The Last House on the Left (1972 film)

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The Last House on the Left
LastHousePoster.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Wes Craven
Produced by Sean S. Cunningham
Written by Wes Craven
Starring
Music by David Alexander Hess
Cinematography Victor Hurwitz
Edited by Wes Craven
Production
company
  • Sean S. Cunningham Films
  • Enterprises
  • The Night Co.
Distributed by Hallmark Releasing
Release date
  • August 30, 1972 (1972-08-30)
Running time
84 minutes (uncut)
91 minutes (original)
Country United States
Language English
Budget $87,000[1]
Box office $3.1 million[2]

The Last House on the Left is a 1972 American exploitation horror film written, edited, and directed by Wes Craven and produced by Sean S. Cunningham. The film stars Sandra Peabody, Lucy Grantham, David A. Hess, Fred Lincoln, Jeramie Rain, and Marc Sheffler. The plot revolves around two teenage girls who are taken into the woods and tortured by a gang of murderous thugs. The story is inspired by the 1960 Swedish film The Virgin Spring, directed by Ingmar Bergman, which in turn is based on a Swedish ballad, "Töres döttrar i Wänge".

Craven's directorial debut, the film was made on a modest budget of $87,000, and was filmed in New York City and rural Connecticut in 1971. It was released theatrically in the United States on August 30, 1972, and was a major box office success, grossing over $3 million domestically. Although its confrontational violence resulted in its being heavily censored and sometimes banned in other countries, the film was generally well received by critics.[3] The film was remade under the same title in 2009.

Plot[edit]

Mari Collingwood plans to attend a concert with her friend, Phyllis Stone, for her seventeenth birthday. Her parents, Estelle and John, express their concern about the band and her friendship with Phyllis, but let her go and give her a peace symbol necklace. Phyllis and Mari head into the city for the concert. On the way, they hear a news report on the car radio of a recent prison escape involving criminals Krug Stillo, a sadistic rapist and serial killer; his heroin-addicted son, Junior; Sadie, a promiscuous psychopath and sadist; and Fred "Weasel" Podowski, a child molester, peeping Tom, and murderer. Before the concert, Mari and Phyllis encounter Junior when trying to buy marijuana. He leads them to an apartment where they are trapped by the criminals. Phyllis tries to escape and tries to reason with them, but she fails and is gang-raped by Krug, Weasel and Sadie. Meanwhile, Mari's unsuspecting parents prepare a surprise party for her.

The next morning, Mari and Phyllis are bound, gagged and put in the trunk of their car and transported to the woods by the criminals. Mari recognizes that the road is near her home with a look of horror. Mari and Phyllis are forced to perform sexual acts on each other and Sadie attempts to perform oral sex on a weeping Mari. Phyllis distracts the kidnappers to give Mari an opportunity to escape but is chased by Sadie and Weasel, while Junior stays behind to guard Mari. Mari tries gaining Junior's trust by giving him her necklace and instead names him "Willow". Phyllis stumbles across a cemetery in the woods where she is cornered by Krug with a machete and stabbed in the back by Weasel. After they take turns kicking her, she crawls to a nearby tree and is stabbed by Weasel and Sadie multiple times. As she dies, Sadie digs her hand into the center of Phyllis’ belly where her belly button is and pulls out her intestines.

Mari convinces Junior to let her go, but her escape is halted by Krug. Sadie and Weasel present Phyllis's severed hand as Mari screams in horror. Krug carves his name into her chest, then rapes her. She vomits, quietly says a prayer and walks into a nearby lake to clean herself, but Krug fatally shoots her, leaving her body floating in the lake. Krug, Sadie and Weasel clean up and change out of their bloody clothes.

In their new attire, the gang goes to the Collingwoods' home, masquerading as travelling salesmen. Mari's parents let them stay overnight, but Junior exposes their identity and orders them to leave. The gang finds photos of Mari and discovers that it is Mari's home. Later that night Junior, in the midst of a heroin withdrawal, is heaving in the bathroom; Estelle enters to check on him. She gasps as she sees that he is wearing Mari's peace symbol necklace. She eavesdrops while the gang is spending the night in Mari's bedroom and finds blood-soaked clothing in their luggage. She overhears about the death of her daughter and disposal of the corpse in nearby lake.She and her husband rush into the woods where they find Mari's body on the bank of the lake. They carry Mari's body back to the house and exact revenge against the crooks.

