|Genre||Marching music/party anthem|
"Horst-Wessel-Lied" (English: "Horst Wessel Song"; pronounced [hɔʁst ˈvɛsl̩ liːt]), also known by its opening words, "Die Fahne hoch" ("Raise the Flag"), was used as the anthem of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) from 1930 to 1945. From 1933 to 1945 the Nazis made it the co-national anthem of Germany, along with the first stanza of the "Deutschlandlied". Since the end of World War II, the anthem has been banned in Germany and Austria.
The lyrics to "Horst-Wessel-Lied" were written in 1929 by Sturmführer Horst Wessel, the commander of the Nazi paramilitary "Brownshirts" (Sturmabteilung or "SA") in the Friedrichshain district of Berlin. Wessel wrote songs for the SA in conscious imitation of the Communist paramilitary, the Red Front Fighters' League, to provoke them into attacking his troops, and to keep up the spirits of his men.
Wessel was the son of a pastor with a university education, but he was employed as a construction worker. He became well known among the Communists when he led a number of SA incursions into the Fischerkiez, an extremely poor Berlin district where Communists mingled with underworld figures. (He did this on orders from Joseph Goebbels, the Nazi Gauleiter (regional party leader) of Berlin.) Several of these agitations were only minor altercations, but one took place outside the tavern which the local German Communist Party (KPD) used as its headquarters. As a result of that melee, five Communists were injured, four of them seriously. The Communist newspaper accused the police of letting the Nazis get away while arresting the injured Communists, while the Nazi newspaper claimed that Wessel had been trying to give a speech when communists emerged and began the fight. Wessel was marked for death, with his face and address featured on Communist street posters and the slogan of the KPD and the Red Front Fighters' League became "strike the fascists wherever you find them."
Wessel took up with his partner Erna Jänicke in a room on Große Frankfurter Straße in the house of the widowed Frau Salm, whose husband had been a Communist. After a few months, there was a dispute between Salm and Wessel over unpaid rent; Salm wanted Jänicke to leave, but she refused to, and Salm appealed to Communist friends of her late husband for help. Shortly thereafter on 14 January 1930, Wessel was shot and seriously wounded by two Communist Party members, one of whom was Albrecht "Ali" Höhler. Wessel died in the hospital on 23 February from blood poisoning, which he contracted during his hospitalisation. Höhler was tried in court and sentenced to six years' imprisonment for the shooting. He was taken out of prison under false pretenses by the SA and executed three years later, after the Nazi accession to national power in 1933.
Nazi Party anthem
Joseph Goebbels, the Nazi Gauleiter and owner and editor of the newspaper Der Angriff (The Attack), had made several attempts to create Nazi martyrs for propaganda purposes, the first being an SA man named Hans-Georg Kütemeyer, whose body was pulled out of a canal the morning after he attended a speech by Hitler at the Sportpalast. Goebbels attempted to spin this into an assassination by Communists, but the overwhelming evidence showed it to have been suicide, and he had to drop the matter. Thus, Goebbels put considerable effort into mythologizing Wessel's story, even as the man lay dying. He met with Wessel's mother, who told him her son's life story, his hope for a "better world", and his attempt to rescue a prostitute he had met on the street. Goebbels saw Wessel as an "idealistic dreamer".
Wessel himself had undergone an operation at St. Joseph's Hospital which stopped his internal bleeding, but the surgeons had been unable to remove the bullet in his cerebellum. Wessel was brought to his mother's home to die. In his diary, Goebbels described Wessel's entire face as being shot up and his features distorted, and claimed that Wessel told him "One has to keep going! I'm happy!" After a period where his condition stabilized, Wessel died on 23 February.
Goebbels consulted with Hermann Göring and others in the party on how to respond to Wessel's death. They declared a period of mourning until 12 March, during which party and SA members would avoid amusements and Wessel's name would be invoked at all party meetings. Wessel's unit was renamed the Horst Wessel Storm Unit 5.
