length feature movie starring Whoopi Goldberg as Zenobia Jefferson, the art teacher who introduced Alfred Hair to A E Backus, did not begin shooting in Savannah, Georgia, as planned. The city of Fort Pierce, Florida declined the opportunity to film the movie in the actual location. Shooting will commence near Fort Lauderdale at some point in 2017. The Official trailer has been shot, and has been released to the public. Not a documentary, but a dramatic presentation of the early years in the highwaymen's origin, the movie is titled "The Unknowns: Talent Is Colorblind" produced by Top Cat II, a successful experienced production company.[18]

As of January 2018, thirteen are deceased, both Buckners, Hair, Harold Newton, A.Moran, L.Roberts, H. Baker, Johnnie Daniels, Robert Butler, Lemuel Newton, Carnell(Pete)Smith, John Maynor, and James Gibson. Most of the paintings are signed, but there are a number of paintings that weren't, there are a number of paintings that are sold as "Highwaymen Style" that emulate the iconic landscapes of the Highwaymen artists, but are indeed just mere reproductions with little real value. Older paintings from the 1950s and early 60s era are more sought after by collectors.

The Backus Gallery and Museum has initiated an annual exhibition and sale of high end vintage highwaymen, scheduled during the month of February on an annual basis. The 2016 sale was well attended and the February 17-18-19, 2017 show, as expected, was extremely well attended, with record attendance on Saturday. Now we're on to the 2018 Exhibit and sale. February 16-17-18, 2018. Vintage works by the more talented artists will be available for sale once again.

A vintage highwaymen art gallery and production office for "The Unknowns" is in the planning stages in Ft. Lauderdale. Murals have been painted on the exterior of the newly leased building on US1 (as of January 2017). No progress has been made at this point, other than filing lawsuits, lawyers and countersuits. As of Dec. 21, 2017.


A. E. Backus Gallery & Museum houses artwork by A. E. Backus, and other Florida artists such as "The Highwaymen"

Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Titled: Florida Highwaymen February 2016 Exhibition presented by the Embassy of the United States, Ottawa, in collaboration with Galerie SAW Gallery, February 5 – 29, 2016. Over 30 works by Alfred Hair, Harold Newton, Roy McLendon Sr., Mary Ann Carroll, James Gibson, Livingston Roberts, Willie Daniels, Johnny Daniels, Ellis Buckner, George Buckner, Sam Newton, Al Black and Lem Newton. Mary Ann Carroll is attending the opening for the first ever Highwaymen exhibit outside of the United States.

A recent exhibit at the Florida House in Washington, D.C. featured vintage paintings by the core artists of the group. Included in the exhibit are paintings by Alfred Hair, Harold Newton, Roy McLendon Sr., Mary Ann Carroll, James Gibson, Livingston Roberts, Willie Daniels, Ellis Buckner, George Buckner, Sam Newton and Al Black. Entitled "The Florida Highwaymen: A Disappearing Landscape," the exhibit highlighted not only the works and the unique historical and cultural significance of the Florida Highwaymen, but also their important depiction of the natural beauty of the endangered wetlands environment.

The Florida Aquarium in Tampa, Florida features vintage paintings by Alfred Hair, Sam Newton, James Gibson and Harold Newton. Emphasizing the "timeless" nature of the Florida Highwaymen works and the environmental and wetlands conservation message they also represent.

The Museum of Florida History in Tallahassee has paintings by twenty-three of the original twenty-six artists.[19] In Orlando, Florida at the Orange County Regional History Center, a 2010-11 exhibit, "Against All Odds: The Art of the Highwaymen", paintings by all 26 artists together in one exhibit for the first time since Bob LeBlanc,, curated an exhibition in the Safety Harbor Museum and Cultural Center, Safety Harbor Florida in 2008.

The Backus Gallery and Museum in Ft. Pierce will feature its fourth Annual Exhibition and Sale of vintage Highwaymen art February 2019.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Florida Department of State Induction of the Florida Highwaymen into the Florida Artists Hall of Fame
  2. ^ History of Harry T and Harriette Moore NAACP
  3. ^ Freedom Never Dies The Legacy of Harry T. Moore, Florida Terror PBS documentary
  4. ^ Civil Rights in Florida A Short History of Florida
  5. ^ Painting isn't Just One Man's Treasure St. Petersburg Times August 20, 2005
  6. ^ R.L.Lewis verbal account at a private showing and exhibit
  7. ^ Florida Artists Hall of Fame List Florida Department of State
  8. ^ Antiques and Art Around Florida the Highwaymen by Jim Fitch 1995
  9. ^ Friedman, Nick, Voices of the Highwaymen, Sarasota Observer, Tuesday, February 2, 2016 quoting Al Black regarding repairing the damage to paintings that had been wet when packed into the trunk of an automobile
  10. ^ Florida's Highwaymen:Legendary Landscapes by Bob Beatty
  11. ^ Florida Highwaymen:Local Artists Make HistoryVisit Florida February 2010
  12. ^ Florida's Highwaymen:Legendary Landscapes by Bob Beatty 2008
  13. ^ The Highwaymen Archived 2007-10-18 at the Wayback Machine. by Ken Hall, from
  14. ^ "Florida Highwaymen Art". 
  15. ^ Monroe, Gary (2014). Mary Ann Carroll: First Lady of the Highwaymen. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. p. 39. ISBN 9780813049694. 
  16. ^ "Highwaymen". 
  17. ^ "Who are the Florida Highwaymen". Retrieved 2012-07-04. 
  18. ^ "The Unknowns Movie Talent is Color Blind". 
  19. ^ "Museum of Florida History - News and Events". Retrieved 2018-02-02. 


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