Estelle seduces Weasel and performs fellatio on him that turns deadly when she bites off his penis and leaves him to bleed to death. Mari's father John takes his shotgun into the room where two of the criminals are asleep and shoots at them. Krug escapes into the living room and overpowers John, before being confronted by Junior, brandishing a revolver and threatening to kill him. Krug manipulates Junior into committing suicide by shooting himself. Using this distraction to his advantage, John runs into the basement to fetch a chainsaw. Krug attempts to shoot him with the shotgun but finds it is empty. Krug attempts to flee but is incapacitated by an electrocution booby-trap set earlier by John. Sadie rushes outside where she is tackled by Estelle, but she escapes and falls into the backyard swimming pool where Estelle slits her throat with a knife. The sheriff arrives just as John kills Krug with the chainsaw. The deputy then brings Estelle into the living room before removing the chainsaw from John's hands.

Cast[edit]

Production[edit]

Screenplay[edit]

Sean S. Cunningham made his directorial debut with the white coater film The Art of Marriage. His film grossed $100,000 and attracted the company Hallmark Releasing (unaffiliated with Hallmark Cards Inc.). Cunningham made the film Together as a "better version" of film.[4] Wes Craven, who had no money at the time, was put on the job of synchronizing dailies for Cunningham's re-shoot.[5] He soon began editing the film with Cunningham and they became good friends. Hallmark Releasing bought the film for $10,000 and it was considered a "hit." Hallmark Releasing wanted them to do another film with a bigger budget and gave them $90,000 to shoot a horror film.[6]

Cunningham served as producer and Craven served as writer and director on the project.[7] Written by Craven in 1971, the original script was intended to be a graphic "hardcore" film, with all actors and crew being committed to filming it as such.[8] However, after shooting began, the decision was made to edit the script into a much softer film. This script, written under the title Night of Vengeance, has never been released; only a brief glimpse is visible in the featurette Celluloid Crime of the Century (a 2003 documentary on the making of the film).[9] The crux of the plot is based on the Swedish ballad "Töres döttrar i Wänge,"[10] which itself was the basis of Ingmar Bergman's The Virgin Spring (1960), of which Craven was an admirer.[11] Craven envisioned a film in which the violence would be shown in detail onscreen; he felt that many popular films of the era, such as Westerns, glamorized violence and the "vigilante hero," and gave the public a misleading representation of death in the wake of Vietnam War.[12]

Casting[edit]

The majority of the cast of The Last House on the Left were inexperienced or first-time actors.[13] Cunningham and Craven held casting calls for the film at Cunningham's office in Midtown Manhattan in late 1971.[14]

Sandra Peabody and Lucy Grantham were cast in the roles of the doomed Mari and Phyllis.[15] The role of the lead villain, Krug Stillo, was given to David Hess, also a musician and songwriter.[16] Jeramie Rain, who was twenty-one at the time, was playing Susan Atkins in an Off-Broadway production based on the Manson family murders; despite the fact that the original script called for an actress in her forties, Rain was awarded the part of Sadie.[17] Fred Lincoln, who had appeared in pornographic films, was cast as Krug's criminal partner, while Mark Sheffler was given the role of Krug's heroin-addicted son.[18] According to Lincoln, he and Peabody were acquaintances prior to filming and had the same agent at the time.[19]

Filming[edit]

Painting of a woman in a lake
Woman floating in a lake
John Everett Millais's painting Ophelia (top) inspired Mari's death scene in the lake (bottom)[20]

The film was shot on location for seven days in New York City, as well as Long Island, followed by shoots in rural locations outside of Westport, Connecticut.[21] While filming in Connecticut, the cast and crew spent much time at producer Cunningham's family's home.[22] According to Craven, the lake sequence was shot in the town reservoir of Weston, Connecticut.[23] Craven sought a "documentary"-style appearance for the film, marked by close-up shots and single-cut takes.[24]