From a mashup of fact and fiction, Goebbels' propaganda created what became one of the Nazi Party's central martyr-figures of their movement. He officially declared Wessel's march, renamed as the "Horst-Wessel-Lied" ("Horst Wessel Song"), to be the Nazi Party anthem. Wessel was buried on 1 March 1930. Contrary to Nazi claims, there were no attacks on the funeral procession. His funeral was filmed and turned into a major propaganda event by the NSDAP. The "Horst Wessel Song" was sung by the SA at the funeral, and was thereafter extensively used at party functions, as well as sung by the SA during street parades.
When Adolf Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany in January 1933, the "Horst Wessel Song" became a national symbol by law on 19 May 1933. The following year, a regulation required the right arm be extended and raised in the "Hitler salute" when the (identical) first and fourth verses were sung. Nazi leaders can be seen singing the song at the finale of Leni Riefenstahl's 1935 film Triumph of the Will. Hitler also mandated the tempo at which the song had to be played.
Some Nazis were extremely sensitive about the uses to which the "Horst Wessel Song" was put. For instance, a bandleader who wrote a jazz version of the song was forced to leave Germany, and when Martha Dodd, the daughter of William E. Dodd, at the time the US ambassador to Germany, played a recording of a usual arrangement of the song at her birthday party at the Ambassador's residence in 1933, a young Nazi who was a liaison between the German Foreign Ministry and Hitler's Chancellery, turned off the record player, announcing "This is not the sort of music to be played for mixed gatherings and in a flippant manner." The song was played in some Protestant places of worship, as some elements of the Protestant Church in Germany had accepted the Horst Wessel cult, built as it was by Goebbels on the model of Christian martyrs of the past.
Post World War II
With the end of the Nazi regime in May 1945, the "Horst Wessel Song" was banned. The lyrics and tune are now illegal in Germany, with some limited exceptions. In early 2011, this resulted in a Lower Saxony State Police investigation of Amazon.com and Apple Inc. for offering the song for sale on their websites. Both Apple and Amazon complied with the government's request, and deleted the song from their offerings.
Die Fahne hoch! Die Reihen fest geschlossen!
Raise the flag! The ranks tightly closed!
The Rotfront, or "Red Front", was the Rotfrontkämpferbund, the paramilitary organization of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD). The Nazi Sturmabteilung (SA, also known as the "brown shirts") and the Communist Red Front fought each other in violent street confrontations, which grew into almost open warfare after 1930. The "reactionaries" were the conservative political parties and the liberal democratic German government of the Weimar Republic period, which made several unsuccessful attempts to suppress the SA. The "time of bondage" refers to the period after the 1919 Treaty of Versailles, in which the victorious powers imposed huge reparations on Germany, stripped her of her colonies in Africa, Asia and the Pacific Ocean, some of which were mandated to the United States and the Empire of Japan, and gave parts of Germany to Belgium, Denmark, France, Poland, and Lithuania.
The line "Kameraden, die Rotfront und Reaktion erschossen" is technically ambiguous. It could either mean Kameraden, die von Rotfront und Reaktion erschossen wurden ("Our comrades who were shot dead by the Red Front and Reactionaries") or Kameraden, welche die Erschießung von Rotfront und Reaktion durchführten ("Our comrades who have shot the Red Front and Reactionaries dead"). In spite of this obvious syntactic problem, which was mentioned by Victor Klemperer in his LTI – Lingua Tertii Imperii, the line was never changed. The following line "Marschier'n im Geist in unser'n Reihen mit" (March in spirit within our ranks) however indicates that the aforementioned comrades are deceased, advocating the first interpretation.
Some changes were made to the lyrics after Wessel's death:
Stanza 1, line 2
SA marschiert mit mutig-festem Schritt
The storm battalion march with bold, firm step.
Stanza 3, line 1
Zum letzten Mal wird nun Appell geblasen!
The call is sounded for the last time!
Stanza 3, line 3
Bald flattern Hitlerfahnen über Barrikaden
Soon Hitler's banners will flutter above the barricades
The dropping of the reference to "barricades" reflected the Nazi Party's desire in the period 1930–33 to be seen as a constitutional political party aiming at taking power by legal means rather than as a revolutionary party.
After Wessel's death, new stanzas were added, composed in his honour. These were frequently sung by the SA, but did not become part of the official lyrics used on party or state occasions.
Sei mir gegrüßt, Du starbst den Tod der Ehre!
Receive our salute; you died an honorable death!
After Wessel's death, he was officially credited with having composed the music, as well as having written the lyrics, for the "Horst Wessel Song". Between 1930 and 1933, however, German critics disputed this, pointing out that the melody had a long prior history. "How Great Thou Art" is a well-known hymn with a similar tune for example. Criticism of Horst Wessel as author became unthinkable after 1933, when the Nazi Party took control of Germany and criticism would likely be met with severe punishment.
The most likely immediate source for the melody was a song popular in the Imperial German Navy during World War I, which Wessel would no doubt have heard being sung by Navy veterans in the Berlin of the 1920s. The song was known either by its opening line as "Vorbei, vorbei, sind all die schönen Stunden" or as the "Königsberg-Lied", after the German cruiser Königsberg, which is mentioned in one version of the song's lyrics. The opening stanza of the song is:
Vorbei, vorbei sind all die schönen Stunden
Gone, gone are all the happy hours
Another German song, "Der Abenteurer" (The Adventurer), begins:
Ich lebte einst im deutschen Vaterlande
Once I lived in the German fatherland
In 1936, a German music critic, Alfred Weidemann, published an article in which he identified the melody of a song composed in 1865 by Peter Cornelius as the "Urmelodie" (source-melody). According to Weidemann, Cornelius described the tune as a "Viennese folk tune". This appeared to him to be the ultimate origin of the melody of the "Horst Wessel Song".
Far-right use outside Germany
During the 1930s and 1940s, the "Horst Wessel Song" was adapted by fascist groups in other European countries.
One of the marching songs of the British Union of Fascists, known as The Marching Song or Comrades, the Voices was set to the same tune, and its lyrics were to some extent modelled on the song, though appealing to British Fascism. Instead of referring to martyrs to the party, it identifies Britain's war dead as those marching in spirit against the "red front and massed ranks of reaction". Its opening stanza was:
Comrades, the voices of the dead battalions,
Of those who fell, that Britain might be great,
Join in our song, for they still march in spirit with us,
And urge us on to gain the fascist state!
In Spain, the Falange fascist movement sang to the same tune:
Por el honor, la Patria y la justicia,
For honor, Fatherland, and justice,
(Note that this was a Traditional Falange march (Movimiento Nacional), and not a march of the original Falange. It was sung by some of the volunteers of the 250th division, the División Azul, after the death of José Antonio Primo de Rivera.)
Nous châtierons les juifs et les marxistes,
We shall smite the Jews and the Marxists,
In modern Greece, Golden Dawn, an extreme right-wing party, uses the "Horst Wessel Song" with Greek lyrics in its gatherings or events, such as the occasional, public distribution of food "to Greeks only", while its leader, Nikolaos Michaloliakos, often uses the song's key stanzas (e.g. "The flags on high!") in his speeches.
The lyrics of their version are:
Από του Ολύμπου τη γρανιτένια όψη
From the granite face of Olympus
The All-Russian Fascist Organisation, founded in 1933, largely consisted of émigrés of the White Movement. It was led by Anastasy Vonsiatsky and was based in Connecticut, USA. The organisation dissolved after the United States entered World War II, and Vonsyatsky was arrested for violating the 1917 Espionage Act.
The lyrics of their version are:
Заря близка, Знамёна выше, братья!
The dawn is close, Banners on high, brothers!
Before 1933, the German Communists and the Social Democrats sang parodies of the "Horst Wessel Song" during their street battles with the SA. Some versions simply changed the political character of the song:
Die Fahne hoch, die Reihen fest geschlossen
The flag high! The ranks tightly closed!
Others substituted completely new lyrics:
Ernst Thälmann ruft uns auf die Barrikaden!
Ernst Thälmann calls us to the barricades
These versions were banned once the Nazis came to power and the Communist and Social Democratic parties suppressed, but during the years of the Third Reich the song was parodied in underground versions, poking fun at the corruption of the Nazi elite. There are similarities between different texts as underground authors developed them with variations. Below are several versions.