Cunningham later described the film shoot as being "guerrilla-style" with the crew spontaneously filming at locations and being forced to leave due to lack of permits;[19] in retrospect, Lincoln said that "nobody knew what [they] were doing."[25] Much of the special effects in the film were achieved practically, some at Lincoln's suggestion: For example, the sequence in which Phyllis is disemboweled, Lincoln helped craft fake intestines with condoms filled with fake blood and sand.[26] For the murder sequence of Sadie in the swimming pool, Rain had a pouch full of fake blood attached underneath her shirt as well as blood capsules in her mouth, which she manually punctured.[27] Lucy Grantham recalled during the scene in which Hess's character tells her to "piss her pants," that she in fact urinated in her jeans.[19] Steve Miner, who would later become a director himself, served as a production assistant on the film.[19]

Hess recalled that much of the cast bonded heavily during the filming process being that they were mostly inexperienced actors.[28] Lincoln, Rain, and Sheffler recalled similar memories in a 2003 documentary titled Celluloid Crime of the Century, which recounted the making of the film. However, both Hess and director Craven recalled the on-set relationship between Hess and Peabody to be turbulent.[29] Hess often remained in character on the set, and Peabody was purportedly frightened of him, to the point that Craven recalled there "not being much acting" during the shooting of the film's more violent scenes.[30] Sheffler admitted during a one-on-one sequence with Peabody that he threatened to push her over a cliff if she failed to hit her marks.[31]

Music[edit]

The film's soundtrack was written by Stephen Chapin and David Hess (who also played the main antagonist, Krug). Chapin wrote all the incidental music for the movie; he also did all the arrangements and orchestration as well as all the contracting and producing musicians. The music is particularly notable for being heavily contrasted with the events on screen. For example, as the gang drives the two girls out into the countryside, the upbeat, almost comical tune "Baddies Theme" plays and, after the rape scene, a soothing ballad plays. This counterpointing was also used elsewhere in the film, with the slapstick antics of the two police officers occurring in between scenes of torture. The soundtrack was released commercially around the same time as the film. In 1999 the soundtrack was re-released on compact disc by Hess on Rock Bottom Rules Records. In 2013 the soundtrack had a re-release on vinyl, compact disc, cassette and digital download on One Way Static Records. It was also re-issued on a limited hand numbered picture disc for Record Store Day 2014.[32][33]

Release[edit]

The film underwent multiple title changes, with its investors initially titling it Sex Crime of the Century.[34] However, after test screenings were completed, it was decided to change the title to Krug and Company; however, this title was found to have little draw during test screenings.[35] A marketing specialist who was an acquaintance of Cunningham's proposed the title The Last House on the Left.[36] Craven initially thought the title was "terrible."[37] The film was released under this title on August 30, 1972.[38] Like many films during the era, it had a regional expansion to cinemas and drive-in theaters over the course of the next several months, opening in various U.S. cities between September and November 1972.[39]

Due to its graphic content, the film sparked protests from the public throughout the fall of 1972 who called for its removal from local theaters.[40] The Paris Cinema, a movie theater in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, issued an open letter to these criticisms in September 1972, in which it was noted:

After carefully considering all the circumstances, management has decided to continue to show the movie. This difficult decision was predicated on the following considerations: The film relates to a problem that practically every teen-age girl and parent can identify with, yet does not pander to the subject matter. The story does not glorify violence, nor does it glorify the degenerates who perpetrate the violence ... we feel the movie is morally redeeming and does deliver an important social message.[41]

Promotional material capitalized on the film's graphic content and divisive reception, featuring the tagline: "To avoid fainting, keep repeating 'It's only a movie' ..." advertising campaign Under the Last House... title, the film proved to be a hit. Anecdotes as to where the advertising campaign originated vary somewhat. Cunningham claims that marketing specialist who devised the Last House... title was watching a cut of the film with his wife, who continually covered her eyes, prompting him to tell her that it was "only a movie".[42] Other origins have been suggested, however, as it had been used twice before: first for H.G. Lewis's 1964 splatter film Color Me Blood Red and then for William Castle's Strait-Jacket the following year.[43] The tagline was so successful that many other exploitation films later used it, sometimes with their own spin. The film's title was also imitated, as in the case of Last House on Dead End Street.[44]

Newspaper advertisements featured lengthy statements issued by the film's producers defending it against claims that it sensationalized violence,[45] one of which noted: "You will hate the people who perpetrate these outrages–and you should! But if a movie–and it is only a movie–can arouse you to such extreme emotion then the film director has succeeded ... The movie makes a plea for an end to all the senseless violence and inhuman cruelty that has become so much a part of the times in which we live."[46] Promotional artwork for the film accompanying such producer's statements included a warning that the film was "not recommended for persons under 30."[45][46] The film continued to screen throughout the United States into 1973.[a]

Critical response[edit]

Contemporaneous[edit]

Critical response to The Last House on the Left upon its original release was largely centered on its depictions of violence.[b] Gene Siskel of the Chicago Tribune derided the film, writing: "My objection to The Last House on the Left is not an objection to the graphic representations of violence per se, but to the fact that the movie celebrates violent acts, particularly adult male abuse of young women ... I felt a professional obligation to stick around to see if there was any socially redeeming value in the remainder of the movie and found none."[53] Howard Thompson of The New York Times wrote that he walked out of the theater during a screening: "When I walked out, after 50 minutes (with 35 to go), one girl had just been dismembered with a machete. They had started in on the other with a slow switch blade. The party who wrote this sickening tripe and also directed the inept actors is Wes Craven. It's at the Penthouse Theater, for anyone interested in paying to see repulsive people and human agony."[54]

Edward Blank of the Pittsburgh Press called the film a "cheap-jack movie of no discernible merit" and "riddled with awkward, self-conscious performances."[52] Roger Ebert, however, gave the film three and a half stars out of four, and described it as "about four times as good as you'd expect."[55] The Christian Science Monitor News Service referred to the film as a "desperately sordid melodrama" and a "vulgarized" version of The Virgin Spring and drew comparisons to Sam Peckinpah's Straw Dogs (1971).[56] Brian Nelson of The Daily Dispatch deemed it the worst film of the year, writing: "Producer Sean S. Cunningham has somehow managed to make what is possibly 1972's most worthless general release film and, with a sensational and overblown advertising campaign, parlay it into a major moneymaker. In doing so, he may be in line for the Cy Dung Award for the movie most offensive to the intelligence of an audience."[57] The Lubbock Avalanche-Journal's Bill Towery suggested the film should have received an X rating, adding in his review: "Films such as these give the movie ratings system a bad name. But if your cup of tea is assault, murder, maiming, revenge, and violence, the movie is going to be perfect."[51] An editor for The News-Press similarly deemed the film "pornographic" and wrote that it was "without a doubt the most disgusting movie I have ever seen."[50]

Modern assessment[edit]

Author and film critic Leonard Maltin awarded the film one and a half out of a possible four stars. In his review on the film, Maltin called the film "cheap", and "[a] Repellent but admittedly powerful and (for better or worse) influential horror shocker."[58] The film was nominated for AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills.[59]

The film has a 63% approval rating on the internet review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, based on 35 reviews.[3]

Censorship[edit]

United States[edit]

Though the film passed with an R-rating by the Motion Picture Association of America, director Craven claimed that on several occasions, horrified audience members would demand that theater projectionists destroy the footage, sometimes stealing the film themselves.[60] John Saco, a British film archivist, recalled discussing the film with American theater owners: "Projectionists were so offended, they would just cut up the film as they were watching it. I’d ask people, ‘How cut is your version?’ They’d say, ‘It’s not as cut as some of the others I’ve seen’ – that’s hardly what you want to hear!"[61]

United Kingdom[edit]

Last House on the Left was refused a certificate for cinema release by the British Board of Film Censors in 1974,[62] due to scenes of sadism and violence. During the early 1980s home video boom, the film was released uncut (save for an incidental, gore-free scene with the comedy cops, and the end credit roll) as a video that did not fall under the BBFC's remit at the time. This changed when the "video nasty" scare which started in 1982 led to the Video Recordings Act 1984. The movie landed on the Department of Public Prosecutions list of "video nasties", and was banned.[63]