Die Preise hoch, die Läden dicht geschlossen
The prices high, the shops tightly closed
Die Preise hoch die Läden fest geschlossen
The prices high, the shops are tightly closed
Another version was
Die Preise hoch,
Prices are high,
Die Straße stinkt
In the first year of Nazi rule, radical elements of the SA sang their own parody of the song, reflecting their disappointment that the socialist element of National Socialism had not been realised:
Die Preise hoch, Kartelle fest geschlossen
The prices high, the cartels are tightly closed
Kurt Schmitt was Economics Minister between 1933 and 1935.
Der Metzger ruft. Die Augen fest geschlossen
The butcher calls! The eyes tightly closed
Following the dismemberment and division of the Reich into occupation zones at the end of the World War II, with the eastern provinces annexed by Poland and the USSR and their millions of inhabitants driven from their homes into what remained of Germany, a version of 'Die Preise hoch' became popular in the Soviet zone, targeting Communist functionaries:
Die Preise hoch die Läden fest geschlossen
The prices high, the shops are tightly closed
The most notable English-language parody was written by Oliver Wallace to a similar melody and titled "Der Fuehrer's Face" for the 1942 Donald Duck cartoon of the same name. It was the first hit record for Spike Jones. The opening lyrics give the flavor of the song:
When der Fuehrer says we is de master race
We "Heil!" (pffft), "Heil!" (pffft) right in der Fuehrer's face
Not to love der Fuehrer is a great disgrace
So we "Heil!" (pffft), "Heil!" (pffft) right in der Fuehrer's face
Each "Heil!" is followed by a Bronx cheer.
In popular culture
- The New York Youth Symphony, after it discovered that a piece it had commissioned included a 45-second musical quote of the "Horst Wessel Song", abruptly canceled a Carnegie Hall performance of Marsh u Nebuttya (Ukrainian: "March to Oblivion"), a 9-minute piece composed by Estonian-born Jonas Tarm, a 21-year-old junior at the New England Conservatory of Music. The composer would not explain his purpose in using the song in his piece, saying "[I]t can speak for itself", but the orchestra said that the usage was not appropriate.
- German composer Karlheinz Stockhausen's electronic and concrete work titled, Hymnen includes a sample recording of the "Horst Wessel Song". It premiered in Cologne, Germany, on 30 November 1967. It was also performed in New York's Philharmonic Hall (now David Geffen Hall) and London's English Bach Festival among other international performances.
- The tune is used in Lukas Foss' Elegy for Anne Frank as a contorted march that builds about three-quarters of the way through the work. This leads to an abrupt silence after which earlier music returns.
- Nazi songs
- German laws against modern use of Nazi songs
- Vorwärts! Vorwärts!
- Cara al Sol, anthem of the fascist Spanish Falange
- Maréchal, nous voilà !, anthem of unoccupied Vichy France
- Giovinezza, hymn of the Italian National Fascist Party
- Geisler, Michael E. "In the Shadow of Exceptionalism" in Geisler, Michael E. (ed.) National Symbols, Fractured Identities: Contesting the National Narrative UPNE (2005). p. 71
- Burleigh 2012, pp. 116–120.
- Reuth 1993, pp. 107–108.
- Reuth 1993, pp. 111–113.
- Burleigh 2012, p. 138.
- Jewish Virtual Library 2015.
- Siemens 2013, pp. 4–7.
- Siemens 2013, p. 3.
- Longerich 2015, p. 123.
- Siemens 2013, pp. 15–16.
- Reuth 1993, p. 178.
- Reuth 1993, p. 103.
- Longerich 2015, p. 124.
- Siemens 2013, pp. 3, 14.
- Siemens 2013, p. 17.