The film remained banned throughout the remainder of the 1980s and into the 1990s. However, it had built a cult reputation in the UK, and critics such as Mark Kermode began to laud the film as an important piece of work. In 2000, the film was again presented to the BBFC for theatrical certification and it was again refused.[64] The independent film label Blue Underground toured an uncut print around Britain without a BBFC certificate; Southampton City Council granted it its own "18" certificate.[65] The film was granted a license for a one-off showing in Leicester in June 2000, after which the BBFC again declared that it would not receive any form of certification.[citation needed]

In June 2002 the BBFC prevailed against an appeal made to the Video Appeals Committee by video distributor Blue Underground Limited. The BBFC had required 16 seconds of cuts to scenes of sexual violence before it would grant the video an "18" certificate. Blue Underground Limited refused to make the cuts, and the BBFC therefore rejected the video. The distributor then appealed to the VAC, who upheld the BBFC's decision.[66] During the appeal, film critic Kermode was called in as a horror expert to make a case for the film's historical importance. However, after his report, the committee not only upheld the cuts, but demanded additional ones.[67] The film was eventually given an "18" certificate, on July 17, 2002, with 31 seconds of cuts, and was released in the UK on DVD in May 2003. The cut scenes were viewable as a slideshow extra on the disc, and there was a link to a website where the cut scenes could be viewed. The BBFC finally classified the uncut film for video release on March 17, 2008.[68]

Australia[edit]

Contrary to popular belief, the film was never banned in Australia on its initial release – rather, it was never picked up for distribution in the country due to the censorship issues that it would have created at the time. The film was submitted to the censorship board in 1987 for VHS release by Video Excellence under the alternative title Krug and Company, but it was rejected because of its violent and sexual content. In October 1991, The Last House on the Left was part of a package of fifteen tapes that was seized by the Australian Customs Service. The package of tapes was forwarded to the Australian Classification Board (then known as the Office of Film and Literature Classification) who declared them "prohibited pursuant to Regulation 4A(1A)(a)(iii) of the Customs (Prohibited Imports) Regulations". The film was eventually classified "R" by the OFLC for its DVD premiere on November 15, 2004. It had a theatrical screening that same month at the Australian Centre for the Moving Image in Melbourne.[69]

Rare or lost scenes[edit]

Many different versions of the film exist on various DVD and VHS releases struck from different cuts of the film, many of them from different countries. To get a completely uncut version is difficult as even some cinema machinists cut footage from prints of the movie before screening it during the 1970s; many copies were cut or "hacked to pieces" and because of this some scenes have become rarities.

Some incomplete scenes are:

  • "Lesbian rape scene" – One scene long thought lost, except as a photographic still, is the two female victims forced to commit sexual acts on each other in the woods. This forced lesbian rape scene was included as an outtake with no sound on the Metrodome Three-Disc DVD Ultimate Edition and on the 2011 Blu-ray release.[70][71]
  • "Mari in her room" – There are photographic stills showing a nude Mari in her room reading birthday cards in the beginning of the movie; this scene no longer exists.[72]
  • "Mari raped by Sadie" – Footage of Sadie committing sexual acts against Mari in the woods is often removed, even from some DVDs that have been labeled as "uncut".[71][72]

In the Krug and Company cut, Mari is still alive when her parents find her. She tells her parents what happened to her and Phyllis before dying in front of them.[70]

Home media[edit]

The Last House on the Left has been released multiple times on home media in the United States; Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM) released a DVD version on August 27, 2002, which featured outtakes, a making-of documentary, and "Forbidden Footage," a featurette exploring the film's most violent shocking sequences.[73] On February 1, 2011, a Blu-ray was released by MGM and 20th Century Fox Home Video, which featured multiple featurettes and making-of documentaries, two audio commentary tracks, never-before-seen footage, and cast and crew interviews.[74]

A limited edition Blu-ray box set is due to be released in the United States and United Kingdom on July 3, 2018, which features three different cuts of the film each restored in 2K from the original film elements, a double-sided poster, lobby card reproductions, a book featuring writings on the film, a CD soundtrack, various archival bonus materials, and new interviews with cast, crew, and associates of Craven.[75]