- Spotts, Frederic. Hitler and the Power of Aesthetics Woodstock, New York: Overkill Press, 2002. p. 272 ISBN 1-58567-345-5
- Larson, Erik (2011) In the Garden of Beasts New York: Broadway Paperbacks pp. 146–47; 396 n.147 ISBN 978-0-307-40885-3 citing Dodd, Martha (1939) Through Embassy Eyes New York: Harcourt Brace, p. 67, and Kater, Michael H. (February 1989) "Forbidden Fruit? Jazz in the Third Reich", The American Historical Review v. 94 no. 1, p. 23
- Siemens 2013, pp. 126–129.
- "LKA ermittelt gegen Apple und Amazon", Hannoversche Allgemeine Zeitung, 3 February 2011
- Kershaw, Ian. The "Hitler Myth": Image and Reality in the Third Reich Oxford:Oxford University Press, 1987. p. 60 ISBN 0-19-282234-9
- Lepage, Jean-Denis (2016) Hitler's Stormtroopers: The SA, The Nazis' Brownshirts, 1922–1945. Frontline Books. pp. 57–58 ISBN 9781848324282
- "Wer hat denn eigentlich wen erschossen?" by Volker Mall, Neue Musikzeitung, 11/98, Volume 47
- Weidemann, Alfred. "Ein Vorläufer des Horst-Wessel-Liedes?" in Die Musik 28, 1936, S. 911f. Cited by Wulf 1989, S. 270. Die Musik was published in Switzerland. Articles departing from the Nazi doctrine that Horst Wessel had originated both the lyrics and the tune could not be published in Nazi Germany.
- "Die Fahne hoch". Retrieved December 28, 2015.
- "Golden Dawn plays Nazi Anthem at food handout", EnetEnglish.gr website, 25 July 2013
- "Golden Dawn plays Nazi anthem at food handout", DawnOfTheGreeks website, 25 July 2013
- "Golden Dawn moves food handout following police ban", Eleftherotypia, 24 July 2013
- "Anniversary for Imia or for Hitler's ascent?", Zougla.gr, 31 January 2013 (in Greek)
- "Greek Horst Wessel Lied – "Ορθό το Λάβαρο"". March 21, 2016. Retrieved May 3, 2016.
- "Anthem of the All-Russian Fascist Party – Знамёна выше!". July 11, 2016. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
- "Die Preise hoch" ("The prices high") lyrics from the MusicaNet website
- Tooze, Adam (2006). The Wages of Destruction: The Making and Breaking of the Nazi Economy. London: Allen Lane. p. 71. ISBN 0-7139-9566-1.
- Dümling, Albrecht (1985). Laßt euch nicht verführen! Brecht und die Musik. München: Kindler. pp. 503f.
- Naimark, Norman M. (1995). The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation 1945–1949. Cambridge: Belknap Press. ISBN 0-674-78405-7.
- Smith, Jennifer (5 March 2015). "Youth Symphony Drops Commissioned Work, Cites Nazi Element". The Wall Street Journal.
- Smith, Michael. "Youth Symphony Cancels Program That Quotes 'Horst Wessel' Song", The New York Times, 4 March 2015
- Maconie, Robin. "Stockhausen at 70. Through the Looking Glass" The Musical Times 139.1863 (1998): 4–11.
- Boderick, George. "Das Horst-Wessel-Lied: A Reappraisal", International Folklore Review Vol. 10 (1995): 100–127.
- Burleigh, Michael (2012). The Third Reich: A New History. Pan Macmillan. ISBN 978-0330475501.
- Longerich, Peter (2015). Goebbels: A Biography. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-1400067510.
- Reuth, Ralf Georg (1993) . Goebbels. Winston, Krishna (trans.). New York: Harcourt, Brace. ISBN 0-15-136076-6.
- Siemens, Daniel (2013). The Making of a Nazi Hero: The Murder and Myth of Horst Wessel. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-0857733139.
- Wulf, Joseph (1989). Musik im Dritten Reich. Eine Dokumentation. Frankfurt: Ullstein. ISBN 3-550-07059-4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Horst-Wessel-Lied.|
- "Horst Wessel (1907–1930)". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- Text and melody (MIDI format), song (MP3 format), song (OGG format)
- Text of the German Criminal Code – Section 86 and Section 86a (in English)