Related works[edit]

Sequel[edit]

In the 1980s, Vestron Pictures hired Danny Steinmann to write and direct a sequel, though the film fell apart in pre-production due to rights issues.[76][77] Mario Bava's film Twitch of the Death Nerve was also released under the titles Last House on the Left – Part II, Last House – Part II and New House on the Left.[78]

Remake[edit]

In August 2006, Rogue Pictures finalized a deal to remake The Last House on the Left with original writer and director Wes Craven as a producer. The company intended to preserve the storyline of the original film. Craven described his involvement with the remake: "I'm far enough removed from these films that the remakes are a little like having grandchildren. The story, about the painful side effects of revenge, is an evergreen. The headlines are full of people and nations taking revenge and getting caught up in endless cycles of violence."[79] Craven formed Midnight Pictures, a shingle of Rogue, to remake The Last House on the Left as its first project. Production was slated for early 2007.[80] Screenwriter Adam Alleca was hired to write the script for the remake.[citation needed]

In May 2007, Rogue entered negotiations with director Dennis Iliadis to direct the film.[81] The film was released to theaters in the U.S. and Canada on March 13, 2009.[82]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Contemporaneous newspaper advertisements throughout 1973 list showtimes for the film at movie houses and drive-ins in Oregon,[47] California,[48] Montana,[49] and others.
  2. ^ Numerous critical reviews published throughout the fall of 1972 discounted the film for its graphic content, including ones published in The News-Press,[50] the Lubbock Avalanche-Journal,[51], the Pittsburgh Press,[52] and many others.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Top Ten Low Budget Films Under $500,000". Daily Film Dose. Retrieved March 7, 2018. 
  2. ^ "The Last House on the Left". The Numbers. Retrieved March 8, 2018. 
  3. ^ a b "Last House on the Left (1972)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved June 27, 2015. 
  4. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 1:26.
  5. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 1:30.
  6. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 5:33.
  7. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 1:20.
  8. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 6:39.
  9. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 4:27.
  10. ^ Muir 2002, p. 210.
  11. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 3:39.
  12. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 2:40.
  13. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 16:20.
  14. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at.
  15. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 6:57.
  16. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 11:50.
  17. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 8:13.
  18. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 6:00.
  19. ^ a b c d Carson, Greg (dir.) (2002). It's Only a Movie (DVD) (Documentary featurette). Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Home Video. 
  20. ^ Gallant 2000, p. 73.
  21. ^ Ocker, J.W. (2010). The New England Grimpendium. Countryman Press. pp. 123–25. ISBN 978-0-881-50919-9. 
  22. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 13:53.
  23. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 19:23.
  24. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 12:30.
  25. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 13:21.
  26. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 24:47.
  27. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 24:12.
  28. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 15:10.
  29. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 18:54.
  30. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 19:05.
  31. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 20:39.
  32. ^ The Last House on the Left soundtrack info on Discogs
  33. ^ The Last House on the Left soundtrack release on One Way Static Records
  34. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 26:20.
  35. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 26:32.
  36. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 24:40.
  37. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 23:21.
  38. ^ Sumner 2010, p. 186.
  39. ^ "The Last House on the Left". American Film Institute. Retrieved December 22, 2017. 
  40. ^ Hall, Ann (August 28, 1972). "Protestors Don't Stop Movie". Hartford Courant. Hartford, Connecticut. p. 1 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  41. ^ Paris Cinema Staff (September 8, 1972). "An Open Letter to the Critics of "THE LAST HOUSE ON THE LEFT"". The Berkshire Eagle. Pittsfield, Massachusetts. p. 8 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  42. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 27:38.
  43. ^ Szulkin 2000, pp. 127–33.
  44. ^ Szulin 2000, p. 178.
  45. ^ a b "Last House on the Left: Producer's Note". Dayton Daily News. Dayton, Ohio. October 13, 1972. p. 50 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  46. ^ a b "Last House on the Left–Can a Movie Go too Far?". Orlando Sentinel. Orlando, Floria. December 16, 1972. p. 7-B – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  47. ^ "Movie Keys". The Capital Journal. Salem, Oregon. May 10, 1973. p. 2 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  48. ^ "Drive-In Theaters". Los Angeles Times. February 5, 1973. p. 61 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  49. ^ "Carisch Theatres". The Billings Gazette. Billings, Montana. March 1, 1973. p. 63 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  50. ^ a b News-Press Editor (December 10, 1972). "Disgusting Movie". The News-Press. Fort Myers, Florida. p. 17 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  51. ^ a b Towery, Bill (November 6, 1972). "'Last House' Should be Left -- Period". Lubbock Avalanche-Journal. Lubbock, Texas. p. 2 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  52. ^ a b Blank, Edward L. (September 21, 1972). "Stanley's 'Last House on the Left' Among Year's Worst". Pittsburgh Press. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. p. 39 – via Newspapers.com.  Free to read
  53. ^ Siskel, Gene (October 31, 1972). "Present Shock". Chicago Tribune. 2. Chicago, Illinois. p. 4 – via Newspapers.com.  Free to read
  54. ^ Thompson, Howard (December 22, 1972). "'Last House on Left'". The New York Times. p. 21. 
  55. ^ Ebert, Roger (January 1, 1972). "Last House on the Left". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved March 7, 2018. 
  56. ^ Christian Science Monitor News Service. "The Last House on the Left". Star Tribune. Movie Guide. Minneapolis, Minnesota. p. 58 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  57. ^ Nelson, Brian (November 13, 1972). "Worst Flick of the Year Award to 'Last House on the Left'". The Daily Dispatch. Moline, Illinois. p. 16 – via Newspapers.com.  open access publication – free to read
  58. ^ Maltin, Leonard; Green, Spencer; Eldman, Rob (2013). Leonard Maltin's 2014 Movie Guide. Penguin Press. p. 789. ISBN 978-0-451-41810-4. 
  59. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills Ballot" (PDF). American Film Institute. Retrieved March 8, 2018. 
  60. ^ Corman & Cregan 2003, event occurs at 29:25.
  61. ^ Woolley, Alexander (September 8, 2014). "A reprisal of The Last House on the Left shows 35mm film is not dead yet". New Statesman. Retrieved March 8, 2018. 
  62. ^ "LAST HOUSE ON THE LEFT Rejected by the BBFC". British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved March 21, 2011. 
  63. ^ Muir 2004, p. 13.
  64. ^ "THE LAST HOUSE ON THE LEFT Rejected by the BBFC". British Board of Film Classification. Retrieved March 21, 2011. 
  65. ^ Kermode, Mark (July 2001). "Left on the shelf". Sight and Sound. British Film Institute: 26. 
  66. ^ "BBFC Wins VAC Appeal on The Last House on the Left". British Board of Film Classification. June 18, 2002. Archived from the original on August 27, 2008. 
  67. ^ Kermode, Mark (May 9, 2008). "DVD News: Last House on the Left". BBC. Retrieved March 21, 2011. 
  68. ^ "The Last House On The Left". British Board of Film Classification. Case Studies. Archived from the original on March 8, 2018. Retrieved December 28, 2017. 
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Works cited[edit]

  • Corman, Tod; Cregan, John, eds. (2003). Celluloid Crime of the Century. The Last House on the Left (DVD) (Documentary featurette). Anchor Bay Entertainment. 
  • Gallant, Chris (2000). Art of Darkness: The Cinema of Dario Argento. London: FAB Press. ISBN 978-1-903-25407-3. 
  • Muir, John Kenneth (2002). Horror Films of the 1970s. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. ISBN 978-0-786-49156-8. 
  • Muir, John Kenneth (2004). Wes Craven: The Art of Horror. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. ISBN 978-0-786-41923-4. 
  • Sumner, Don (2010). Horror Movie Freak. Krause Publications. ISBN 978-1-440-21564-3. 
  • Szulkin, David (2000). Wes Craven's The Last House On The Left (Revised ed.). London: FAB Press. ISBN 1-903254-01-9. 

External links[edit]